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New Edition [1880], with a Supplement of upwards of 4600 New Words 
and Meanings. 



Note. — The only authorized Editions of this Dictionary are 
those here described : no others published in England 
contain the Derivations and Etymological Notes of Dr. 
Mahn^ who devoted several years to this portion of the Worh. 
See page 4. 


OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. Thoroughly revised and im- 
proved by Chaxjnoey A. Goodbioh, D.D., LL.D., and Noah Poeteb, 
D.D., of Yale College. 
The peculiar features of this volume, which render it perhaps the most useful 

Dictionary for general reference extant, as it is undoubtedly one of the cheapest 

books ever published, are as follows : — 

1. Completeness. — It contains 114,000 
worda— more by 10,000 than any other 
Dictionary; and these are, for the most 
part, unnsual or technical terms, for the 
explanation of which a Dictionary Is most 

2. Accuracy of Definition. — In this 
department the labours of Dr. Webster 
were most valuable, in correcting the faulty 
and redundant definitions of Dr. Johnson, 
which had previously been almost nniver- 
sally adopted. In the present edition all 
the definitions have been carefully and 
methodically analysed by W. G. "Webster, 
tfisq., the Rev. Chauncey Goodrich, Prof. 
Ljnnan, Prof. Whitney, and Prof. Gilman, 
with the assistance and under the super- 
intendence of Pro£ Goodrich. 

3. Scientific and Technical Terms. — 

In order to secure the utmoet completeness 
and accuracy of definition, this department 
has been subdivided among eminent 
Scholars and Experts, including Prof.Dana, 
Prof. Lyman, &c. 

4. Etymology. — The eminent philo- 
logist. Dr. C. F. Maeck, has devoted five 
yeaiB to perfecting this department. 

5. The Orthography is based as far as 
possible on Fixed Principles. In all casa 
qf doubt an alternative spelling is given. 

6. Pronunciation. — This has been en- 
trusted to Mr. W. G. Webster and Mr. 
Wheeler, assisted by other scholars. The 
pronimciatlon of each word Is indicated bj 
typographical signs, which are explained 
by reference to a Kki printed at the bottom 
of each page. 

7. The Illustrative Citations. — No 
labour has been spared to embody such 
quotations from standard authors as may 
throw light on the definitions, or pos- 
sess any special Interest of thought or 

8. The Synonyms. — These are sub- 
joined to the words to which they belong, 
and are very complete. 

9. The Illustrations, which exceed 3000, 
are inserted, not for the sake of ornament, 
but to elucidate the meaning of words 
which cannot be satisfeM^torily explained 
without pictorial aid. 

The Volcme contains 1628 pages, more than 3000 Illustrations, Md is sold 
for One Guinea. It will be found, on comparisoH, to be one of the cheapest 
Volumes ever issued. Qoth, 21a.; half-bound in calf, 30s.; calf or half-russia, 
31». 6d, ; russia, £2. 

To be obtainea through aU Booksellers. 


New Edition, with a New Biographical Supplement of upwards 
of 9700 Names. 


OF LITERARY REFERENCE. With 3000 Illustrations. Tho- 
roughly revised and improved by Chaunoet A. Goodbich, D.D., 
LL.D., and Noah Pobteb, D.D., of Yale College. 
In One Volume, Qnarto, strongly bonnd In cloth, 1919 pagea, price £1 lit. 6d.; hal^calf, 
£2; calf or balf-russia, £3 2s.', rusaia, £2 10*. 
Besides the matter comprised in the Webster's Guinea Dictionary, this 
volume contains the following Appendicei, which will show that no pains have 
been spared to make it a complete Literary Reference-book : — 

k Brief History of the English Lan- 
guage. By Professor James Hadlkt. 
This Work shows the Philological Rela- 
tions of the English Language, and traces 

. the progress and influence of the causes 
which have brought it to its present con- 

of Pronunciation. 

Principles of Pronunciation. By 

Professor Goodrich and W. A. Whebubb, 
M.A- Including a Synopsis of Words 
differently pronounced by different au- 

A Short Treatise on Orthography. 

By Abthuk W. Wright. Including a 
Complete List of Words that are spelt in 
two or more ways. 

An Explanatory and Prononncing 

Vocabulary of the Names of Noted Fic- 
titious Personb ancf Places, dec. By W. A. 
Wheelkb, M.A. This Work includes not 
only persons and places noted in Fiction, 
whether narrative, poetical, or dramatic, 
bu'i Mythological and Mythical names, 
names referring to the Angelology and De- 
monology of various races, and those 
found in the romance writers; Pseu- 
donyms, Nick-names of eminent persons 
and parties, &c., &c. In fact, it is beat 
described as explaining every name which 
is not strictly historiajZ. A reference is 
given to the originator of each name, and 
where the origin is unknown a quotation 
is given to some well-known writer in 
which the word occurs. 

This valuable Work may also be ?iad 
separately, post 8vo., 6s. 
A Pronouncing Vocabulary of Scrip- 
vnre Proper Names. By W. A. Whkelkk. 
M.A. Including a List of the Variations 
that occur in the Douay veraion of the 

A Pronounoing Vocabulary of Greek 

and Latin Proper Names. By Professor 
Thaohbr. of Yale College. 

An Etymological Vocabulary of Mo- 
dem Geographical Names. By the Rev. 
C. H. WaiiELKR. Containing :— i. A List 
of Prefixes, Terminations, and Formative 
Syllables in varioas Languages, with their 
meaning an^i derivation ; il A brief List 
of GJeographical Names f not explained by 
the foregoing List), wlli their derivation 
and signification, all doubtful and obscure 
derivations being excluded. 

Pronouncing Vocabularies of Modem 

Geographical and Biographical Names. 
By J. Thomas, MJD. 

A Pronouncing Vocabulary of Com- 
mon English Christian Names, with their 
derivations, signiflcation, and diminutives 
(or nick-names), and their equivalents in 
several other languages. 

A Dictionary of Quotationi. Selected 
and translated by William Q. Webster. 
Containing all Words, Phrases, Proverbs, 
and Colloquial Expressions from the 
Greek, Latin, and Modem Foreign Ijan- 
guages, which are frequently met with in 
literature and conversation. 

A New Biographical Dictionary of 

upwards 9700 Names of Noted Perwns, 
Ancient and Modem, Including many now 
living- giving the Name, I'ronnncjarlon, 
Nationality, Profession, and Date of Birth 
and Death. 
A List of Abbreviations, Contrac- 
tions, and Arbitrary Signs used in Writing 
and Printing. 

A Classified Selection of Pictorial 

Illustrations (70 pages). With references 
to the text. 

" The cheapest Dictionary ever published, as it is confessedly one of the best. The taijo- 
ductlon of small woodcut illustrations of technical and scientific terms adds greatly to the 
utility of the Dictionary."— (7\urcAmaf». 

To he obtained t^rotigh all BoohseUert. 

a2 s 



From the Quabtibm Oton»w, Oct. 1878. 

** Seventy years parsed before Johnson was followed by Webster, an 
American writer, wbo faced the task of the English Dictionary with a 
fall appreciation of its requirements, leading to better practical results." 
• • • • 

" His laborious comparison of twenty languages, though never pub- 
lished, bore fruit in his own mind, and his training placed him both in 
knowledge and judgment far in advance of Johnson as a philologist. 
Webster's * American Dicticwaary of the English Language ' was pub- 
lished in 1828, and of course appeared at once in England, where 
successive re-editing ha» as yet k^jpt it m the highest place as a practical 

" The acceptance of an American Dictionary in England has itself 
had immense effect in keeping up the community of speech, to break 
which would be a grievous harm, not to English-speaking naticais 
alone, but to mankind. The result of this has been that the common 
Dictionary must suit both sides of the Atlantic." .... 

" The good average business-like character of Webster's Dictionary, 
both in style and matter, made it as distinctly suited as Johnson's was 
distinctly unsuited to be expanded and re-edited by other hands. 
Professor Goodrich's edition of 1847 is not much more than enlarged 
and amended, but other revisions since have so much novelty of plan 
as to be described as distinct works." .... 

" The American revised Webster's Dictionary of 1864, published in 
America and England, is of an altogether higher order than these last 
[The London Imperial and Student's]. It bears on its title-page the 
names of Drs. Goodrich and Porter, but inasmuch as its especial im- 
provement is In the etymological department, the care of which wa*. 
committed to Dr. Mahn, of Berlin, we prefer to describe it in short as 
the Webster-Mahn Dictionaiy. Many other literary men, among them 
Professors Whitney and Dana, aided in the task of compilation and 
revision. On consideration it seems that the editors and contributors 
have gone far toward improving Webster to the utmost that he wiU 
bear improvement. The vocabulary has become almost complete, as 
regards usual words, while the definitions keep throughout to Webster^s 
simple careful style, and the derivations are assigned with the aid cf 
good modem authorities." 

" On the whole, the Webster-Mahn Dictionary as it stands, is most 




Dr. Richardson's Philological Dictionary of the 

ENGLISH LANGUAGE. Combining Explanation with Etymology, 

and copiously illustrated by Quotations from the Best Authorities. 

New Edition, with a Supplement containing additional Words and 

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£5 15«. 6d. Kussia, £6 12«. — The Supplement separately. 4to. 12». 

An 8vo. edition, without the Quotations, 15«. Half-russia, 20a. 

Russia, 24«. 

A Supplementary English Glossary. Oontainiug 12,000 

Words or Meanings occurring in English Literature not found in any 
other Dictionary. With Illustrative Quotations. By T^ Lewis O. 
Davies, M.A. Demy 8vo. 168. 
Folk-Etymology. A Dictionary of Corrupted Words which 
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Mistaken Analogy. By the Eev. A. S. Palmer, Author of " A 
Word-Hunter's Note-book." Demy 8vo. 21s. 
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Presented to the 

LfflRARIES of the 


Hugh Anson-Cartwright 


The rapid progress of modem invention and dis- 
covery, involving the continual increase of discrimina- 
tive nomenclature, has long made it evident that no 
absolutely complete Dictionary of Technical Terms 
can ever be compiled. Yet there are some, even among 
the critical, who look upon every such work as the pre- 
sent with undue expectation, and do not hesitate to 
find fault because impossibilities are not achieved. It 
is necessary, therefore, to explain that an exhaustive 
dictionary of Chemistry alone, up to the existing stage 
of that science, would fill several volumes larger than 
the present, and be, from the necessary cost, almost 
inaccessible to either the general or the special student. 
With the terminology of all the other sciences added, 
it is plain that a work would be involved of such 
dimensions that a remunerative circ\ilation could 
hardly be expected. 

Still, however, a Scientific Dictionary, accurate in 
its definitions, and something much more than merely 
general in its scope and details, was seriously wanted 
when the first edition of the present work appeared ; 
and Mr. Buchanan, in his *' Technological Dictionary," 
A 2 


which forms the body of this volume, met the demand 
with an amoimt of judgment, knowledge, and abiUty, 
which at once fixed the character of his performance, 
as not only an efficient and unrivalled feat of scientific 
lexicography for the time, but also as an invaluable 
nucleus for all sound and judicious subsequent aug- 
mentations. In both these respects the present Editor 
is able to testify, from his personal experience, that it 
is still without an equal in the field of scientific litera- 
tm'e ; and he can only hope thatf in the Supplement 
now appended, and the corrections which time has 
rendered necessary in the original text, he has, with- 
out increasing the cost of the work to the purchaser, 
been fortunate enough to meet by a further instalment 
the public requirement, and not wholly unsuccessful 
in maintaining that clear and condensed style of 
explanation, of which Mr. Buchanan has given so 
excellent an example, and without which the present 
enlargement would not have been possible within due 

London, 1876. 




\ if the first letter of all known alpha- 
-"■ » bets, except the Ethiopic, in which it 
to the thirteenth, and the Runic, In which 
it is the tenth. 

A is naturally the first letter, because 
it represents the first Tocal sound na- 
turally formed by the human organs ; 
being the sound uttered by merely 
opening of the mouth, and without 
effort to alter the natural position of 
the lips. ITence this letter is found in 
many words first uttered by infants : 
which words are the names of objects 
with which infants are first concerned, 
as the breast and the parents. Hence 
in Hebrew, am is mother, and ab is 
father. In Chaldee and Syriac. abba is 
father : in Arabic, aba ; in Ethiopic, 
obi : in Malayan and Benjtalese, bappa ; 
in Welsh, tad, whence Scotch, daddy ; 
in old Greelc and Gothic, atta -. in Irish, 
aithair ; in Cantabrian, aita ; in Lap- 
ponic, atki ; in Abyssinian, abba ; in 
Amharic, aba : in Shilhic and Melin- 
dane (African dialects), baba ; and papa 
is found in many languagea Hence 
the Latin -mamma, the breast, which is, 
in popular use, the name of mother : in 
Swedish, ainma is a nurse. 
A, was used by the Romans as a nume- 
ral to denote 500, and with a dash over it, 
A, to mean 5000. The Romans also em- 
ployed A, the initial letter of antiquo,—l 
oppose, to signify dissent in Totiug. The 
letters TT.R. (for uti rogat, be it as you 
desire), were the form of assent. [These 
letters were marked on two woeden bal- 
lots, and giren to each voter, who gave 
ene of them as his rote.] In criminal 
trials, A. «tood for abtolvo, I acquit ; C. for 
conrf^mno, I condemn : and N. L. for non 
liqtiet, it is not evident; and the judges 
Toted by ballots so marked. In Roman 
nscriptions, A stands for Auguttm, argen- 
um,aurum, 4c. 

A, in music, is the nominal of the sixth 
note in the natural diatonic scale, and 
the natural key in the minor mood. It ia 
the open note of the second string of the 
violin, by which the other strings u« 
tuned and regulated. 

A, in commerce, stands for " accepted ; " 
4 for " to ; " and @ for " at" Merchant* 
and public oflicers also number their 
books and documents by the letters A, B, 
C, instead of figures. 

A, in logic, denotes a universal affirma- 
tive proposition. A asserts, and £ denies. 
In Babbara, the a thrice repeated meani 
that so many of the propositions are uni- 
versal^ _ 

A, A, or AA, in pharmacy, are abbre- 
viations of the Greek word (tva,ana, which 
signifies of each, or that equal quantiiieg 
of each thiag are to be taken. 

AAA, in old chemittry, stands foratmrf- 
gam,, or amalgamation. 

Aam, a Dutch measure for liquids. At 
Amsterdam it is equal to about thirty-five 
imperial gallons. 
' Aakos'sRod, in orcAiAecfure, a rod with 
a serpent twined round it. It is some- 
times eonfounded with Caducous, (q v.) 

A. B. an abbreviation of artium bacca- 
laureut, bachelor of arts. 

Ab, in the Jewish Calendar, the Hth 
mouth of the civil year, and the 5th month 
of the ecclesiastical year, answering to a 
part of July and of August. In the Syriac 
calendar, ^6 is the last summer month of 
the year. As a prefix to English names, Ab 
is usually an abbreviation of abbot, or abbey. 

ABAck', from Saxon, a, on, and baec, 
hack. A nautical term, siguifjiug the 
situation of the sails when flatteue<i by the 
wind against the masU. Taken aback, is 
when they are carried back suddenly by 
the wiad ; laid aback, b when they are 
purposely placed so to give the ship stwn- 



Ar'acot, in architecture, a. imsMmemheT 
representing the ahncoi, or cap of state, 
Id the fonn of a dout)le crown, anciently 
worn by the kings of England. 

Abac'tor (Latin, from abigo, to drive 
away), in law, one who steals numbers of 
cattle t in distinction to one who steals 
one or two. 

Ab'a.ccs, Latin, from eifBet^, any thiaj^ 
flat, as a bench , a table. 1 . A small sanded 
or waxed table, or board, on which, of 
old, mathematicians traced their dia- 
grams, and children were taught to write. 
2. An instrument to facilitate arithme- 
tical calculations, similar to the suanpau 
of the Chinese. It con sisted of a board of 
an oblong figure I ) divided by lines or 
cords. A counter placed on the lower 
line denoted cme, on the second ten, on 
the third a hundred, &c. : on the spaces 
between the lines, counters denoted half 
as much as on the lines immediately above. 
Other schemes are called by tlie same 

name. .3. In architecture, the upper 

member of the capital of a Greek Doric 
column, and a collection of members or 
mouldings, serving as a kmd of crowning 
in other orders. It is usually square, but 
In the Corinthian order it is encurvated, 
which curving is called the arch of the 
abacus. The upper member of the abacus 
in this order is sometimes called the boul- 
iint, or enrhinus: the member tmder it, 
the Jillet : and the third and undermost 

member, the plinth. See Capital. i. A 

table of nimibei-s ready cast up, to ex- 
pedite arithmetical operfitions, e. g. the 
Abacus Pythagorictis, the common multi- 
plication table, invented by Pythagoras: 
the Abacus Logisticus, or canon of sexage- 
simals, is a i-cctangled triangle, whose 
sides forming the right angle contain the 
numbers from 1 to 60, and its area the 
result of each pair of the numbers per- 
pendicularly opposite. 

Abacis Harmomcus, the structure and 
disposition of the keys of a musical in- 

Abacus Majoh, a trough to wash ore 

Abab'don, from abad, to be lost. The 
destroying angel of the bottomless pit. — 
Kev. ix. The bottomless pit. — Milton. 

As AFT, from Sax. bea-ftan, to be behind 
in. place. The situation of anything placed 
towards the stem of the ship: opposed to 
afore. Relatively it means farther aft, or 
nearer the stem. Contr. aft. 

Ab'agux, the name of an Ethiopian 
fowl, remarkable for a sort of horn on its 
head. The name means proud abbot. 

Abai'i=ir, spodium, burnt ivory, or 

Aeaissed, Fr. abaissi, depressed. In 
tei-aldry, applied to the wings of eagles, 
i.c., wheu the tipe are Aeptetaed below 


the centre of the shield or shut. Th« 
natural bearing is volant, (q. v.j 

Abaliena'tion, from aft and aUeiMilion, 
(q. v.). In law, transferring title to pro- 
perty from one to another. In medlcitie, 
decay of body or mind. 

Aban'doxment, from abandon, to for- 
sake entirely. In commerce and naviga- 
tion, the relinquishing to underwriters 
all the property saved from loss by ship- 
wreck, capture, or other peril stated in 
the policy. The abandotiment being made, 
the insured claims indemnification for a 
total loss. 

Ab'anet, in surgery, a bandage resem- 
bling the abanet, or girdle, worn by Jew- 
ish priests. 

Aba>'ga, theady,a species of palm-tree 
in the West Indies. It fm-nishes a juice 
of which a species of fermented drink is 

ABAPTis' surgery, the perforating 
part of the trephine : der. ct, not, and 
parrrti, to dip, because it was made with 
abnp'.ista, or shoulders, go as not to enter 
the brain. 

Abarticcla'tion, from ab and articida- 
tion, (q. V.) In anatomy, that articulation 
of joints which admits of manifestmotion. 
Syn. diarthrosis, {q. v.) 

Abas', a Persian weight for pearls equal 
to seven-eighths of a carat. 

Abased, iii heraldry, the same with 
dbaissed, (q. v.) 

Abassi, or Abassis, a Persian silver 
coin of the value of ten pence sterling. 

ABATAMENTCM,from «i<T<e. In laic, an 
entry of a freehold, when a person dies 
seised, and another enters before the heir. 

Abate, Fr. abattre, to beat down, to 
destroy, e. g. in law, to abate a castle is 
to pull it down: to abate a writ, is to 
overthrow or defeat it : to abate by covin, 
to overthrow by deceit. In horsemanship, 
a horse is said' to abate when, working 
upon curvets, he puts both hind legs down 
at once, and Observes the same exactness 
in all the times. 

Aba'tement, from abate. In commerce, 
1. An allowance or discount for prompt 
payment ; 2. A deduction sometimes made 
at the custom-house from the duties 
chargeable upon such goods as are da- 
maged. Syn. rebate. In heraldry, a mark 
of dishonour in a coat of arms. In law, 
the English word for abatametitnm , (q. v.) 

Abatis, or Abattis, from a, not, and 
/Sarej, pervious. In war, a temporary 
work, made of felled trees, with the 
branches pointed outwards. 

Abator, from abate. In law, a person 
who intrudes into a freehold on the death 
of the last possessor before the heir. Set 

Abe, yam for the warp of a web. 

Ab'ba, the Svrian and Chaldee name 



for father. In the Coptic, Syrlac, *nd 
Ethiopic churches, it Is the title of bishops, 
and the bishops bestow it hj waj of dis- 
tinctiou on the bishop of Alexandria. 
Heuee the titles of baba, papa. pope. 

AB'nACV, from abba (low Lat. abbatia), 
the dignitjr, rights, and priTlleges of an 
abbot. , 

Ahbk, iabby), from abba. Originally, an 
abbot : subsequently, a common title iu 
Catholic countries, implying no deter- 
minate rank, office, or rights ; and latterly, 
an academic, but not properly a church- 

Abbess, from abba, the female superior 
of a nunnery. 

Ab'bky, from abba, a monastery or reli- 
gious society of persons of either sex. 
The males, calle<l motikt, are governed by 
an abbot ; the females, called »iu»i*, are 
giverued by an abbest. Abbeys were sup- 
pressed in England by Henry VIII. 

Ab'bot (formerly abbat, from abba. Latin- 
ised abbot), the superior of au abbey or 
monastery. Abbots are regular and com- 
mendatory. The regular abbots are such 
as take the tow ; the commendatory are 
seculars, but obliged, when of suitable 
ag«, to take orders. The title is also 
borne by bishops whose sees were formerly 
abbeys. The A. of unreason was a sort of 
histrienic character peculiar to Scotland, 
similar to the lord of misrule in England. 

Abbreuvoik, from abbreuver, to water. 
A watering place. In masonry, the joint 
between two stones, to be filled up with 

Abbre'viate, from abbrevio, to shorten. 
In mathematics, to reduce fractions to theii 
lowest terms. A. of adjudications, \\iSiCO\c^ 
law, is an abstract of a decree of adjudica- 
tion, which is recorded in a register kept 
for that purpose. 

Abbbe'viated, Lat. abbrwiatus, short- 
ened. In botany, an abbreviated perianth 
l<i shorter than the tube of the corolla, as 
In the pufmonaria mp.ritima. 

Abbrevia'tion, from abbreviate, the 
contraction of a word or a passsige, by 
omitting some letters or words, as i. e. id 
est, that is ; e. g. exempli trratia, for ex- 
ample ; A.M. antemeriditm, before noon ; 
P.M. pott meridiem, afternoon; A. of 
fractions, the reductii^n ot them to their 
lowest terms. 

Abbre'viatoh, one who abbreviates. 
Abbrei'iatores are officers in the Chancery 
of Rome, who draw u|ythe pope's briefs, 
and reduce petitions, when granted, to due 
forms for bulls or mandates. 

Abbre'viature, Lat. abbreviatura, an 
abridgment. A mark or character used iu 
abbreviation, e. g. A B C used for the 
■whole alphabet. 

Abbltt.*ls, the butting or boundary of 
land towards any point. 

Abcxuarv, belonging to the alphabet 

(a, b, c.) A . psalms, are those whose parti 
are arranged acc-irdlng to the lettet* of 
the Hebrew alphabet, e. g. psalms 25, 34, 

Ab'dals, a sect of fanatics in Peniia, 
who sometimes run out into the streeu, 
and attempt to kill all they meet who are 
of a ditferent religion ; and if they are 
themselves killed, they are considered 
I martyrs. 

1 Abderite, au inhabitant of Abdera, in 

Thrace ; Democritus was so called because 

he was a native of it, and as he was given 

I to laughter, foolish laughter is called 


I Abdicate, in a gen*nU lense, to relin- 

' quish, from Lat. ab-dico, to send away. 

To relinquish an office before the expiry 

of the time of service. In the civil late, to 

disinherit, e. g. a son during the lifetime 

; of the father. 

] ABDiCi'TloN, from abdicate, the act 
' whereby a person in office gives it up 
before the time of service is expired. The 
term is chiefly used with reference to the 
supreme magistrate ; we say of the mon- 
arch that he abdicated the throne, and of 
a minister that he resigned his office. 
i Abdo'mex, in anatomy' the lowerbelly, 
or that part of the body between the 
thorax and the pelvis. It is lined by the 
peritoneum, and contains the stomach, 
liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, bladder, 
and intestines. It is separated from the 
chest internally by the diaphragm, and 
externally by the extremities of the ribs. 
I It is divided into four regions,— the epigas- 
! trie, umbilical, hypogastric, and lumbar. 
i The term is usually derived from Lat. 
I abdo, to hide, and ome7itum, the caul, be- 
cause it conceals the viscera ; but some 
maintain that men is merely a gramma- 
I tical augmentation, and that abdomen is 
I formed from abdo in the same way ai 
' legumen is formed from lego. 
\ Abdominal, belonging to the abdomen, 
[ e. g. A. aorta, that portion of the aorta 
] which is below the diaphragm: A. ring, 
I the inguinal ring, an oblique tendinous 
■ ring in both groins, through which pass 
j the spermatic cord in men, and the round 
I ligaments of the uterus in women. 
I Abdominals, Latinized abdominalet, a 
I class of fishes whose ventral fins are placed 
I behind the pectoraL The class contains 
I nine genera, the loche, salmon, pike, 
argentine, atherine, mullet, flying-fish, 
herring, and carp. They chiefly inhabit 
fresh water. 
j ABi)O.MlNoi:s. belonging to the mitiomen. 
Abducent, Lat. abducens. In iniatomy, 
I muscles which puU back the parts into 
1 which they are inserted are called abducent 
1 inuscles, or abductors : muscles which have 
an opposite action are called adducent 
I muscles, or adductors. The sixth pair of 
' nerre* are alM called abducent (nerri ak- 
B 2 


tInceuUt), from their distribuiton to the 
•liductor muscle of the eyeball. 

Abdcc'iion, Lat. abductio, from ab- 
duco. See Abducent. 1. In physiology, 
the action by which muscles draw back 
by their contraction the parts into which 
they are inserted ; and also the state of a 
part so withdrawn, o. g. when certain 
muscles withdraw the arm from the side, 
or the thumb from the rest of the lingers, 
they are said to perform the abduction of 
those parts, and the parts are said to be 

in a state of abduction. 2. In mirgery, 

a species of fracture in which the parts 
recede from each other. It is sometimes 

used to denote a sprain. 3. In law, 

the taking away of a child, a ward, a 
•wife, &c., either by fraud, persuasion, or 

open violence. 4. In logic, a species of 

argumentation, called by the Greeks apa- 
goge, in which the major is evident; but 
the minor is not so clear as not to require 
further proof; e. g. in this syllogism — 

Whatever God has revealed is certainly true : 
jjow God has revealed a future retribution ; 
Therefore a future retribution is certainly 

Abbcc'tor, Lat. abductor -oris, from ab- 
dwo. In anatomy, a muscle which per- 
forms the abduction of any part; its an- 
tagonist is called an adductor, e. g. the ab- 
ductor poinds pedis, which pulls the great 
toe from the rest. 

Abeceda'rian, or Abece'dart, one who 
teaches the letters of the alphabet. A 
novice in any art or science. 

Abei:e'dart, pertaining to or formed 
of the lettei-s of the alphabet. See Ab- 


ABELE,or.ABEL-TREE,thehoary or white 
poplar (poptdtts alba). The wood is white 
and soft, tit only for coarse work. The 
best sort of abel- trees having come from 
Holland, it is in some places known by 
the name of Dutch beech. 

Abel'ians, Abelo'nians, or A'belitzs. 
In church history, a sect which arose in 
Africa during the reign of Arcadius ; they 
married, but lived in continence, after the 
manner, as they pretended, of Abel, and 
attempted to maintain the sect by adopting 
the children of others. 

Ap.Ei.LiL e'a, an old name of the logwood- 
tree {h<Btnatoxylon campechianum). 

Abelmosk, Abelmosch, or Abelmtjsk, 
the Syrian mallow, or musk okro, a spe- 
cies of hibiscus {H. abelniosckiis). The plant 
rises on an herbaceous stalk of three or 
four feet in height. The seeds have a 
mtisky odour; hence its name, ?iabb el 
tMsk (Arabic), musk seed. It is a native 
of the East Indies. 

Aberra'tign, Lat. aberratio, from ab- 
*rro, to wander from ; wandering, devia- 
tion. 1. Im astronomy, a small apparent 
of the fixed stars, occasioned by 


the progressive motion of light, and the 
earth's annual motion in its orbit. The 
A. of a planet is equal to the space it ap- 
pears to move, as seen from the earth, 
during the time that the light employs in 
passing from the planet to the earth. 
Thus, in the sun the aberration (in longi- 
tude) is constantly 20", that being the 
space moved by the earth in 8' 7" of time, 
the interval that light takes to pass from 
the sun to the earth. From this the ab- 
erration of the other planets is readily- 
found ; for, knowing the distance of the 
sun from the earth, it will be, by common 
proportion, as the distance of the earth 
to the sun is to the planet, so is 8' 7" to 
the time the light takes to pass from 
the planet to the earth; then finding 
the planet's geocentric motion in that 
time, it will be the aberration of the 

planet. 2. In optics, a deviation of the 

rays of light, when inflected by a lens or 
speculum, by which they are prevented 
from uniting in one point. It is occasioned 
by the figure of the reflecting body, or by 
the different refrangibility of the rays 
themselves : this last is called the New- 
tonian aberration, from the name of its 
illustrious discoverer. Croum of aberra- 
tion, a luminous circle round the disc of 
the sun, depending on the aberration 
of the solar rays, by which his apparent 

diameter is enlarged. 3. In medical 

language, (1.) The passage of a fluid in 
the living body into vessels not destined 
to receive it ; (2.) The determination of a 
fluid to a part ditferent to that to which 
it is usually directed ; (3.) The alienation 
of the mind. 

Abesasum, the oxide which forms on 
the iron of wheels: formerly used in 

Abet', in late, to encourage, counsel, 
incite, or assist, in a criminal action; 
from Sax. betan, to push forward, or ad- 

Abet'tor, one who ahets or incites. In 
law, one who encourages another to the 
performance of an unlawful action. In 
Scotch law, an abettor is said to be art and 
part. In treason, there are no abettors ; 
all concerned are principals. 

Abevacua'tion, from ah, dim. and eva- 
ciuition (q. v.). In medicine, a partial 
evacuation of the morbid humours, either 
by nature or art. 

Abey'ance, from Korm. abaixance, in 
expectation (bayance). In expectation of 
law. The fee-simple or inheritance of 
lands is in abeyance, when there is no 
person in whom it can vest ; so that it is 
in a state of expectancy, until a proper 
person shall appear ; e. g. if land is leased 
to a man for life, remainder to another 
for years, the remainder for years is ia 
abeyan«4, until the death of the lease* for 


Aa'uiLL, the fruit of a species of AsiatiV 
cypfcss, said to be a powerful ciumeua- 

Abho'rrers, a name given to a party 
in England about 1680, in opposition to 
those who petitioned for a redress of 

Ab'ib, the first month of the Jewish 
ecclesiastical year, called also Nisan. It 
begins at the spring equinox, and answers 
to the end of March and beginning of 
April. Its name, which means a full ear 
of com, is derived from the wheat being 
full grown in Egypt at that season. 

Abide, from Sax. abidan, to continue. 
Abiditig by writings, in Scotch law, means 
compelling a pereon to abide by a false 
deed as if it were true. 

Abies, the trivial name of the Norway 
spruce fir {pinua ahies), which aflords the 
Burgundy pitch, and common frankin- 
cense {abietis resina). Name, from mTiOi, 
a wild pear, to which its fruit bears some 

Abietic, from abies. A. acid (acidum 
abieticum), an acid discovered in the resin 
of the pinui abies. It crystallises in square 
plates, is soluble in alcohol, and forms 
«alts with the alkalies. 

Abi'etinb {abietitia), a resinous sub- 
stance obtained from the Strasburg tur- 

A'bioa, the ground-pine, or chamjepitys 
(Teucfium chamcepitys). Name, from abigo, 
to expel, as it was supposed to promote 

Abigeat {abigeatus), the crime of steal- 
ing cattle in droves ; called also abactus. 
See Abactok. 

Abil'itt, from Lat. habilitas, ableness, 
from habeo, to have. In law, the power of 
doing certain actions, principally with 
regard to the acquisition and transfer of 

Abiktes'tatk, from Lat. ab and inUsta- 
tus, without a will (testator). In law, 
applied to the person who inherits the 
estate of one dying intestate, or without a 

Abiotos, deadly ; from «, not, and j3ieM, 
to live. A name given to hemlock (conium 
maculatum), from its deadly qualities. 

Abirritation, from 06 "and irritation, 
a medical synonyme for asthenia, debi- 
Uty, &c. 

Abjuration, from abjure, Lat. ab-juro, 
to deny upon oath. A renunciation upcn 
oath ; e. g. " an aifjuration of the realm," 
by which a person swears to leave the 
country for ever. This is much the sajne 
with what in Scotland is called signing ayi 
act of banishment, and was allowed for- 
merly in England to felons who had taken 
refuge in a church, and confessed their 
guilt. In some statutes, it is an oath 
dijclaiming all allegiance to a pretender. 


The " iiljiiralion of heri-tij ," ia ilir -••c-auta- 
tion of any religious doctrine as li'ls* . 

Ablacta'tion, the weaning of a child 
from the breast. In gardenni.j, a niudt.* of 
grafting, in which the scion i* not sepa- 
rated from the parent stwk till it is flniily 
united to the new one. It is now called 
grafting by approach, or liiHrohing. 

Ablauuea't ION, from \A!i\..ahsxnd.laquear, 
a covering. In gardening, thi> operation 
of laying bare the roots of trees to tho 
air and water. 

Abla'tion, Lat. ab-latio, a carrying 
away. In medicine, the taking away from 
the body whatever is hurtful : evacua- 
tions generally. In chemistry, the removal 
of whatever is finished. 

Ab'lative, Lat. ablativti-i, from aufero, 
to carry away (of ab and fvro). In Lalin 
grammar, the name of the sixth Ciise, 
peculiar to that language. M ords are 
used in this case when the actions of car- 
rying away or taking from are signified. It 
is therefore opposed to the dative. It is 
sometimes called the comparative case, as 
being much used in comparing things. 
Ablative absolute, is when a word in that 
case is independent in construction of the 
rest of the sentence. 

Able-bodied, in nautical language, it 
denotes skill in seamanship. 

Ablec'ti (selected). In the Roman army, 
a select body of soldiers chosen from 
among those called extraordinarii. 

Able'gima (aKTOAey^tw/). In Roman 
archeeology, the parts of the victim which 
were offered to the gods in sacrifice. The 
word is derived from ablegere, in imitation 
of the Greek ot^oXiyiiv. 

Ablep'sy, Lat. ablcpsia, from at, not, and 
^Xiru, to see. Blindness. 

Ab'luent, Lat. abluetis, from ab-luo, to 
wash away (Ir. lo, or lua, water.) In 
viedicitie, that wliich purities the blood. 
It is sometimes used in the sense oi diluent, 
and abstergent. 

Ablu'tion, Lat. ab-lutio (o{ luo, or law, 
to wash). 1. Purification by water. Ap- 
propriately, the washing of the body as a 
preparation for religious duties, enjoined 
by Moses, and still practised in oriental 
countries. The priests of Egypt used 
daily ablutions ; the Grecians, sprinklings ; 
the Komans, lustrations ; the Jews, wash- 
ings and baptisms. The ancient Christians 
had their ablutions before coinmuixion; 
the Roman Catholic has his before mass ; 
on Good Friday, the Syrians, Copts, &c., 

have solemn washings. 2. In chemistry, 

the separation of extraneous matters from 

any substance by washing. 3. In tnedi- 

cine, the washing of the body. 

Abnor'mal, or Abnormocs. Lat. abnor- 
mis, irregular. Deviating from nature; 

Aboard (a and board), rlthic a iMf 


boat, dec. : hence, (o yo aboard, to enter a 
•hip : to board, to enter a ship by force of 
arms: to fall aboard, to strike a ships 
side, to encounter ; aboard main-lack, an 
order to draw the niain-tack, i.e. the 
lower conier of the mainsail, down to the 

Aboli'tios, from Lat. ah and oleo 
olesco, to fjrow. In laic, 1. The repealing 
of any statute. 2. Kemittinar the punisli- 
ment of a criminal. 3. leave given to 
a criminal accuser to desist from further 
prosecution of the accused. 

Abolition conveys the notion of a 
more gradual proceeding than either 
repeal or abrogate, and seems more ap- 
plicable to the obliteration of customs ; 
e. g. we say a change of taste has 
caused the abolition of tournaments; 
but that such a law has been repealed, 
or abrogated; such an edict has been 
revoked, contract annxdled, or debt can- 

Abol'la, in Soman archceology, a wool- 
len cloak or pall, which was worn by 
the soldiers; and also by judges. The 
■word is identical in signification with 
pallium ((pajsf). 

Abomas f s, the fourth stomach in rumi- 
nating animals: from ab, and omasum, 
the paunch. In calves, the runnet, or 
earning, is formed in the abomasus. 

Abomination, detestation: from Lat. 
abomino (of ab and omen), to deprecate as 
ominous. A. of desolation, foretold by 
Daniel, the statue of Jupiter Olympiua, 
■which Antiochus Epiphanes caused to be 
put up in the temple of Jerusalem. A. of 
desolation, mentioned by the evangelists, 
the ensigns of the Roman army when 
Jerusalem was besieged by Titus. 

Abo'rea, a species of duck called, by 
Edwards, the black-bellied whistling 
duck. It is of a reddish bro'wn colour, 
■with a sort of crest on its head: the belly 
is spotted with black and white. 

Abori'gines, the first inliabitants of a 
country — as the Celts in Europe, and the 
Tndians in America. The term is Lat. 
from ab, and on'gro, origin. Adj. aborigitial. 
The name was first given to the ancient 
or original inhabitants of Italy, who, 
according to tradition, were conducted 
into Latium by Saturn. 

Abortient, Lat. fr6orft«»«, miscarrying. 
A term sometimes used by botanical wri- 
ters, as synonymous with sterilis, barren. 
Abortion, Lat. abortio, miscarriage, 
(of oAand orio/-). The premature expiil- 
sion of the fnetus. If it occur before the 
end of the sixth numth it is called abortioh , 
or miscarriage : if between the sixth and 
end of the ninth month. p>-emature labour. 
JUtea-riage is restricted by some writers 
H> tu» eiyiulsion of the foetus within six I 
VwMM Slier conception: abortion and j 

3 A BR 

miscarriage are, however, generally aae4 

Abuk'tive, applied, 1. To a medicire 
which has the power of exciting abortion 
(q.v.) ; 2. To flowers or floreU which do 
not produce perfect seed. Abortive flow- 
ers are generally such as have stamens, 
but no pistils. 

ABorr, from Sax. aUitan, coinciding 
with ctijufi. About ship, the order to the 
ship's crew for tacking ; the situation of 
the ship immediately after she has tacked. 

Ab Ovo, from the beginning : literally 
from the egg, with which the banquet 

Abp., abbreviation for archbishop. 

Abracadab'ra, the name of a deity 
worshipped by the Syrians. The name 
was supposed by the cabalists to pos.ses9 
great virtues in preventing and curing 
fevers. To render its powers certain, it 
was written on paper as many times as it 
contained letters, omitting the iasi letter 
every time, thus — 





A B R A C A D 

A B R A C A 

A B R A C 

A B R A 

A B R 

A B 


The word is a corruption ofAhrasadabra, 
which means " divine decree." 

Abrac'alan, a cabalistic term, to which 
the rabbins ascribed the same virtues as 
to the Abracadabra. 

Abrahamic, pertaining to Abraham the 
patriarch, e. g. the Abrahamic coienaut. 
Abrabamites, a sect of heretics who 
adopted the errors of I'aulus, and who 
are therefore called Paulicians. Also au 
order of monks extermma ted in the ninth 
century, by Theophilus, for worshipping 

Abban'chia, from «, not, and j2<av;^<«, 
gills. Animals which have no gills, or 
apparent organs of respiration. 

Abrajnchia'ta, from abranchia (q. v.), 
the third order of Aiticulata, having no 
apparent external organ of respiration, 
but seem to respire, some by the entire 
surface cf the skin, and others by internal, 
cavities. They have a closed circulating 
system, usually filled with red blood. 
This order is divided into two fiimilies : 
the A. setigera, which are provided with 
setae which enable them to crawl, e. g. 
the earth-worm; and the A. asetigera, 
which are aquatic, and have no set». 
e. g. the leech. 

Abkasas. a word which has been de 
rlTedfrom the initial letters of the Hebrew 


words, Ab, Ben, Rxtach-hakcl'th , (Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost), and the Greek 
words, "Smtx^kx. etrto BvKov (salvation 
from the cross) ; but more probably, it 
is made up of the Greek numerals, «=1, 
^=2, § = 100, « = 1, (r=200, «=!, | = 60, 
which together make 365 : for it was, 1. 
The name of the supreme god under 
whom the Basilidians supposed 365 de- 
pendent deities, who had the government 
of so many celestial orbs. It was the 
principle of the Gnostic hierarchy whence 
sprung the multitude of (pohs. 2. An 
antique gem or stone with the word 
abraxas engraven on it. There are many 
of various" ligures, e. g. of beetles, ser- 
pents, human heads, mostly as old as the 
third century. The letters are mostly 
Roman, Greek, and Phoenician. They 
appear to have been early sought after 
as amulets. 

Abra'siox, from abrado (of Lat. abrado, 
to scrape off). In physics, the effect pro- 
duced by attrition. In medicine, the 
effect produced by corrosive applications. 

Abratm, a red clay brought from the 
Isle of Wight, with which cabinet-makers 
darken and polish mahogany. 

Abiivxas, in entomology , a. suhgenns in 
the classification of Leach, including the 
Phaltejia Grosstdariata (magpie), and Pha- 
l<enn Ulmata (clouded magpie), of La- 
treillG. Feed on tlie leaves of the currant 
and gooseberry. 

Abrazite, Zeagonite or Gismondine,a 
mineral which occurs in semi-globular 
masses (sometimes in octahedral crystals 
with a square base), in the volcanic rocks 
of Capo di Bove, near Rome. Cents. Si- 
lica. 414 ; lime, 48"G; alumina, 25; mag- 
nesia, 15 ; oxide of iron. 25. — Philips. 

Abreast, (a and breast), in nautical lan- 
giMf/e, the position of two or more ships 
which have their sides parallel, and their 
heads equally advanced. Abreast within 
ship, means in a line with the beam, 
raain hatchway, &c. From this point 
the position is reckoned fore or aft. 

Abridg'ment, from abridge (of $tx^u(, 
short), an epitome ; a summary of a book. 
In laic, shortening a count or declaration ; 
e. g. in assize, a man is said to abridge 
his plaint, and a woman her demand in 
action of dower, if any land be put there- 
in, which is not in the tenure of the 
defendant: for, on a plea of non-tenure 
in abatement of the writ, the plaintiff 
may leave out those lands, and pray that 
the tenant may answer to the remainder. 

Abrooa'tion, from abrogate, to annul 
by an authoritative act. The act of abo- 
lisliing by authority of the legislative 
power. The term is derived from nfcro<7o. 
frow rogo, to ask, in allusion to the 
Roman custom which admitted no law 
to be falid to which the consent of the 


people had not been obtiined by asking ; 
or librogiited, but in the same way, by 
gaining the popular consent. 

Abro'ma, from ot, not, and ^^ai'jLct, food. 
A genus of plants of the polyadelphia 
dodecandria class and order; containing 
two species, the A. auyusta, and the A. 
fastuosa. They grow freely in common 
garden soil, and are easily propagated by 
seeds and cuttings. The first is a native 
of the East Indies, and the other of New 
South "Wales. 

Abro'tam'm, southeniwood, fi-om 
(SjflTovov (of «, not, and /3j«t*j, mortal, 
because it never decays). A species of 
plant arranged tinder the genus ariewwin. 
U. shrub. 

Abrupt, Lat. a6rMp<»w, broken ; applied 
to the leaves of plants when the extre- 
mity of the leaf is, as it were, cut off by 
a transverse line. 

Abrcptlt-pinnate, abntpte-pinnatus, a 
term applied in botany to a leaf which is 
pinnate, and terminates abruptly, with- 
out an odd leaflet or cirrus. 

A'BRf s, the knob-rooted wild liquorice, 
from «/3gof , soft, in reference to the soft- 
ness of its leaves. A genus of plants of 
the class and order diadelphia decandria. 
There is only one species known in 
Europe, thre abms precato'rins. It grows 
wDd in both East and West Indies, and 
in Africa, and produces those beautiful 
red seeds, called Angola seeds, marked 
with a black spot or eye at the one 
end, which have been so much used aa 
beads for making necklaces and rosariet 
(whence the specific name precatoriiu of 
the plant). 

Absce'dent, Lat. abscedens (of ahscedo, 
to depart). Applied to a decayed part of 
an organised body, which is separated 
from the sound. 

Ab'scess. Lat. abscessiis {of ah and cedo, 
to go from), an imposthume; a collection 
of morbid matter or pus in the cellular 
or adipose membrane ; matter generated 
by the suppuration of an inflammatory 

Absciss, or Abscissa, fromnft and scindo, 
to cut. In conies, any part of the diame- 
ter or axis of a curve, intercepted between 
the vertex, or some other flxed point, 
and another line called an ordinate. An 
absciss and ordinate considered together 
are called co-ordinates. ]iy means of these 
the equation of the curve is defined. 

Abscis'sion, from absrindo to cut off. 
In surgery, the separation iif any soft part 
of the body, by an edged instrument, 
and as amputation is when bones are cttl. 

Absco'.nsio. from abscondo, to hide. In 
anatomy, the cavity of a bone w hich re- 
ceives and conceals the head of SDothat 
bone.— Lat. 

Ab/consa. &om abtco$>do. to Klde. ▲ 


dark lantern, used by the monks in bury- 
ing the dead at night. — Lat. 

Absin'thate {absinthas), a salt formed 
by the combination of absinthic acid with 
a base. 

Absix'thic, related to ahsinthitim. A. 
acid {acidum ahsinthicum) , a peculiar acid 
contained in absinthium. 

Absin'thine (absinthina) , the bitter 
principle of absinthium. 

AsiNTHiTEs, wine impregnated with 

Absinthicm, wonnwood : a bitter plant 
used in medicine as a tonic. It is a spe- 
cies of artemisia {artemisia absinthium). 
Kame Latinised from oi-^ivdtov, supposed 
to be derived from «, not, and •if/i^Ocs, 
sweet, on account of its bitterness. 

Ab'sis. in a.itrotwmy, the same with ./Ipsis 

Absolute. Lat. absolutus, independent 
of anything extraneous. \. In grammar, 
the absolute case is when a word or 
member of a sentence is not immediately 
dependent on the other parts of the sen- 
tence in government, e.g. " I'ray without 
ceasing." the word;>?-aj/ is taken absolutely. 

2. In mathematics, an absolute term 

or number, is one which is completely 
known, and to which all the other part 
of the equation is made equal, e.g. in the 
eq. X -+- \Qx = 25, the absolute number 
term is 2.5, which is equal to the square of 
X, added to ten times x.- 3. In astro- 

the optic and eccentric equations : the 
apparent inequality of a planet's motion 
in its orbit, arising from its being at dif- 
ferent times at different distances from 
theearth, is called its optic equation: the 
eccentric inequality arises from the imi- 
forniity of the planet's motion in an ellip- 
tical orbit, which for that reason appears 
not to be uniform. i. In physics, abso- 
lute SPACE is space considered without 
relation to any object. Absolute gravity is 
that property in bodies by which they 
are said to weigh so much, without regard 
to circumstances of modification : this is 
always as the quantity of matter they 

contain. 5. In chemistry, absolute is 

applied to substances free of some usual 
combination, e. g. alcohol firee of water is 
called absolute alcohol. 

Absolu'tion. Lat. absolutio (of ab and 
lolvo, to loosen). In civil law, a definitive 
sentence of acquittal by a judge, releasing 
the accused from all further prosecution. 
In the Scotch Presbyterian church, a sen- 
tence of the church judicatories, releasing 
an individual from excommimication and 
receiving him again into communion. In 
Roman Catholic churches, a remission of 
•ins pronounced by a priest in favour of a 
penitent. Absolutio ad cautelam is a pro- 
vit!o?tal absolution granted to a person 


who has appealed from a sentence ol 

Absor'bent, Lat. absorbetis {ot ab-sorbeo, 
to drink in). 1. In anatomy, the delicate, 
transparent vessels which take up sub- 
stances from the surface of the body, or 
from any cavity, and carry it into the 
blood, are termed absorbents. These are 
the lacteals and lymphatics. The same 
name is given by naturalists to those 
fibres of roots which draw nourishment 

from the earth. 2. In chemistry the 

term is applied to any substance which 
withdraws moisture from the atmosphere, 

neutralises acids, &c. 3. In pharmacy, 

a medicine -which destroys acidities in 
the stomach and bowels (e.g. magnesia, 
prepared chalk). 

Absorp'tion, Lat. absorptio (of ab- 
sorbeo, to drink in). 1. In physiology, a 
function of living organised bodies, which 
consists ui taking up substances, and con- 
Tej-ing them into the mass of circulating 
fluids, by means of the absorbing vessels. 

— Hooper. 2. In chemistry, the passage 

of a gas into the pores of a liquid or solid 
substance ; the passage of a liquid into the 
pores of a solid. 

Abster'gent, from abstergo, to cleanse, 
{absterged), a medicine wliich removes 
foulness. The term detergetit is now com- 
monly used. 

Ab'stract, from Ijat.abs-traho, to sepa- 
rate ; distinct from something else, e.g. 
an abstract idea, in metaphysics, is an idea 
separated from a complex object, or from 
other ideas which naturally accompany 
it: as the solidity of marble, considered 
apart from its colour or figure. Abstract 
terms are those which express abstract 
ideas, as M'hiteness, roundness, (in con- 
tradistinction to concretes, as white, 
round), without regard to the subjects in 
which they exist. Abstract numbers are 
nimibers used without application to any 
particular objects, as 3, 7; but when 
applied to anything, as 6 men, they be- 
come concrete. Abstract, or pure mathe- 
matics, treat of magnitude or quantity in 
general, as arithmetic and geometry; 
opposed to mixed mathematics, which 
treat of the relations of quantity, as 
applied to sensible objects, as astronomy, 
optics. An abstract is a summary, or 
epitome, containing the substance of a 
treatise or writijig. To abstract means, 
in chemistry, to separate the volatile 
parts of a substance by distillation. In 
tliis sense the word extract is commonly 

Abstrac'ti, in church history, a sect of 
Lutherans, who asserted that Christ is to 
be adored not only in the concrete, as the 
Son of God, but that he is in the abstract 
an object of adoration. 

Abstraction, the act of separating or 
State of being separated. S«« a«ste*ct. 


I. Tn metaphysics, the operation of the 
m«nd when occupied with abstract ideas, 
as when some particular part or property 
of an object is considered apart from tlie 
rest, e.g. as when the mind considers a 
branch of a tree by itself, or the colour of 
the leaves, as separate from their size or 

form 2. In logic, the power ot the mma 

in separating the combinations presented M 
it, bears the name of abstraction.— Stewart. 

Abstrartion may be regarded as the 
sciejice «/ i/,')if:ralization, as it is by ab- 
stract inc from individuals that which 
is peculiar to each, and retaining what 
is peculiar to all, that we come to form 
the idea of species, and proceeding in the 
same way with species, we arrive at 
genera; from thence we proceed to 
orders and classes. 

3. In chet)tistri/, the term denotes the 
separation by heat of the volatile parts of 
a compound. \Vhcu the part abstracted 
is collected, tlie process is called distilla- 
tion or mblimalion, according as the pro- 
cess is wet or dry. 

Abstrin'gent, Lat. abstrinpens. Medi- 
cines which are used to resolve obstruc- 
tions, concretions, &c., are called abstrin- 
gents, e. g. soup. 

Absurd, I>at. abnirdus (from ab and 
titrdua, deaf}, opposed to manifest truth. 
In vtathematics, a term employed in de- 
manstrating converse propositions. The 
proposition is not proved in a direct 
manner from principles boiore laid down, 
but the contrary of the proposition is 
proved to be impossible or absurd, and 
this indirectly proves the truth of the 
proposition itself. Thus the fourth pro- 
position of the first book of Euclid is 
demonstrated by showing that if the 
extremities of two right lines coincide, 
the lines themselves will coincide in all 
their parts, otherwise they would enclose 
a space, which is abstird, being contrary 
to the tenth axiom. This is called reductw 
ad absurdum. 

Ab'sus, the trivial name of a small 
Egyptian lotus {cas.'iia absus). The pow- 
dered seeds are used in the ciu'e of 

Abun'dant, Lat. ab-undans (from vttd.-i, 
a wave). In arithmetic, a number, the 
sum of whose aliquot parts is greater than 
the number itself, is called an abtttidani 
number-, e. g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, the aliquot 
parts of 12, make the sum IC. This is 
opposed to a dejieierit number, as 14, the 
aliquot parts of which are 1,2, 7, the sum 
of which is 10,andboth toaperjfecttJMmfter, 
which is equal to the sum of all its aliquot 
oarts, as 6, whose aliquot parts are 1, 2, 3. 
Abut'ilon, a genus of exotic shrubs, 
containing 26 species ; class mouadelphia, 
order poluandria, natives of South Ame- 
rica, East and AVcct Indies. Senegal, 


Egypt, and Canaries. One species (A.Avi- 
cennce) is a native of the south of France- 
ABriMENi, from abvt, to meet (chiefly 
used in describing the bounds or situation 
of land). The extremity ; chiefly used to 
denote the solid mound or pier erected 
on the bank of a river, to support the end 
of a bridge. Sj/nwiymes, land-stool, land- 
pier. The term, however, often means 
simply the masonry casing of this pier. 
Among carpenters, the joining of two 
pieces of timber is called an abutment. In 
this the fibres of the wood are placed »a 
nearly as practicable at right angles to 
each other. 

Abut', the butting or boundary of 
land ; a headland. See Adbuttals. 

Abyss, from KjSvo'irof, without bottom ; 
something profound, as it were bottom- 
less; e.g. the ocean, hell (bottomless pit). 
The term has been used by some to 
denote a vast cavity filled with water, 
which they supposed to exist in the 
centre of the earth; and by others, to 
signify a deep mass of water, which 
they conceived encompassed the earth 
in its state of chaos. These waters 
were, according to the same authori- 
ties, collected by the Deity, into the 
abyss in the centre of the earth, on the 
third day of creation. Geology has 
done much of late to correct our no- 
tions on these subjects. 
2. In heraldry, the centre of an escut- 
cheon, e. g. " He bears azure, a fleur de 
lis, in abyss," i.e. in the middle of the 

shield clear of everything else. 3. In 

arch<Kology, the temple of Proserpine, so 
called from the immense treasures it was 
supposed to contain. 

Abtssin'ia.ns, a sect of Christians in 
Abyssinia, who admit but one nature in 
Jesus Christ, and reject the council of 
Chalcedon. They are governed by a 
bishop, called an abu\f,. 

Ac, in Saxon, oa^-; the initial syllable 
of names, as Acton, Oaktown. 

A.C., an abbrev. of Aiite Christum (be- 
fore Christ). 

AcAr'ALOT, the Tantalus Mexicaniu, a 
Mexican fowl. See .Acalot. 

Aca'cia, Gr. »/nt»i», from eutee4e», to 
sharpen, the Egyptian-thorn, a genus of 
shrubaeeous plants, of the c^af,s jfolygamia. 
and order monwcta. This genus contains 
about 132 species, all natives of hot cli- 

The Chinese- make a yellow dye from 
the flowers of one species of it, which 
bears washing on silks. Erom another 
species of it {aearia vera'\, we derive our 
gum arabic, gum senega', &c. ; and the 
astringent medicine called catechu is the 
production of a species of the same tree 
i(K(«na catechol, which is a native Of 
the East Indies 

A C A 


A C A 

2. In medicine, the name of the expressed 
Juice of the immature pods of the acacia 
vera. It is brought chiefly from Egypt in 
roundish masses, wrapped up in thin 

bladders. 3. In archarology , a roll or bag 

on the medals of the Greek and Roman 
emperors, supiwsed by some to represent 
simply a handkerchief rolled up, with 
which signals were given at the games : 
by others it is said to be a roll of peti- 
tions; others make it a purple bag tilled 
with earth, to remind the prince of his 

AcA.'ciA.Ns, in church history, sects 80 de- 
nominated from their leaders, Acacius, 
bishop of Caesarea, and Acacius, patriarch 
of Constantinople. Some of them main- 
tained that the Son was only a similar, 
not the same substance with the Father ; 
others, that he was not only a distinct 
but a dissimilar substance. 

Acade'mic, 1. pertaining to an (Wo<f«»ny, 
college, or university, e. g. academic stu- 
dies ; also what belongs to the school or 
philosophy of Plato, e.g. the academic 

Meet. 2. An academician (q. v.). 3. 

One who belonged to the school or ad- 
hered to the philosophy of Socrates and 

Plato, the fo tinder of the academical 
philosophy in Greece, taught that mat- 
ter is eternal and infinite, but without 
form, refractory, and tending to dis- 
order, and that there is an intelligent 
cause, the author of spiritual being, 
and the material world. 
AcA.DEMi'ciAN,a memberof an academy, 
or society for promoting arts and sciences, 
particularly a member of the French aca- 
demies ; also an academic philosopher; 
an academist. 

Aca'dem-j , Lat. academia, from ctxet^r,- 
fniai.; originally a garden or grove near 
Athens, where Plato and his followers 
held their philosophical conferences, and 
ultimately, the sect of academic philo- 

In the modern sense, a society of learned 
men united for the promotion of the 
arts and science in general, or of some 
special department. Hence academies of 
antiquity (for the illustration of whatever 
regards archaeology, as medals, coins, in- 
scriptions, &c.), ecclesiastical, chirurgical, 
and dancing academies ; academies of 
belles-lettres, of languages, of painting, of 
sndpture and architecture, &c. The first 
modem school under this name was esta- 
blished by Charlemagne, at the instance 
of Alcuin, an English monk. Academy is 
also applied with us for a kind of school 
in which the elementary branches of edu- 
cation are taught. 

AcjDEVr-FtocRi!, a draught or design 
ina>ie after a model with a crayon or 

.\c.E s A. the generic name of aMeucn-i 
shrub (A. elongnta) of the class teiraruhim, 
and order monogynia. Kame atxeitimt ■ 

AcENirrs, in entomology, a genus of 
ichncumonides. — Latreille. 

,\c.iL0T, a Mexican fowl resembling the 
ibis ; it is called by some the xcater-crow. 

Aca'lycise, Lat.nro/i/ti'nMS, («, tcithfnit, 
and xccKvl, a calyx), without calyx or 

.\c.t.'LiPHA, from oe,xct>.yi(pyi, the nettle, 
{urtica, Lin.). 1. A genus of plants of 16 
species, some of which much resemble the 
broad-leaved pellitory of the wall: class 

monaecia, order monadelphia. 2. A class 

of radiated animals {radiata animnlia), 
comprising zoophytes (zoophyta), which 
swim in the ocean, and in whose organi- 
sation vessels can be recognised. These 
are generally, however, "mere produc- 
tions of the intestines excavated in the 
parenchj-ma of the body." The acalyphxe 
are divided into two orders ; the A. sim- 
plicia (simple A.), and the A. hydrostatica 
(hydrostatic A.). The first swim by the 
alternate contractions and dilatations of 
their body, although their substance is 
apparently without fibres. The hydro- 
static A. liave one or more bladders, filled 
with air, by means of which they sustain 
themselves in their liquid element. 

AcAMACu, the local name of the Bra- 
zilian fly-catcher, or todus (q. v.). 

Ac a'm psy , Lat. acampsia, from et, not, and 
xotfjUTTOi), to bend. The same with An- 
chylosis (q. T.). 

Acana'ce^, a class of plants in some 
systems of botany, including all those 
which are prickly, and bear their flowers 
and seeds on a kind of head ; name, from 
ccxocvos, a prickly shrub. 

AcANA'cEors, armed with prickles; be- 
longing to the class of plants called 

AcANois, in Turkish military affairs, " a 
kind of light-armed horse." 

Aca'xos, from ot,K(x.¥os, a spine. The 
onopordium (q.v.). 

Aca'ntha, from xxeci/6/it, a thorn. In 
botany, a thorn. In zoology, the spine of a 
prickly fin of a fish ; also an acute process 
of the" vertebra. In anatomy, the spina 

-\caktha'boi.cs, from oe,zxy6», a thorn, 
and jSciXXtu, to throw out. In stirgery, a 
kind of forceps for pulling thorns, &c. 
from the skin. 

Aca'sthia, in entomology, a genus of 
hemipterous insects; form oval, with a 
spinous thorax, and ciliated abdomen. 
Found chiefly on the banks of river* 
Name anciently given to a snerte* of 
grassDopper found near the city of Actm- 

A C A 


JcatiCittn cicadai (singing grasshop- 
pers), had the »amc meaning among the 
ancients that timber Uintd has among 

AcA'NTHt.NE, pertaining to, or resem- 
bling the plant mantlitis. In architecture, 
a border or flllet ornamented with the 

The acanthine garments of the an- 
cients were made of the down of the 
thistle, or embroidered with represent- 
ations of the acanthus. 
Aca'nthink-gcm [yummi acaiithimim). 
Gum-acacia is sometimes so called, be- 
cause it is produced by a thorny tree, the 
acacia vera. 

AcA'NTHocErHAL\, an intestinal worm 
constituting a family of the order paren- 
chymata, and class enlozoa, and forming 
the genus echinorhynclnis, of Gmelin. The 
A. attach themselves to the intestines by 
a prominence armed with recurved spines, 
vhioh also appear to act as a proboscis : 
hence the name, ctxottdoi thorny ; M^Kkr,, 

Aca'sthomera, in entomology, a genus 
■belonging to the tribe of blapsides of La- 
treille; name, fVom etxxvdoi, spinous. 

Aca'nthopoda, a tribe of coleopterous 
insects composed of the single genus he- 
tenxenis, of Bosc; remarkable for their 
hroadish flattened legs armed exteriorly 
■with spines: whence the name, a^aty^ot, 
a spine, and trov;, a. foot. 

Aca'nthopteka, in entomology, a genus 
belonging to the tribe of cerambycini of 
l^atreille. It comprises the callichroma, 
purptiriceniis, and steneconis, of Dejean ; 
name, etxxvBct. & spine, tiixA s-Tt'sv, a twijf. 
AcaNthoptertgii, the first and by far 
the most numerous division of fishes ; 
distinguished by having the rays of their 
ftns bony, and many of them prickly at 
the extremities : whence their name, 
ecxavdcc, a spine, and !m;f|, a Jin. The 
perch is an example of this order. 

Aca'xthopus, in entomology, a genus of 
hymenoptera, belonging to the apis of 
Linuieus, and apiariee of Latreille. 

AcA'vTHoscEr.Lis, a genus of coleopte- 
rous insects ; anterior tibiae strongly 
palmated : posterior short, broad, arched, 
and spinciu* : whence the name, ttxetiQet, 
a spine, &c. 

AcA'NTHts,from«jsa»</ef, prickly. Lat. 
1. In liotanij, the plaut bear's breech or 
brank ursine ; a genus of about ten spe- 
cies, receiving their name from their 
prickles : class didynamia, order angio- 
tpei-mia. The acanthus mollis is that which 
was formerly used in medicine: the branca 
vrni. It is a native of Italy, Sicily, and 

the Archipelago. 2. In architecture, 

the leaf wliich forms one of the orna- 
ment* of the Corinthian capital. The 
bomoQT of introducing it is ascribed, by 


Vitruvius, to Callimachus, who wa« by 
the Athenians called x»Totnxof {.^^ &^t 
of artists). 

Aca'nticone, a sub-species of prisma- 
toidal augite, occurring chiefly In primi- 
tive rocks, as micaceous schist, gneiss, 
&c. tt is known also as pistacite and 

ACAPATLT, the iva frxitescens, a corym- 
biferous plant which produces the Mexi- 
can quinquina. 

Aca'pnon, from eoiatrrvof, unsmoked. 
1. Honey taken from the hive without 
smoking the bees. — 2. The herb marjoram 
(which when burnt gives out no smoked 

Aca'rda, a genus of fossil moUusca, be- 
longing to the order of testaceous ace- 
phala. The shells are thick, and of a 
solid or porous tissue. M. de Lamarck 
makes a family of tliis genus, which he 
calls radiata. They are now usually di- 
vided into radiolites, sphterulitea, hippti- 
rites, batholithes. 

Aca'rnar, a bright star of the first 
magnitude in Eridanus. 

Ac.*.'rpia, from uxoc^TOi, unfruitfVd. 
Unfruitfulness. .<<rtir?)i'>j(s, sterile, barren. 

Ac'arcs, the tick or mite ; a numerous 
genus of insects of the order aptera, or 
those which have no wings. The acari 
are oviparous, have eight legs, two eyes, 
and two-jointed tentacula. Name, from 
ctxii^ai, not divisible, as though the in- 
sect were too small to be divided. In the 
system of Cuvier, the acarus belongs to 
the family of hoMra, class arachnides,s.-ndL 
order trachearee. Linnieus enumerates 
35, and Gmelin 82 species of acari. They 
are excessively numerous, and most of 
them so small as to be almost microsco- 
pical. They abound everywhere, even 
attached to the bodies of other insects, 
and have been found in the brain and eye 
of man. 

Acatalec'tic, from uxxTxXzxrof, not 
defective in number. In ancient poetry, 
applicable to such verses as have all their 
regular feet and syllables, e. g. the first 
two of the following lines of Horace are 
acatalectic, and the hist catalectic: — 
Solvitur acris hyems grata vice 
Veris et Favoni ; 
Trahuntque siccas machinse carinns. 

Acatalep'sia, from a,, neg. and xxrat 
Xetju^avM, to comprehend. Acatalepsy. 
In medicine, uncertainty in the prognosis 
or diagnosis of diseases. 

Acatalepsy, from acata!e}>sia, (q. T.). 
In ancient philosophy, the impossibility 
of comprehending something. The dis- 
tinguishing tenet of the pyrrhonists was, 
their asserting an absolute acatalepsy 
regarding everytniag. 

Acata'posis, from ce,neg. and »«ir»TiM>, 
to swallow. Difficult deglutition 




AcATBx'asu, from at»a.6a^t(, impure. 
Acatharsy ; an impurity of the blood, &c. 

Aca-'ticm, in archcpology , a kind of boat 
used in military affairs. 

Acx'cLisE, Aca'ulose, Of Aca'dlous, in 
botany, plants which have no caulit or 

AcA'oLis.from ekxetvkot, without stem 
Stemless : applied in botany, to those plants 
whose flowers are without stalks, and 
rest on the ground, e. g. the Carline thistle 
fthe term is not to b« too rigidly under- 

AcAWKUiA, the Ceylonese name of the 
root of thf cph'joxylum serpentinum . It is 
used in India as a;i antidote against the 
bite of serpent.>. 

Accapita'rk, in old lair-books, the act of 
becomin.i? Tassal to a lord; or of yielding 
him obedience : hence, 

Acca'pitcji, money paid by a vassal 
upon his admission to a feu : from accapi- 
tare, (q. v.1 ft is also Uiod for the relief 
due to the chief lords. 

Acce'das An Curiam , in law, a writ lying 
where the man has received, or fears, 
false judgment ia aa inferior court. It is 
issued by the chancery, and directed to 
the sheriff. 

Acce'lerate, Lat. accelero (of ad and 
celero, to hasten), to quicken motion; to 
add to natural progression. In mechanics, 
accelerated motion is that in which the 
velocity is continually increasing, from 
the continued action of the force. Uni- 
formly accelerated motion is that in which 
the velocity increases equally in equal 
times; e. g. a new impression being made 
upon a falling body at every instant, by 
the continued action of gravity, and the 
effect of the former still remaining, the 
velocity continually and uniformly in- 
creases. Accelerated tnoiion is the opposite 
of retarded mutiuji. 

Accelera'tion, from accelerate (q. v.), 
the act of increasing vel'xjity ; the state of 
being quickened in motion ; the opposite 
of retardation. The acceleration of the moon 
is her increase of mean motion from the 
sun, compared with the diurnal motion 
of the earth, being about 10" in a hundred 
years. This arises from the action of the 
sun upon the moon, combined with the 
variation of the eccentricity of the earth's 
orbit. The acceleration of a planet is when 
the real diurnal motion exceeds the mean 
diurnal motion ; and vice tersa, a planet is 
said to be retarded when the mean diurnal 
motion exceeds the real diurnal motion. 
These inequalities of a planet's motions 
arise from the change in the distance of 
the planet from the sun. The diunuil 
acceleration, as applied to the fixed stars, 
is the time by which they, in one revolu- 
tion, anticipate the mean diurnal revolu- 
tion of the sun ; that is. a star rises or sets 

about 3' .56" sooner each day. This appa- 
rent acceleration is owing to the motion 
of the earth in its orbit, which is at the 
rate of 59' 8j" a day. Therefore, to find 
the acceleration we have this proportion 
— 360» : 59' 8j" : : 24h : 3' 56" nearly. la 
physiology and patliology, the term is ap - 
plied to an increased activity of the 
functions, but particularly of the circula- 
tion and respiration. 

Acce'sdentes, or Acce'nsores, from 
accendo, to brighten {canxis, white). In 
the Romish church, a lower rank of mi- 
nisters whose business it is to trim the 
candles and tapers. — Lat. 

Acce'ndon es, or Acce'ijoses, troTn accen- 
do, to kindle. In Roman antiquities, ofhcers 
in the gladiatorial schools, whose business 
it was to animate the combatants during 
the fight.— Xat. 

Ac'cEN T, Lat. accoitiis, from ad and caiuj, 
to sing. In a general sense, a tone or 
manner of speaking peculiar to some 
country, or province, e. g. the Scotch ac- 
cent, &c. 2. In elocution, a particular 

force or stress of the voice in pronouncing 
certain syllables of words, which distin- 
guish them from the others. 

Accent is of two kinds, primary and 
secondary, as in as'pira'tion. In pro- 
nouncing this word, we observe that 
the first and third syllables are distin- 
guished: the third by a full sound, 
which constitutes the primary accent ; 
the first by a degree of force in the 
voice which is less than that of the 
primary accent, but evidently greater 
than that which falls on the second or 
fourth syllables. "When the full accent 
falls on a vowel, that vowel has its long 
sound, as in locfal ; but when it falls on 
an articulation or consonant, the pre- 
ceding vowel is short, as in habit. 
Accent alone regulates English verse. — 

3. A mark or character used in writing, 
to direct the stress of the voice in pronun- 
ciation. "\Ve have three kinds of accents ; 
the acute ('), the grave C),and the cir- 
cumflex (* or "). The first shows that 
the voice is to be raised ; the second that 
it is to be depressed ; and the third, that 
the vowel is to be uttered with an undu- 

I lating sound, between high and low. 

4. In music, a certain modulation or 
warbling of the sounds, for the purpose 
of variety of expression. The principal 
accent falls on the first nofc in the bar, 
but the third place in common time re- 
quires also an accent. 

Acce'ntor, from accent, (q. v.) In the 
old music, one of the three singers in 
parts, or the person who song the pre- 
dominant part in a trio. 

AccE'PTANCE.from accept, iq.y.i 1. The 
receiving of a bill of exchange In such » 
way as to bind the acceptor to mike pay- 



A C 

mrat of the same. This must be br 
exprfM words ; and to charge the drawer 
with costs in case of non-payment the 
acceptance must be in writiiip, under, 
across, or on the back of the bill. Any- 
thing tending to show that the paity 
means to make himself liable for the 
amount of the bill (as the signature of the 
initials, or making other marks upon the 
bill, or even keeping the bill longer than 
usual), is, in law, an acceptance. The 
common mode of acceptance is to write 
the word " accepted," and subscribe the 

name. 2 In mercantile language, a bill 

of exchange accepted; e. g. " I took Ids 

acceptance in payment." 3. In common 

law, the tacitly agreeing to some act done 
by another, which might have been de- 
feated without such acceptance; e. g. a 
bishop's taking rent reserved on a lease 
made by his predecessor, is an acceptance 
of the terms of the lease, and bars him 

from bringing the writ ctii in vita. 

4. In the Romish church, the receiving of 
the pope's constitutions. 

Accep'tbr, or Accep'tor, in mercantile 
affairs, the person who accepts a bill of 

AccEPTiLATioN, among civilians, the 
discharging of a debt without receiving 
payment : compounded of accep<«»», some- 
thing received, and latio, from /ero, to 
take away. 

Accession, from access, a coming to. 

1. In lau), the property acquired in ac- 
cessories is acquired by the right of ac- 
cession, e. g. the calf of a cow becomes 
the property of the owner of the cow. 

2. In medicine, the commencement of a 
disease ; applied chiefly to fevers having 
paroxysms or exacerbations. 

Ac'cEssoRi, or ACCESSARY, Lat. aceesso- 
rius (from accedo, to add to), something 
that accedes — ^not principal ; aiding in cer- 
tain acts or effects in a secondary manner ; 
e.g. accessory sounds in music. 1. In late, 
one who is guilty of a felony, not by com- 
mitting the offence in person, or as a 
principal, but by advising or commanding 
another to commit the crime, or by con- 
cealing the offender after the crime is 
committed. There may be accessories in 

all felonies, but not in treason. 2. In 

anatomy, tXie accessory nerves {jHtr accesso- 
ri«m),a pair of nerves of the neck, which, 
arising from the spinal marrow in the 
rertebrae of the neck, enter the cranium 
of the great foramen of the occipital bone, 
and then passing out again with the par 
vagum, are distributed into the muscles 
of the neck and shoulders. — Accessorius 
himbalis, the sacro-lumbalis. 3. In paint- 
ing and scxdptxtre, those parts of a design 
which are added merely for ornament. 

Ac'ciDENT, from Lat. accidens, falling {ad 
and eado, to fall). 1. In logic, (1.) What- 
•T«r does not essentially belong to a thing, 

e. g. the money in a man's pocket. '3.) 
Such properties in any subject as are noS 
essential to it, e.g. whiteness to pap<»r. 
(3.) In opposition to substance, all qua- 
lities whatever are called accidents, e. g. 

sweetness, softness, &c. 2. In grammar, 

something belonging to a word in com- 
position, but not essential to it, e.g. gen- 
der, number, &c. 3. In heraldry, a point 

or mark not essential to a coat of arms. 

1. Per accidens denotes what does not 

follow from the nature of a thing, but 
from some accidental qualities of it; it 
stands opposed to perse, which denotes 
the naiure or essence of a thing ; e. g. 
" fire burns per se, but a piece of iron burns 
per accidens." 

Accidental, Lat. flcfjrf«i<aZw, happening 
nnexpectedly. In physics, the term is ap- 
plied to that effect which proceeds from a 
cause occurring by rtc«de/it, without being 
subject to general laws or regular returns. 
In this sense accidental is opposed to con- 
stant ; e. g. the sun's variation of altitude 
is the constant cause of heat in summer and 
cold in winter; but thunder, wind, rain, 

snow, &c., are accidental causes. 2. In 

perspective, that point in the horizontal line 
where the projections of all lines parallel 
among themselves meet the perspective 

plane, is called the accidental point. 3. 

In optics, those colours which depend upon 
the affects of the eye, in contradistinction 
to those which belong to the light itself, 

are termed accidental colours. i. In 

music, the term accidental is applied to 
such sharps, flats, and naturals, as do not 
occur in the clef, and which imply some 
change of key or modulation different 
from that in which the piece began. 

AcoiPENSER. See Acipenser. 

Accip'itres, from accipiter, a hawk'from 
ad and capio, to seize), that order of birds 
of prey which are distinguished by their 
hooked beaks and talons, 'iliey form two 
families, the diurnal and the nocturnal : 
the vulture and hawk are examples of tlue 
first, and the owl of the second. 

AcciPiTRiNA, hawkweed {accipiter, a 

AcciriTRiNE, rapacious; belonging to 
the order of accipitres. 

Acci.AMATFON, 'Lo.t. acclamatio (from ad 
and damo, to cry out) , anciently, a formula 
of words, uttered with vehemence, some- 
what resembling a song, sometimes accom- 
panied with applause given by the hands, 
and usually in approbation of some indi- 
vidual or performance. The acclamations 
were ecclesiastical, military, nuptial, the- 
atrical, &c. : they were musical and 
rhythmical. At first, the acclamiitions of 
the Roman theatres were confused shouts ; 
but in process of time they a.ssumed 
a regular form, and were performed by p 
band instructed for that purpose. Wheu 
N'uro played in the theatre, he had te 




attendance an acclamation band of 5000 
•oldiers to chant his praise, which the 
spectators were obliged to repeat in 
chorus. Acclamations, at first practised 
in the theatre, passed to the senate, and 
at length into the acts of councils and 
the ordinary assemblies of the church. 
Sermons were applauded with hands an* 
feet, by leaping? up and down, and shout- { 
Ing " orthodox," by the waving of hand- 
kerchiefs, &c. The acclamation of the 
Jews was " llosanna;" of the Greeks, 
AyaOij T^xi (pf'Od luck) ; of the Komans, 
I>ii te uolis sei-vent (may the Gods preserve 
you!}. In the famous French Conven- 
tion of 1792, decrees were voted by accla- 

Accm'matize (Ft. acdimater) ,io accus- 
tom to the temperature of a foreign climate. 

Accu'vis, Lat. from clivits, an ascent. 
In anatomy a muscle of the belly: named 
from the oblique ascent of its fibres. 

AccoLi'DE, fi-om Lat. ad and colltim, 
the neck. An ancient mode of conferring 
knighthood, by the king's laying his arnx 
about the young knight's neck, and em- 
bracing him. 

Accoi,i,k'e, in heraldry, 1. The same 
with aecolade. 2. Two things joined to- 
gether. .3. Animals with collars or crowns 
about their necks. 4. Batons or swords 
placed saltierwise behind the shield. 

ACCOMMODA.TION, from aceommodate. In 
a enmmercial sense, a loan of money. An 
accommodation bill or note, in the lan- 
guage of bankers, means one drawn for 
the purpose of borrowing its amount, in 
contradistinction to a note or bill received 
in payment of goods. The term is also 
used of a note lent merely to accommodate 
the borrower, and of one given instead of 
a loan of money. 

AccoMPANi.MENT,from Lat. ad and eom- 
pagvw, to join (Fr. accompagnemeiit). 
Something that attends as a circumstance, 
or is addfd as ornament to the principal 
thing, or for svTnmetry ; e.g. in music, the 
instruments which accompany the voice 
to make the music more full: in painting, 
the dogs, guns, &c. of a hunting piece, or 
the warlike instruments accompanytny the 
portrait of a military character. 

AccoMPMCE, Fr. accomplice, from Lat. 
ad-complicatus from, coji and joiico, to fold). 
An associate in crime : generally applied 
to such as are admitted to give evidence 
against their fellow-criminals. By the 
law of Scotland accomplices cannot be 
prosecuted till the principal offenders are 

Accord, Fr. accord, agreement. In 
painting, the harmony which prevails 
among the lights and shadows of a pic- 
ture. In lato, an agreement between 
parties in controversy, by which satis- 
f*rtJon for an injury is stipulated, and 
wiacn, whon executed, bar* a suit. — 

Blackstone. In music, the same with «»•- 
cord (q.v.). This work i« derived by some 
from Lat. cor, c<n-dis, the heart. In some 
of its applications it comes naturally from 

AccoR'nioN , from accord, a small musical 
instrument, the sounds of which are pro- 
duced by the action of bellows upon 
•trings made of German silver. — Crabb. 

Accouchement, the French word for 
the act of parturition. 

AccoucHEKR, the French word for a 

Account, Fr. ccnie, or Ajcu-ip*. Fr. 
compte, from Lat. computo, to reckon' In 
a general, any arirhnietical compu- 
tation. Account signifies more strictly , in 
mercantile atfaii-s, a single entry or state- 
ment of particular debts and credits : in 
the plural it is u«ed to denote the books 
containing such entries. A. tcrit of account , 
in law, is a writ which the plaintiff 
brings demanding that the defendant 
shall render )»^ account, or show good 
cause to the contrary. I'his is also called 
an action of account. Commissioners of 
public accounts, are individuals who exa- 
mine and report the receipts, issues, and 
expenditure of the public moneys. Cham- 
ber of accounts, in the old French polity, 
was a sovereign court answering to our 

Account' ANT, one skilled in acco^mts ; 
more generally, a person Mho keeps ac- 
counts ; a book-keeper in a public office ; 
e. g. an officer in the court of chancery, 
who receives money, and pays it to the 
bank, is called accountant-geiural. 

AccouPLEMENT, In Carpentry, a tie o» 
brace, and sometimes the whole work 
when framed. 

AccaETioN, Lat. accretio, increase {ad 

and cre^co, to grow). 1. Growth by the 

accession of new parts. 2. The growing 

together of parts naturally separate ; e. g. 
the fingers or toes. In law, property ac- 
quired in something not occupied, by its 
adhering to or following another thing 
already occupied ; e. g. a legacy left to 
two persons, and one of them dies before 
the testator, the legacy devolves to the 
survivor by right of accretion. Alluvion 
is another instance of accretion. 

Accroche' (Anglice, accroach), in he- 
raldry, denotes that one thing is hooked 
in another. Fr. croc. 

Accrued, in heraldry, a fuU blown tree. 

Accumulation, from cumulus, aheap. 
A collecting together. In law, the con- 
currence of several titles to the same 
thing, or of several proofs to make out 
one fact. In ttniversities, the accumulafion 
of degrees means the taking of srveral of 
them together, or at shorter intervals 
than the rules allow. 

Accusation, Lat. ad-eusatio^froracataa, 
blame, <&c.) In 2at«, a declaration charging 


15 ACE 

a person with something punishable. 
IVomoters of accusations must find secu- 
rity to pursue them; and failing, must 
pay damages to the accused, and a fine to 
the sovereign. 

Accc's^Ti vE, Lat. aeciisntivtis. In grajn- 
tiiar, that case of nouns, on wliich the 
action of the verb falls : called iu Eugiish 
grammar the olgectiie c#,<. 

Ace, Lat. as. 1. A unit : e. g. a single 
point on a card or die, or the card or die 

so marked. 2. A trifle ; e. g. he would 

not abate au ace of his demand. 

Acentric, from «, not, and centric; not 

AcEru'A^LA, from « without, and xt- 
^»\r„ head. 1. A class of moUusca, 
Laving no apparent head, but merely a 
mouth, which is always edentated, con- 
cealed between the folds of their mantle. 
This mantle is generally provided with a 
';alcareous bivalve, and sometimes mxilti- 
valve shell. All the acephala are aquatic : 

the oyster is an example. 2. An order 

of insects in some systems of entomology. 

AcEPH'.iLA. Nu'da (naked acephala), an 
order of mollusca, in which the shell of 
the ordinary acephala is replaced by a 
cartilaginous substance sometimes so thin 
as to be as flexible as a membrane. The 
order consists of two families, the tegre- 
gata and the aggregata. 

AcEPHALi, from otxifix,\o?, headless. 
\n' history, a party in the reign of James I. 
who acknowledged no government, civil 
or ecclesiastical. 

AcErH.».'LiA, from «.xi^oi,\o;, without 
head. In medicine, that variety of partial 
agenesia which consists in absence or im- 
perfection of the head. 

AcEPHALOBRAcn'iA, from KxtOocXog and 
/S»«;t'*"'> *^** species of agenesia charac- 
terised by absence of head and arms. 

Acephalobrach'ius, from axE^aXof and 
fi'ciX'^'' * foetus without head or arms. 

Acephalocar'dia, from ecxiC(x->.c; and 
xa«3<«. the heart. That species of age- 
nesia characterised by absence of head 
and heart. 

Acefhalocar'oics, from etxipocXoi and 
xxfihiet, a foetus without head or heart. 

Acephalochi'rcs, from xxiatuXoi and 
^(le, a hand. A foetus bom without head 
or hands. 

Acephaloctst', lAt. acephalocystis, from 
ecxi^x>.ef and xuo-tk, a bladder. The 
headless cyst : the name given by Laennec 
to the visceral hydatid of Linnieus. 

Acephalogas'ter, from axiffaXej and 
yata-Tr,f. the belly. A foetus, defective of 
the head, chest, and superior parts of the 

AcsrH^LOOA*TE'RiA,from aKi:x>.0{ and 

-yttcrr^, that species of agenesia which 
consists in a defective formation of the 
head and superior parts of the body. 

Aceph'alocs, applied, 1. to animals 
which belong to the class acephala (q. v.. ; 
2. to a lusus natune born without head. 

Acephalo'phora, from otxi^xXoi and 
^($«. a class of mollusca in some systems. 

Acephalopo'dia, from ttxi^»\«t ^^^ 
Tov!, a foot. That species of partial age- 
nesia in which the head and feet are 
wanting or defective. 

Acepbalopo'divs, from oc.x%^a,).Ci and 
iretif , a foetus bom witliout head or feet. 

Acefhalora'ceia, from oixi^ctXcf and 
fetxis, the spine. That species o4 agene- 
sia in which the head and vertebral co- 
Ixxmn are wanting. 

Acephalos'tomcs, from cixi^xXos and 
CTOfMx,, a mouth. An acephalous foetus, 
having at its superior part an aperture 
resembling a mouth. 

Acepbalotbora'cia, from «%(i^«X6; and 
fliijaej, the chest. Tliat species of partial 
agenesia which consists in the absence of 
head and chest. 

Acepbalotho'rcs, from etxi^tiXtt and 
6u'u.l, a foetus born without head and 
chest. • 

Acepb'aics, from xxK^xXo; , headless. 
An obsolete name of the ta?nla or tape- 
worm, which was supposed to have no 
head. As an adjective, the Lat. form of 
acejihalous, (q. v.) Also a verse defective 
in the beginning. 

Acer, the generic name of the maple- 
tree ; class octandria, order monogynia ; 
name, from acer, sharp, sour ; Celtiov ac, 
on account of the hardness of the wood, 
which was employed in fabricating spears, 
pikes, &c. There are 24 species, two of 
which are natives of Britain — the syca- 
more {A. pseu'do-pla'tanus) , and the com- 
mon maple (A campestre). The M-ood of 
sycamore is chiefly used in ttimery. 
" Acer tjV^«Hi(im<m odoratum, an old name 
of the liquid amber. 

Ac ERAS, the generic name of the man- 
orchis; a hardy perennial belonging to 
Britain: class g!/nandria,oTAeT tnonandria. 
There is only one species, the A. anthro- 
pophora, which inhabits dry or clayey 
pastures. >'ame from a., without, and 
xi^oti, a horn; in allusion to the absence 
of the spur from the lip, which is found 
in the orchis proper. 

A'cERATE, in chemistry, a sartt formed 
with the aeerxc acid and a base. 

Acerb, Lat. acerbiis, from a<er, sharp. 
Taste combining acidity and astringency 
or roughness ; e. g. that of an unripe sloe. 

Aceric Acid Is obtained from juice ot 
I the maple tree iocer'j. 




Acfri'n.e, a natural oraer of dicotyle- 
donous plants; mostly trees of the tem- 
perate parts of the northern hemisphere. 
The leaves are generally simple and lobed ; 
Jlowers often polygamous; fruit a double 
samara, each 1-celled, with one or two 
erect seeds ; style 1, stigmas 2 ; petals about 
8, inserted in the disk; calyx 4-5-9-partite. 
Typical genus acer. 

AcERo'sE, or AczRors, Lat. acerosits, 
chaffy lacus, chatf,;. In botany, leaves 
■which are linear, needle-shaped, every- 
•whew of an equal breadth, mostly acute 
and n^Ld, e. g. the leaves of the fir-tree 
(_pinus sylvestris). 

Acer'ra, in architerture, vases repre- 
senting those in which the ancients burned 
incense before a dead body until the 
period of its inhumation. The term is 
corrupted from arcerra, a private altar 
(aree and ara). 

AcEs'CEST, Lat. acescens, turning sour. 
That has a tendency to become sour by 
spontaneous decomposition. It sometimes 
means " sUahtly sour," but this is more 
correctly expressed by acidulous. 

A'CEsis, a cure or remedy, from emwif. 
A name of the herb water-sage. 

Aces'ta., from etxurros, diseases which 
arc easily cured. 

AcESTE, a species of papilio or butterfly, 
with subdentated wings, found in India. 

Aces'tis, a factitious chrysocoUa made 
of Cyprian verdigris, urine, and nitre. 

Acetab'ulum , Lat. from acetum, vinegar. 
(Among the Romans the aeetabulum was 
a cruse or saucer in which vinegar was 
held for table use. 1. In anatomy, a 
cavity of a bone formed for receiving the 
head of another bone, and thus named 
from its cup-like shape. It is used espe- 
cially for the OS innominatum, which 
receives the head of the thigh bone. 2. In 
hotany, (1.) used in the sense of cotyledon, 
(q. v.) (2.) " The trivial name of a species 
of peziza, the cup p^ziza. (3.) A species of 

lichen." 3. The lobes or cotyledons of 

the placenta in ruminating animals, have 

been called acetabida. 1^ The name has 

been given to the mouths of the uterine 
veins terminating in the placenta. 

A'cetart, I.rit. acetaria, from acetum, 

vinegar. 1. A salad. 2. An acid pulp, 

found in some fruits, especially the pear, 
round the core. 

A'cETATE, Lat. acetas, any salt formed 
by the union of acetic acid with a sali- 
fiable base, e. ?• noftate of potash (called 
also regenerated tartar, essential salt of wine, 
&c.) The acetates are all characterised 
•jy their sohibiJily in water; by the pun- 
gent smell of vinegar which they exhale 
on the affusion of sulphuric acid ; by their 
yielding, on distillation, pyroacetic spirit. 

AcE'Tir, from acer, sour. The acetic 
acid is vinegar (acetum), in a rery dilute 
and impure state. It i« the product of 

the acetous fermentation, and oxists, with 
potash, in the juices of a great many 
plants, and is generated during the de- 
structive distillation of most vegetable 
substances. It consists of three equi- 
valents of water, and four equivalents ot 

Acetifica'tion, from acetum, vinegar, 
and facio, to make. The operation of 
making vinegar. 


ttim, vinegar, and f4,iT^or, a measure. An 
instrument to ascertain the strength of 

A'cETiTE, a neutral salt formed by the 
acetous acid, with a salifiable base, e. g. 
acetite of copper, &c. See Acetous Acid. 

Acetone, the new chemical name of 
pyroacetic spirit. 

AcETO'sA, the trivial name of the herb 
garden sorrel {rumex acefosa). It is a 
hardy native perennial. Name from aceto, 
to be sour. 

Acetosel'la, the trivial name of the 
herb sheep's sorrel {rumex acetosclla). It 
is a hardy native perennial. Name from 

AcETocs, of or pertaining to vinegar 

Acetous Acid, chemists formerly sup 
posed that there was a difference between 
the acetic and the acetous acids ; the salts 
of the former were therefore called ace- 
ffl<e«,and those of the latter acetites. The 
distinction is without foundation ; the 
acids are one and the same. 

AcHAN, from eixce.*r,s, large. In medi- 
cine, a species of herpes. 

Acha'nia, a genus of "West Indian 
shrubs, containing three species. Class 
monadelphia, order pnlyandria. Name 
from ci,xot-vi» (from oe, priv. and xot,nu)y 
as the corolla does not open. 

Achahis'ton, from oe-x^po'Te;. invalu- 
able. A name of various sintidotes and 

Achates, the agate, so called from the 
river Achates, in which it was first found 
The word agate is a coiruption of achate 

AcHATiNA, a genus of land shells, chiefly 
found in Africa, where the animals which 
inhabit them are u.scd as food. They are 
the largest of land shells, and constitute 
the fla-st and tj-pical genus of achatina. 
The subgenera are the achatina (proper), 
cochlicopa, chacrospira, leucostoma, and 

AcHATiN.1:, a subtypical group of heli- 
cidee, or snails, representing iu their own 
family the zoophagus tr.bc. licsides the 
achatina, which is the first and typical 
genus, there are other four genera of this 
group — the bulimus, clausUia, helicijia,ajii 

AcHATiNZLLA, 8 subgeous of ac?Miituu 


These shells are Tery small, but remark- 
at>le for the beauty of their colours ; they 
are all Inliabitauts of the Pacific Islands, 
•wher« they are used as beadlllce orna- 

AcHER'NER, a star of the first magnitude 
in the southern extremity of the constel- 
lation Eridauus. 

ACHERSET, an ancient measure of corn, 
supposed to be about eight bushels. 

Acui'coLf M, the sudatorium of the an- 
cient baths. 

ACHILLEA, millefoil, yarrow ; a genus 
of plants of the class syngenetia, and order 
polyjamia tup^rfixMt. There are fifty-three 
species, all, with one exception, hardy 
perennials. Only three species are pecu- 
liar to Britain, — sueeze-wort {A. ptar^- 
mica), yarrow (A. miUefo'lium), woolly 
millefoil or yarrow (A. tomentosa) in 
meadows and pastures, and waysides. 
Name from Achilles, who is said to have 
made his tents of it. 

Achille'ios, a sort of sponge used by 
the ancients to make tents for wounds, 

Achilles. In anatomy, a strong tendon 
of the heel is called tendo A chillis. Fable 
says it by this tendon that Thetis, 
the mother of Achilles, helii hira when she 
dipped him in the river Styx, to render 
him invulnerable. 

AcHioTE, a name of the annotta tree 
{bixa orlfanal 

AcHiKiTE, "emerald malachite;" a mi- 
neral consisting of oxide of copper, car- 
bonate of lime, silica, and water. 

AcHi'ROPOETous, Gr. oL^eipoTTOtrjTO?, 
not made with hands. Achiropoetous 
paintings were certain pictures of Christ 
said to have been painted in a miraculous 

Ach'lys (X^v?). darkness. Any 
opacity of the cornea of the eye. 

ACH'MIT, a mineral of a brownish-black 
or reddish-brown colour. It is considered 
a bisilicate of soda. 

Achnodon'ton, a genus of plants of the 
class triundria, order digynia. There are 
three species, one of which belongs to 
Britain, the land A. (A. arenarium), a 
hardy annual. 

AcHOLous, Lat. acholxis, deficient in bile. 

A'CHOB, Gr. 'i\ujo- 1. A species of scald- 
head ; a disease which attacks the hairy 
scalp of the head, particularly of young 
children. It is called achor from the 
branny scales it throws off. 2. In my- 
thology, the god of flies, said to have been 
worshipped by the Cyreneans, to avoid 
being vexed by them. 

Acu'ras, a genus of shmbaceous plants 
of the class hexandria, order monogynia. 
In this country they are stove plants. 
The s»p<ita plum is the fruit of the West 
Indian species (A. sapota). 

Achromatic, from at nriT.aad xp^i^a, 



colour. " Without colour, a term applied 
to those telescopes formed by such a com- 
bination of lenses as sepc rates the various 
coloured rays of li^ht to equal angles of 
aivergency, at different angles of refrac- 
tion of the near ray, and thereby correct* 
in a great measure the optical aberration 
arising from the various colours of light. 

Achvran'thes, chaff flower (axvpov), 
chaff, and nv6o<;, a flower. The descrip- 
tive name of a genus of hot-house plants. 
C\as3 pentandria,ot<iefmonogynia. There 
are seven species. 

Acic'ULAR, from aacula, in the 8hap< ot 
a needle. Acicularly, needle-like. 

A'ciD, Lat. acidum, (Sax. aced, vinegar). 
In a popular sense, the word acid is 

synonymous with sotir ; but the term is 
applied in chemistry to several sub- 
stances which are not so. The general 
characteristic properties of acids are 
these, 1. Their taste Is generally sour, and 
In the stronger it is acrid and corrosive. 

i. They unite with water in almost 

any proportion, with a condensation of 

volume and evolution of heat. 3. They 

generally change the vegetable blues to a 
red. 4. They unite with the alkalies, 
earths, and metallic oxides in definite 
pror>ortion8, and form salts. This maybe 
reckoned their indispensable property. 

The salts produced by any acids which 
termin.ite in otis, have their termina- 
tion in ite, e. g. the combination of sul- 
phurous acid and potaaa is a sulphite of 
potassa; and when an acid whose name 
terminates in ic, enters into combina- 
tion, the salt produced has the termina- 
tion ate, e. g. sulphuric acid and potassa 
produce sulphate of potassa. Ic gene- 
rally indicates an acid with much 
oxygen, e. g. sulphuric acid : ous indi- 
cates a smaller quantity of oxjgen, e. g. 
sulphurous acid. J/ypo prefixed to the 
name indicates that the acid has a 
smaller quantity of oxygen than that 
to which the prefix is made, e. g. hypo- 
sulphuric acid, and hyposulphurous acid. 
Sub is occasionally employed to denote 
an intermediate degree of oxidation, 
e. g. subsulphurous acid, which contains 
less oxygen than sulphurous, and more 
than hyposulphurous acid. Per is used 
where acids have been found to contain 
mure oxygen than those whose names 
terminate in ic, e. g. perchloric acid. 
Hyper where a still larger quantity i» 
oliserved. Acids are usually divided 
into two classes, — oxacids and hydracids. 
The first class includes all those acid» 
which contain oxygen, and the second 
those which contain hydrogen. Thero 
are acids, howev r, which belong to 
neither of these classes. The term 
aqueous is now used to designate deflnito 
combiuatiouc with water: the term 


hydrate was formerly used in the same 

sense. We have also the composed 

terms bitiaqueovi, teraqneous, &c. 

Acidif'erous, from acidum and fero, 
containing acid. 

Acid'ifiable, from acidum and^, ca- 
pable of being converted into an acid. 
Substances with this property are called 
radicals, or acidijiahle bases. 

Acidification , the formation of an acid. 

Acidifying, that which combines with 
an acidifiable substance is called the acid- 
ifying principle, or acidifier. 

AciDiMETER, from acid and fjcir^ey. 
measure. An instrument to show the 
strength of acids. 

AciDiMETRY, the mea.surement of the 
strength of acids, by saturating a given 
weight of tliem ^^•ith an alkaline base. 
The quantity necessary is the measure of 
their strength. 

Acidulous, Lat. acidultis, somewhat 
acid ; sub-acid. Applied to salts in which 
the base is combined with such an excess 
of acid that they manifestly exhibit acid 

AciLius, a genus of coleopterous insects 
of the tribe of hydrocanthari of Latreille. 
Name from ciliwn, in reference to the 
hairy elytra of the females. 

AciNACiroRM, Lat. acinacifomtis,fTOva. 
aeinaces, a cimeter, and forma, form. 
Cimeter-sliaped, applied to leaves, one 
edge of which is straight and thick, and 
the other curved and thin. 

A'ciN I , plural of acinus Granulations ; 
compound berries. 

AciNo'pus, a genus of insects belonging 
to the ti-ibe of carabici, of Linnaeus. Name 
from acinus and pes, which is in some 
measure descriptive. 

A'ciNos, the generic name of the com- 
mon basil-thyme {thymus acinos. — Lin.) 
Class didynamia, order gymnospermia. 
"Name, etKivo?, ab ««»j, acies." 

A'ciNosE, from acinus, granular. A t»- 
riety of iron ore found in masses, and 
commonly lenticular. Col. generally 
brownish red ; lust, metallic ; text, gra- 
nular; brittle. 

A'ciNus, Lat. from oixivof, a grape. 
Each part of a compound berry contain- 
ing a seed, e. g. the blackberry "has many 
acini united. The term is used in oppo- 
sition to bacccB, or such berries as grow 
single. 2. A genus of plants of the class 
didynamia, and order gymiiospermia. 

A'ciPENSER, a genus of fishes of the 
order sturiones or chmidropterygii branchiis 
liberis (i. e. with free branchije). The 
sturgeon, sterlet, and paddle-fish of the 
>rississippi, are examples. Acipetiser, or 
9<-cipenser, is the ancient name; sturio 
{■whence sturgeon) is the modem. 

AciTi.1, a name of the water-hare, or 
CTcat crested grebe or direr. 

18 ACO 

Acknowledgment, confession. In late, 
a declaration or avowal of ones own act, 
to give it legal validity, e. g. the acknow- 
ledgment of a deed before a proper officer. 
Acknowledgmmt-money , in some parts of 
England, is a sum paid by tenants on the 
death of their landlords, as an acknotc- 
ledgment of their new lords. 

Acme, from xx/xr,, the top or highest 
point. In medicine, the height or crisis of 
a disease. Old medical writers divide the 
progress of disease into four stages : — 1 
a^X'^' the beginning; 2. avap«/r/f, the 
increase; 3. ccxf^tTi, the height, or ma tu- 
rity ; 4. v<i^ix.xu,v,, the decline. 

Acmel'la, a genus of plants of the class 
syngenesia, and order polygamia superjlua. 
There are three species, all annuals ;" two 
natives of South America ; one Mauritius 
(a stove plant). 

Ac'mite, a mineral of a brownish-black 
colour, opaque, and brittle ; fracture im- 
perfect conchoidal. Its constituents are 
silica, 5325 ; oxide of iron, 3123 ; soda- 
104, with traces of oxide of manganese 
and lime. It resembles paratomous 
augite-spar in a remarkable degree. Lo- 
cality, Eger, in Norway, where it is found 
imbedded in granite. Name from eixfjuni, 
a point, from the form of its crystals. 

Ac'na, or Ac'ne, from ee^ws. An erup- 
tion of hard, inflamed tubercles, on the 
face, wliioh are sometimes permanent for 
a considerable time, and sometimes sepa- 
rate very slowly. 

Acnes'tis (eixme-Tts), that part of the 
spine, in quadrupeds, between the shotii- 
der-blades and the loins. 

AcN i'da, Tirginian or bastard hemp , a 
genus of plants of the class dio'cia, and 
order hexandria. Locality, North Ame- 
rica. There is only one species. A hardy 

Aco'loqy, Lat. accHogia, from ecxe;, » 
remedy, and y.oyoi, doctrine. The doc- 
trine of remedies; tisually restricted to 
surgical remedies. 

Acolu'thia (etxefievdta,) , the 8er\-ice in 
the Greek church, or the book whick 
contains it. 

Ac'cLYTE, or Acol'othist, from eui0- 
XevBii- In the ancient church, a subor- 
dinate officer who trimmed the lamps, 
prepared the elements for sacraments, 
waited on the bishops, &c. An officer of 
a similar kind is still employed in the 
Romish church. 

AcoN, an instrument, resembling the 
discus, used in ancient exercises ; also 
the name of an ancient order of knight 

Aco'ndtlous, or Acondtiose, Lat. Ofoti- 
(?i/h«, without joint; applied to the stullu 
of plants which have no joints. 




AcoNiTA, a poiBonous Tegetsble prinoi- 
ple extracted from aconitmn. 

Aconite, the herb wolfs bane, particu- 
larl/ the species monk's-hood {aconitum 

AcoNiTiNE, the narcotic principle of the 
aconite. It is uncrj-stallisable, alkaline, 
inodorous, little soluble In water, but 
readily so in either alcohol or ether. It 
combines with the acids, and forms un- 
crystaliisable salts. It may be obtained 
either In a granular white substance, or 
as a colourless transparent mass baring a 
glassy lustre 

Aconitum, wolPs bane ; a genus of hardy 
perennial plants, containing about forty- 
five species, most of which are poisonous. 
Cl&ss pol,vandria , order trigj/nia. Locality, 
all countries of Europe. Name. aKOVLTOv, 
from a»covouD, of aKOiv, a dart, because 
the ancients used Its Juice for the purpoae of 
poisoning their darts. 

AcoN'iiAS {a-KomicK;, from axovriov, 
a dart). 1. A species of African serpent 
called darttnaie, or jaculum, from its 

manner of darting on its prey. 2. A 

comet or meteor resembling the serpent. 

^•O'PIC (aiforrticos), preventing or re- 
mMying weariness. 

A'coE, Lat. from ac«o, to be sour. Aci- 
dity ; sourness in the 'stomach. 

Aco'ria, from a.KO0O<;, not sitisfled. 
Canine appetite; a diseased desire for 
food or drink. 

A'CORN, the fruit of the oak ; an oval 
nut which grows in a rough permanent 
cup. Name, from Sax. aec, or ac, oak, 

and corn, a grain. 2. In nautical Ian- 

fftuige, a small ornamental piece of wood 
of a conical shape, fixed on the point of 
the spindle above the vane, on the mast 
head, to keep the vane from being blown 

off. 3. In concholo<jy, the lepas, a genus 

of shells of several species found on the 
British coasts. The shell is multivalvular, 
unequal, and fixed by a stem. It is always 
found fixed to some solid body. 

A'coRUS, aromatic calamus, sweet flag 
or sweet rush or sedge. A eeuus of hardy 
perennial plants of three species, belong- 
ing to the class hexandria, and order 
monogynia. Name, aKopos, from topr/, 
the pupil of the eye, from its being sup- 
po^ed good for disorders of the eyes. 
There. is only one British species, common 
in the middle and south-eastern counties 
of • England, and watery places on the 
banks of rivers, *c. 2. In natural his- 
tory, a blue coral found on the coasts of 
Africa. It grows in the form of a tree on 
a r>>cky bottom. 

Acotyle'don, from a, without, and 
Kr>TvKt,6u}v. A plant whose seed is not 
furnished with lobes or cotyledons. In 
the uaturai system of Jussieu, the acoty- 

' ledonii form a class which eorrespondi 
with the cryptogam!* of Llnnseus. 
I AcoTTLE'DONOi'S, not having cotyledont, 
or seed lobos. 

I AcocMETER, from aKOVbi, to iear, and 
[ fAfTpoi', a measure. An Instrument for 
estimating the extent of the sense of 

I AcocsMATics, AKOvafiariKoi. In 
' antiquitiet, disciples of Pythagoras, who had 
not finished their five years of probation. 
I Aco'csTic, from aKOUjTiico?, (from 
I aKOvto, to hear). Relating to hearing. 
Acoustic duct, in anatomy, the meatus 
auditorius, or external passage of the ear. 

AcouMic nerve, the ponio mollis, the 

immediate or>!an of hearin . An acouttie 
medicine is one used far disorders of the 
sen.«e of hearing. Acotutic iiutrumentt, 
such as produce, convey, or concentrate 
j sound, e. g. the speaking trumpet. Acoustic 
vessels, in ancient theatres, were braaen 
j tubes or vessels shaped like a bell, to 
' propel the voice of the actors, so as to 
render them audible at a great dL<!tance. 
I , Acoustics, the science which treats of 
I the natu-e, phenomena, and laws of 
sound. The science is sometimes divided 
I into diacoustics, which explains the pro- 
> perties of sounds coming immediate:/ 
from the sonorous body to the ear : and 
I catacouttics, which treats of reflected 

Sound is the result of vibratory mo- 
tions produced in bodies, and trans- 
mitted to the ear through the air (or 
any other body in cont tct with the ear). 
The intensity increa-es or diminishes 
as the elasticity of the air increases or 
diminishes. If the impulses from the 
sonorous body be repeated continuously, 
and at shorter intervals than the ear 
can attend to them Individually, tone is 
produced, and this Is grave or sharp, 
according as there are many or few la 
a given time. The sudden termination 
of the impulses produces noise. The 
shock which causes the sensation of 
sound i^preads somewhat as a wave 
spreads in water, with a strength de- 
creasing in the inverse ratio of the 
square of the distance. The velocity is 
usually estimated at 1143 feet per second, 
but the latest experiments make it 
1120 feet. Sound is reflected from 
smooth surfaces, hence ec>ioes, &c. 
Acquest, Lat. acguisitus. In law, some- 
thing acquired by purchase, in contradis- 
tinction to what is acquired by inherit- 

Acqui'rement, from acquire, Lat. ae- 
quiro. Something attained, and which 
is in a degree permanent. It denotes 
especially personal attainments, in oppo- 
sition to material or external things 
gained, which an more usually etilei 

c 2 


acquisitions. A mere temporary possession 
is not an acquirement, but something 
joined, obtained, or proctired. 

Acuuit'tal, from Fr. acquitter (It. qui- 
tare, to remit, forj^ive, remove). A judi- 
cial deliverance from the charge of offence, 
as by verdict of a jury, or sentence of a 
court. The acquittal of a principal ope- 
rates as an acquittal of accessories. 

Acquittance, from acquit. 1. A dis- 
charge or release from a debt. 2. The 

•writing which is evidence of a discharge, 
e. g. a receipt in full which bars a further 

KCV.1B.K, a genus of butterfly (lepidoptera) 
of the diurnous family. — Fabricitis. 

Acra'lea, from axpos, extreme. Any 
extreme parts of the body, e. g. the legs, 
arms, &c. 

AcRANY, Lat. acrania, from «j«wey, 
defect of the cranium. 

Agra's y, Lat. acrasia, from oc,x^(x.a'i». 
1. Predominancy of the quality above in 
mixture or in the human constitution. 
2. Intemperance of any kind. 

Acre, pron. dker. (Sax. acer, acera, or 
acer;Ger. acker ; Dut. akker ; Sw. acker; 
Dan. acier ; Ir. aci-a ; Gr. etyoi ; Lat. ager. 
In these languages the word retains its 
primitive meaning, an open, ploughed, or 
sown field. In English it retained its 
original signification, that of any open 
field, until it was limited to a definite 
quantity by statutes 31 Ed. III., 5 Ed. I., 
24 H. VIII.— Cbuei.) 1. A measure of land 
containing four roods, each rood contain- 
ing forty poles or perches, and each pole 
272 sq. feet, and consequently each acre 
contains 435C0 sq. feet, or 4840 sq. yards. 
The Scotch acre contains 6150 sq. yards, 
and is therefore equal to 1261 imperial 
acres. The Irish acre contains 1 ac. 2 rd. 
19 pol. ; 30 Irish acres are therefore equal 
to 49 imperial acres. The French arpent 
is very nearly equal to the Scotch acre. 
The Roman jugerum was 3200 sq. yards. 

2. In the Mogul's dominions acre is 

the same as lack = 100,000 rupees = 

12,500?. sterling. 3. Aae-jight,a sort of 

duel in the open field. 4. Acre-fax or 

acre-shot, a tax levied upon lands at a 
certain rate by tlie acre. 5. In physio- 
logy, the extremity of any part. In this 
sense the word is derived from etxeos, 
the top, e. g. of the nose. 

AcRPA, the same with acralea, (q. v.) 

AcRiFOLiuM, Lat., any prickly-leaved 

AcRiTA, that division of moUusca which 
consists of polyi>es, corals, and other 
plant-like animals. " Our impression is, 
that the -whole, or nearly so, of the true 
ACRITA, are compound zoophytes, ox, in 
other T»'ords, plant-like animals."— Swain- 

Acmi'aT, Lat. acrisia, from «, not, and 



fc'ivM, to judge. Aconditionof whichBO 

correct judgment can be formed. 2. 

That of which no choice is made. 

AcROAMAT'ic.orAcROATic, from etx^eu- 
fMCTixoi, abstruse, applied to the secret 
doctrines of Aristotle. His lectures were 
of two kinds ; acroamatic, acroatic, or 
esoteric, delivered to a class of select dis- 
ciples, who had been previously instructed 
in the common branches of philosophy ; 
and exoteric, delivered in public. The 
former consisted of speculations regard- 
ing being, God, and nature ; the principal 
subjects of the latter were logic, rhetoric, 
and policy. The abstruse lectures were 
called acroatics, and those admitted to 
hear them were called acroatici. 

AcRocERA, a genus of dipterous insects 
of the family of inflata, of Latreille. Name 
ctx^oi, summit, and xi^oti, a hom. 

Acrocerau'nian, from ccxges, summit, 
and xiecivves, thunder. Mountains be- 
tween Epirus and Illyricum, supposed to 
be especially subject to the effects of 

Acrochor'don, Lat. acrochordus, from 
mx^nxe^^mv, a M'art. The wart-snake ; a 
genus of snake the body and tail of which 
are completely covered with warts. The 
snake which gave rise to the institution 
of this genus is a native of Java. It is 
said to measure eight feet. There are 
three species. 

AcRociNus, a genus of beetles {coleop- 
tera) belonging to the tribe of lamiaritB of 
Latreille, and constituted of the cerambt/x 
longim/uius, of Linnaeus. It is distlin- 
guished from all the longicomes by the 
thorax being provided with a moveable 
tubercle on each side, terminated by a 
spine, whence the name. It is called by 
the French colonists the harlequin of Ca- 
yenne, fiom the mixture of its colours, 
grey, red, and black. This genus includes 
theprionus accentifer, of Olivier. 

Acroco'lia (otx^oxivXiK), the extremi- 
ties of quadrupeds. 

AcROGEN, from mxbos and yivvMU. 
In 6o<<rnj/, acylindrical'plant, growing at 
its point only, and not augmenting in 

AcROMANiA (otxeo/xavKx,) . incurable in- 

AcRo'MiAt,, Lat. acromialis, appertaining 
to the acromion. 

Acro'mion, from itx^os and aiijt,o;, 
shoulder. In anatomy, the humeral ex- 
tremity of the spinous process of the sca- 
pula or shoulder-blade. 


fjiMrtxos'^, a term applied to a kind uf 
pcem, in which every line or verse com- 
meaces with the letter with wnich thr 
one preceding ended. 




AcaoM'pHALON {ax^efjupaeJ.0*). Inana- 
tomy, the centre of the umbilicus, to 
which the luubilical cord is attached in 
the foetus. 

AcEo'.Mc, or AcRONiCAi., from etxfOi, 
extreme, and ynj, nii?ht; applied to the 
rising of a star at sun-set, or its setting 
at sun-rise. Tlie word is opposed to cos- 

Acropa'thy, (^icxeojrenBitot), disease of 
the extremities. 

A'cROPY (»x^ofn»), imperfect articu- 

AcRospiRE, the shoot or sprout of a 
seed, especially of the barley, developed 
by germination : called also the plunta, 
jiiumule, or pluimtla. In malting, when 
the barley has sprouted at both ends, it is 
said to be acrospired. 

This word is usually derived from 

tuifoi and g-^i^ec, a spiral line, but the 

more obvious etymology appears to be 

arherspyre, an old word of the same 

meaning, compounded of cechir, an ear 

of corn, and spy re, a point. 

Acros'tic, from otK^ts and trrix^;, 
order or verse. A composition in verse 
In which the first letters of the lines, 
taken in order, make a word, name, or 
phrase, or some title or motto, which is 
the subject of the poem. 

Acros'tichum {ecz^offTixov), a- genus of 
perennial plants of the class cryptogamia, 
and order flices. There are eleven spe- 
cies, mostly natives of warm climates. 

AcROTELEurit, from ot^goi, extreme, 
and Tikivrvt end. A term applied to 
something added to the end of a psalm, 
€. g. the gloria patri, or doxology. 

A'CROTEE, from etx^orr^t a simimit. In 
architecture, a small pedestal, usually 
without a base, placed in the middle of 
pediments or frontispieces, to support 
globes, statues, &c. Acroteria also de- 
notes figures placed as ornaments or 
crownings on the tops of churches, and 
the sharp pinnacles that stand in ranges 
about flat buildings with rails and ba- 

Acroteria, the Latinised plural of 
Acroter (q. v.). Anciently this word sig- 
nified the extremities of the body, emi- 
nences ot bones, &c. 

Acrothym'ion, from 


tnd S-vfMi thyme. A species of conical 
wart, resembling the flower of thyme. 

AcROTic, Lat. acroticus, pertaining to 
the surface. 

Acrot'ism, Lat. acrotismm, defect of 

AcRTDiDM, in etitomology, a genus of 
orthoptera of the saltatoria family. This 
»onus contains the noted insects called 
kaeutts, the scourge of Africa. 


Mr. Barrow records, ih:it, in tht 
southern districts which lie visited, 
the surface of an area of nearly 2000 
square miles might literally be said to 
be covered by locusts. The water of a 
wide river was scarcely visible in con- 
sequence of the innumerable dead 
which floated on it, apparently drowned 
in their attempts to reach the reeds 
along its shores ; except these reeds 
they had devoured every other green 
thing. Their destruction on a former 
occasion was sudden and singular. AU 
the full-grown Insects were driven into 
the sea by a tempest, and were after- 
vrards cast upon the beach, where they 
formed a bank of three or four feet high, 
extending nearly fifty English miles. 
The Arabs, except those of Sinai, are in 
the habit of eating these insects. They 
are sold by measure in shops in almost 
every town. They are first boiled, and 
afterwards dried in the sun. — Ency. Brit. 
Act, Lat. actus, from ago, to do. The 
exertion of power; the eflfect of which 
power exerted is the cause. 1. Va. logic, 
any operation of the human mind, e. g. to 
discover is an act of the understanding ; 

to judge is an act of the will. 2. In 

law, an instrument or deed in writing, 
serving to prove the truth of some trans- 
action, e. g. records, certificates, &c.— 
3. The final resolution, or the result of a 
public declaration of a legislative body, 
council, court of justice, or magistrate; 
or the book, record, or writing containing 
the same. 

Acts of parliament are called statutes, 
of the Koyal Society, &c. transactiotu , 
of the French Academy, vifmoirs ; of 
the Academy of Sciences of Petersburgh, 
cotnmeniaries ; at Leipsig, acta enidito- 
rtim; those of the lords of session at 
Edinburgh are called acts of sederunt. 
The same name is given to those of the 
general assembly of the kirk of Scotland. 
4. In theatricals, a part or division of a 
play to be performed without interrup- 
tion, after which the action is suspended 
to give respite to the actors. Acts again 
are subdivided into smaller portions called 

scenes. 5. In the English universities, a 

thesis maintained in public by a candi- 
date for a degree, to show proficiency. 

Act of Faith (auto (/(i/i!), in Catholic 
countries a day set apart by the inquisi- 
tion for burning heretics, and absolving 
persons found innccent of heresy ; or it is 
the sentence of the inquisition. 

Acts of the, the title of a 

book of the New Testament, containing a 

history of the transactions of the Apostlei. 

AcT.v DiCRN A , among the Romans, a sort 

of gazette resembling our newspapers. 

Acta Populi, or Acta Pcbuca, the 
Roman registers of assemblies, trials.exe- 
cutions, births, marriages, and deatii, kii. 



Acta Sexatvs, minutes of what passed 
In the Roman senate ; called also com- 

Act MS., herb Christopher. A genus of 
hardy perennials, belonging to the class 
polyandrin, and order monogynia. There 
are fourspecies, two of which are peculiar 
to North America, and one, bane-berry 
{A. tpicata), is found growing in mountain- 
forests in most parts of Europe. The root 
is strongly cathartic, and the berries are 
poisonous. Name, ctxrctta,, ocxrri, "quod 
in aussibus circa maris littus crescit." — 
J'liny, 27, c. 7. These are also Greek names 
of the elder-tree. 

Ac'tian, relating to Actium, a town and 
promontory of Epirus, as Action games, 
which were instituted by Augustus in 
honour of his naval victory over Antony, 
near that town, Sept. 2, b. c. 31. Accord- 
ing to Strabo, they were held every fifth 
year, and were sacred to Apollo, thence 
called Actius. Actian years were reckoned 
from the battle of Actium. 

Ac' («»T/»»i), the earth-nut {btotium 

AcTi'xiA, the sea-anemone; a genus of 
polypi of the order camosi. The fleshy 
body of the actinia is frequently orna- 
mented with bright coloure, and exhibits 
numerous tentaciila placed round the 
mouth in several ranges, like the petals 
of a double flower; and hence their 
popular name of sea anemones. Name 
from etxTiY/i, the sea. 

Actinocar'pus, the generic name of the 
herhttar-fruit. Class hexandria, order hex- 
agynia. Name, a«T;v,a ray, and«(B«;re;, 
a fruit; its curiously radiated fruit re- 
8embling a star-fish, found in ditches, 
pools, &c. 

Actin'ocomax, from ctxriv and koiavj. 
A genus of fossil shells resembling the 

AcTix'ocRiTE, from ctHTtv and «e/ft;. 
A fossil crinoidean, found in the carboni- 
ferous limestone near Bristol. 

Actin'olite, from a,y,rtv, a ray, and 
XtOos, a stone. Ray-stone (the gtrahlstein 
of Werner), a mineral nearly allied to 
hornblende. There are three varieties, — 
the crystallised, the asbestose, and the 
glassy actinolite. Colour, green, varying 
in shade. Constituents: silica, 50; lime, 
9"5; magnesia, 19'25 ; oxide of iron, 11 ; 
alumina, 1 ; with traces of the oxides of 
manganese and chromium. It is found 
chiefly in primitive districts: rarely in 
secondary rocks. ActinoUte schist is a 
metamorphic lock, consisting chiefly of 
actinolite, with a mixture of mica, quartz, 
or felspar. 

AcTiNOME'ais, a genus of hardy Ameri- 
can perennial plants, of five species. 
&.»« tytioettetia, order polygamia frxis- 

AcTiNOTE, t\ie amphHole, actionote Ktx». 
idre, of Hatty, is the same with the greer 
diallage of Jamleson, and tlie actinolite 
described above. 

Actino'tus, a genus of plants containing 
only one species, a native of New Holland. 
It is a greenhouse perenhial, resembling 
the sunflower (helianthm). Class pentan- 
dria, order digynia. 

Action, Eat. nr<io, literally, a driving. 
Action is opposed to rest, and when ex- 
erted on one body by another, it is said 
to be mechanical ; when produced by the 
will of a li%ing being, it is said to be 
spontaneous, OT voluntary. — Webster. 1. In 
mechanics, operation ; effort of one body 
upon another, e. g. action of the wind upon 
a ship's sails; also the result of such 
effort. Quantity of action is the product 
of the mass of a body by the space passed 

through, and velocity. 2. Inphysiology, 

the motions or functions of the body, 
vital {actiones vitalcs), animal [ayiimales), 
and natural {tiaturales). Vital and invo- 
luntary, e. g. action of the heart ; animal, 
e. g. all voluntary muscular motions ; na- 
tural, e. g. digestion and assimilation. 
Morbid actions are those derangements of 
the ordinary actions which constitute 

disease. 3. In ethics, the external signs 

or expression of the sentiments of amoral 
agent, e. g. conduct, behaviour, demean- 
our, that is, motion with respect to 

a rule of propriety. — Webster. 4. In 

poetry, the series of events which con- 
stitutes the subject of the fable. 5. In 

oratory, the gesticulation of the speaker, 
or the accommodation of his voice, atti- 
tude, gesture, and countenance, to the 
subject. " The matter is not so important 
as the manner." — Cicero. 6 . In paint- 
ing and sculpture, the attitude or position 
of the several parts of the body to exhibit 

passion, &c. 7. In law, an urging for 

right ; the suit or process which is brought 
by which a demand is made for a right. 
The suit till judgment is properly called 
the action, but not after. Actions are 
real or feudal, personal or mixed. Heal 
actions concern landed property only (for 
that was the only property accounted 
real by our ancestors), as when a title to 
an estate is claimed. Personal actions are 
brought to recover a debt, damages for 
trespass, &c. Mired actions are in demand 
of real estate and damages for a wrong 
sustained. Actions are also criminal or 
civil; criminal, or penal, when brought to 
recover a penalty imposed by way of 
punishment ; ciril, when instituted solely 
in behalf of private persons to recover 
debts, damages, &c. The word is also 
used for a right of action, e.g. " the law 
gives an action for every claim." — Black- 
stone. A chose in action is a right to a 
thing in opposition to the possession, e. g. 
a bond is a diose in actkm, as it gives tltf 

A C V W 

owner a riRht to prosecute h s claim to 
the money, as he has an absolutt property 
in a right as well as in a thing In pos- 
session. — Cliose, Fr. a thing. 8. In mili- 

tary language, battle ; engagement be- 
tween troops, whether by land or water. 

9. In commerce, a term used in some 

countries of Europe Xa) denote a certain 
part or share in the capital stock of a 
company, or in the public funds. It is 
therefore equivalent to our term share. 
In many cases action and act are 

synonymous; but /if<io» seems to have 

more relation to the power that acts, 

and its operation and mode of acting ; 

act more relation to the effect or opera- 
tion complete. 

Ac'rioN\nv,orAc'TioMST. In commerce, 
« proprietor of stock in a trading com- 
pany ; one who owns shares or actions of 
stock. — V. Action, def. 9. 

Active, I«it. actirtu, that has the i>ower 
or quality of acting, or contains the prin- 
ciple of action independent of any visible 
external force, e. g. attraction is an active 

power. It is opposed to passivt. 2. 

Practical; producing real effects. Op- 
posed to spcctdative. 3. Active capital, 

in mercantile language, is money, or pro- 
perty which may be readily converted 

into money. 1. Active commerce is that 

which a nation carries on with its own 
and foreign commodities in its own ships. 
Opposed to passive commerce, where the 
productions of one country are transported 
by the people of another, e. g. the com- 
merce of Kritain is active; that of China 

is passive. 5. Active verbs are those 

■which not only signify action, but have a 
noun or name following them, denoting 
the object of the action. They are also 
called transitive, as implying the passing 
of the action expressed by the verb to the 

Ac'tor, Lat. from ago. An active agent. 
In t}ieatricals, a man who acts in a play. 
Among civilians, an advocate or proctor 
in civil courts or causes. 

AcTORA, a genus of dipterous insects of 
Uie family of muscides. The A. sestivum 
oas been taken in England : it is nare. 

Actual, Lat. actualis, that exists truly 
and absolutely, e. g. actual heat opposed 
.0 that which is virtual or potential; actual 
cautery or burning with a red-hot iron, 
opposed to a cautery or caustic applica- 
tion that may produce the same effect 
npon the body by a different process. 
Existing in act; independent of theory; 
e. g. actual crime. 

Ac'tcart, Lat. actuarius, a notary or 
clerk who writes down the preccedlngs 
of a court. 

Actus, a Roman measure of length 
eqoal to 120 Koman feet. In agrictilture, 
Uue length of one furrow. Lat. 

▲ovi'tiom, Lat. acuitio (^m aeuo, to 


sharpen! , the augmentation of the strength 
of an acid or medicine by the addition of 
something which has similar powers in a 
greater degree. 

Acu'lbata, the second primary section 
of hymcnopterous order of insects, ac- 
cording to Latreille. Tlie nut belongs to 
this division, forming the family called 
hcterotjyna ; name, andeus, a sting; the 
ovipositor of the female being represented 
by a sting composed of three parts: it is 
concealed and retractile. It likewise 
exists in those individuals called neuter*. 

Aculeate, or AcuLEATED, Lat. ncuZfoiu*, 
having prickles {aciUcvs, a prickle). Ap- 
plied to animals and vegetables which 
have prickles tliat separate with the 
epidermis or bark, e. g. the echinus or sea- 
urchin, and rasa centifolia. 

Acu'lei, plural of actdens. In zoology 
and botany, spines or prickles growing 
upon the skin or bark. 

Ac'cLER, in the manege, said of ahorse, 
when, working upon volts, he does not 
go far enough iforward after each motion, 
so that his shoulders take in too little 
ground, and his croup comes too near the 
centre of the volt. 

Acu'lecs, a spine or prickle, from acus, 
a needle ; plural aculci, (q. v.) The actiUi 
of plants are peculiar to the bark ; spiiue, 
or thorns, proceed from the wood. 

Ac'uLoN (««yXof), the acorn or fruit of 
the ilex or scarlet oak. 

Acu'minate, Lat. acuminatus, termin- 
ated by a point {acumen) somewhat elon- 
gated. Applied by botanists to several 
parts of plants, as leaves, leaf stalks, <&c. 

Acupunc'toration, improperly used for 
acupuncture, (q. v.) 

AcupuNc'TDRE,from acus, a. needle, and 
punctura, a prickle. A surgical operation 
which consists in pricking the pait af- 
fected with a needle. This process is 
sometimes called acupuncturation. It was 
introduced into Europe in 1(>79 from 
China, where it had long been practised. 

Acus, a needle ; Lat. from otxu,i\,ti point. 
1. In surgery, the pointed instrument 
having an eye at one end, used for making 
setons. It is sometimes called the seton- 
needle. Acut camdata, or triquetra, a 

trocar. 2. In natural hi.<!tory, (1.) The 

needle or gar-fish. (2.) The ammodyte, 
or sand eel. (3.) The oblong cimex. 

Acc'sTo, an alchemical name of nitre 
(nitrate ofpotassa). 

AcuTANouLAR, Latlniscd, acutangidari* 
or vs, applied to parts of plants having 
acute angles. 

Acute, Lat. aevtus, sharp - pointed. 
Ending in a sharp point, opposed to ob- 
tuse, or blunt. An acute angle is one which 
is less than a right angle, or which sub- 
tends less than 90". An aeut4-a»(fUd 
triangle is one whose three angles are all 


MQtfi, or less than 90° each. The acute 
tuxent is that which marks the elevation 
or sharpening of the voice (see Accent). 
An acute disease is one attended with 
violent symptoms, and comes speedily to 
a crisis : the opposite of a chronic disease. 
In music, the term acute is applied to a 
tone which is sharp or high — opposed to 
grate. In botany, acute is applied to parts 
of plants ending in acute an)?les, as leaves, 
&c. The term is figuratively applied to 
the senses and intellect, as an acute eye- 
eight, acute reasoning. 

AccTENAc'uLUM, Lat. from acns and 
tenaculum, the handle of a chirurgical 
needle ; also the name given by Heister 
to the portaiguille. 

Acctia'tor, from acuo ; in the middle 
ages, a military officer whose business it 
was to see to the sharpening of the in- 
struments of the soldiers. 

Acr'ANOBLEpsY, Lat. ocyonoblepsia, from 
xvettos, blue, and fiXi^u, to see. A de- 
fect of vision, consisting in incapability 
of distinguishing the colour of blue. 

Actro'logt, from xav^es, empty, and 
Xeyof, discourse. Unmeaning discussion. 

Ad, a Latin preposition signifying to. 
In composition, the d is usually changed 
into the ttrst letter of the word to which 
it is prefixed ; e. g. accession for arfcession, 
«/finity for affinity, &c. The reason of 
this change is agreeableness of sound. 
Ad hominem, i. e. to the man, in logic, an 
argument adapted to touch the prej udices 
of the person addressed. Ad inquirendum, 
in law, a writ commanding inquiry to be 
made. Ad valorem, i. e-. according to the 
value : applied to duties or charges laid 
upon goods at a certain rate per cent, 
upon their value, in opposition to a spe- 
cific sum upon a given quantity. Ad libi- 
tum, i. e. at pleasure. 

A.D., abbreviation of Anno Domini, i.e. 
In the year of our Lord. 

Ada'gio, Ital. from ad and agio, leisure. 

In music, (1.) A slow movement. (2.) 

Leisurely and with grace. When repeated, 
adagio adagio, it directs the movement to 
be very slow. 

Adam, in oriental languages, means man. 
Adam's needle, the popular name of the 
Vacca, (q. v.) Adam's apple, the popular 
name of a species of citron ; also the pro- 
tuberance in the forepart of the throat, 
vulgarly attributed to a piece of the for- 
bidden apple having stuck in the throat 
of Adam ! Adami morsus os, in anatomy, 
the thyroid cartilage. 

Ad'amant, Lat. adamas, from ei^oiuMS, 
a name given to different stones of great 
hardness, e. g. the diamond. Chaucer uses 
adamant for the loadstone {Romaunt of 
the Rose, line \'^2). In modem minera- 
logy the word has no technical signiflca- 



Adama'ntine, having the qualities of 
adamant. Adamantine spar, a variety of 
rhombohedral corundum, found in India, 
Ava, China, &c., both massive and crys- 
tallised. Colour usually reddish-brown ; 
fracture foliated and sparry, and some- 
times vitreous. It is brittle, and so hard 
as to cut rock crystal. Sp. gr. 3 7 to 42. 
The crystals brought from India are the 
most pure. 

Ad'amic, relating to Adam. Adamic 
earth, a name given to several kinds of 
clay or bole which are of a red colour, in 
consequence of a mistaken opinion that 
Adam means " red earth." 

Ad'amites, in church history, a sect of 
visionaries who pretended to establish 
a state of innocence, and, like Adam, 
went naked. 

Adanso'nia, Ethiopian sour -gourd ; 
monkeys' bread-tree; African calabash- 
tree : a genus of one species belonging to 
the class monadelphia, order polyandria. 
This huge tree is a native of Africa. It 
grows mostly on the western coast, from 
the Niger to the kingdom of Benin. Its 
height is rarely 18 feet, but its circum- 
ference is often upwards of 75 feet. The 
branches shoot out 60 or 70 feet, the end* 
bending to the ground. Its bark is mu- 
cilaginous, and promotes perspiration. It 
is considered a powerful antidote against 
the epidemic fevers of the country, and 
is used by the negroes, when dried and 
powdered, as pepper on their food. The 
fruit is oblong, pointed at both ends, ten 
inches in length, and covered with a 
greenish down, under which is a ligneous 
rind. It hangs to the tree by a pedicle 
two feet long, and contains a white spongy- 
substance. The tree is named from M. 
Adanson, who first described it. The 
native name is baobab, or bahobab. 

A'dapis, one of the extinct pachyder- 
raata, found in the gypsum quarries of 
Montmartre. Its form nearly resembles 
that of the hedgehog, but it was three 
times the size of that animal : it seems to 
have formed a link connecting the pachy- 
dermata with the insectivorous camivora. 

A'dar, a Jewish month answering to 
the end of February and beginning of 
March: the twelfth of the sacred, and 
sixth of the civil year. Name, from adar, 
to become glorious, in respect to the exu- 
berance of vegetation duiing that month 
in Egypt and Palestine. — Parkhurst. 

Auak'ca, ADAR'i.E,or Adar'ces, a saltish 
concretion found encrusting the reeds and 
grass in the marshes on the sea-coast of 
Galatia. It was formerly in repute as a 
medicine for freeing the skin from tetters, 
freckles, &c. Name, «Sa^5£g«4>, from «, 
priv. and hiexai, to see, " quod hcrbas qui 
iifi^iiitpf '» 


Adar'cox, an 
about I5i. 

eld Jewish coin wcrt* 




Ada.r'mb, a Spanish weight, equal to 
the sixteenth of an ounce : Fr. demi-gros. 

Adarticcla'tion, 'LsLt.adartindatio, the 
same with arthrodia (q. v.)- 

Ada'tis, a species of fine, clear cotton 
cloth, manufactured in India. The pieces 
are fifteen yards in length, and three 
quarters wide. 

Adde'cimate, from ad and decimii^, 
tenth. To ascertain the value of tithes. 

ADDBPH'i3T, Lat. addephagia, iJSijK 
and ^yv, the disease of gluttony. 

Addkr, a venomous serpent [vipera) of 
several species. Sax. tetter, a serpent or 

Adder-flt, a name of the dragon-flj- 
(libelhda) sometimes called adder-bolt. 

Adder's-toxgue, a popular name of the 
ophioglossum (q.v.); the seeds of which 
are produced on a spike resembling a ser- 
pent's tongue. 

Adder's-wort, bistort or snake-weed, 
a species of polygonum (q. v.) peculiar to 
Britain, and supposed to be a specific for 
the bite of a serpent. 

Addex'tratores, from ad and dextra, 
the pope's mitre-bearers, who walk at his 
right hand when he rides to visit the 
churches. — Biicange. 

Addi'tament, Lat. additamentum, some- 
thing added. In anatomy, forming the 
same with epithysis, but now only applied 
to two portions of the lambdoidai and 
squamous sutures of the skull. 

Addition, Lat. additio, augmentation; 
opposed to diminution. 1. In arithmetic, 
the uniting of two or more niunbers into 
one sum. Addition is either simple or 
compound : the first relates to quantities 
which are all of the same denomination : 
and the second to quantities which are of 
different denominations. Addition forms 
the first of the four fundamental rules of 

arithmetic. 2. In algebra, the forming 

of two or more expressions into one, by 
connecting them together by means of 
their proper signs + or — : e. g. the sum of 
a and 6 is a — b, and the sum of a and — 6 
is n — 6, which, in an arithmetical sense is 

the difference of a and b. 3. In law, 

a title annexed to a man's name, to show 
his rank, occupation, or residence; e.g. 

James Roydd, Esq. Surgemi, London. 

4. In music, a dot marked on the right of 
a note, to show that its sound is to be 
lengthened half as much more as it would 

have been without such mark. 5. In 

heraldry, something added to a coat of 
arms as a mark of honour : opposed to 
abatement. Among additions are reckoned 
bordures, quarters, cantons, gyrons, piles, 
&C.——6. In distilling, anything added to 
the wash, or liquor in a state of ferment- 

Addition or ratios is the *ame with 
tatt^mtition of ratto* 

Ad'ditive. Additive quantities, in alge- 
bra, are such as have the sign -i- prefixed 
or understood. 

Addo'rsed, from ad and dorsttm. In he- 
raldry, having the backs turned to each 
other, e.g. animals so situated. 

Address, from ad and dirigo (Fr. adres- 
ser, which corresponds with the Span. 
enderexar, and Ital. dirizzare). 1. As a 
verb, 1. To direct in writing, e. g. the let- 
ter was addressed to, &c. 1. To consign 
to the care of an agent or factor ; e. g. he 
addressed the goods to, &c. 3. To presen*" 
a petition or a testimony of respect ; e. g. 
parliament addressed her majesty in, &c. 
i. To direct discourse ; e. g. he addressed 

the jury, &c. 2. As a noun, 1. A formal 

speech, as when introduced, e. g. he made 
a neat address. 2. Direction of a letter, 
including the name, title, and place of 
residence of the person for whom it is in- 
tended: the particulars constitute a man '8 
address. 3. A formal or written applica- 
tion, petition, or eongi-atulation ; e. g. an 
address of thanks. 

Addu'cent, Lat. adducens, performing 
the action of adduction : muscles of tlie 
body which draw together the parts of 
the body to -which they are attached: 
opposed to abducent. 

Addcc'tion, Lat. a<W«rfio,the action by 
which a part is drawn towards some othex 
more principal part ; the action of the 
adducent muscles. 

Adduc'tor, Lat. from ad and duco, to 
draw. A muscle which performs the ad- 
duction of the part into which it is in- 
serted; e.g. adductor oculi, a muscle 
which turns the eye towards the nose ; 
adductor indicis pedis, a muscle which 
pulls the fore-toe inwards from the rest 
of the small toes. 

Ad'eb, an Egyptian weight of 210 okes, 
each of three rotolos ; the rotolo is about 
fourteen drams avoirdupois. At Rosetta 
the adeb is only 150 okes. 

Adela, the generic name of a beautH\il 
little butterfly, lepidoptera. It occurs in 
woods, and is said to appear Mith the 
leafing of the oak. There are several 
species, all beautiful. Name, et^rMSt 
obscure: belongs to the tincites of La- 

Adf.lanta'po, Spanish, a governor or 
lieutenant-governor of a province. 

Ade'lia, AiiELLv, a gemis of shniba- 
ceous plants, natives of Jamaica. Class 
dicecia, order monadelphia. Name, from 
et, not, and ir,X6i, obvious, in reference 
to the obscure nature of the fructification. 
There are three species. 

Adelino, a title of honour given by oar 
Saxon ancestors to the children of princes 
and young nobles. It Ls compounded of 
adel, or rather eethel, the Teutonic tens 
for noble or illuttriout, and ling, youB(. 


Ad'kiite, the Spanish name for one 
who predicted the fornmeg of individuals 
by the flight and singing of birds, and 
other circumstances. The Adelites were 
also called Alnwyanens. 

AoELiuM, a genus of coleopterous in- 
sects belonging to the helotni of Latreillc. 
Adel'phi\, from ethtX^ei, a brother. 
Cognate. In botany, a collection of sta- 
mens into a bundle or brotherhood. 

Adelphians, adelphiani, a sect of Chris- 
tians, whose peculiar tenet was to fast on 
the sabbath. 

Adem'ption, from ad and cnio, to take. 
In the civil law, the revocation of a grant, 

Adenal'gia, from etir,y, a gland, and 
ei>.yos, pain. A pain seated in a gland. 

Adenanthe'ra, from oiir,»,a. gland, and 
etvdof, a flower. Glandflower: a genus 
of stove shrubs, of three species ; natives 
of the East Indies and Ceylon. Class, 
deeandria, order, monogynia. 

The A. pavonina is one of the largest 
and handsomest trees of India, and 
commonly lives 200 years. The seeds 
are very beautiful; and from their 
equality in weight (each = 4 grains) 
they are used by goldsmiths as weights. 
Aden'iform, Lat. adeniformis, of a 
gland-like shape. 

Adeni'tis, from a^ViV, a gland. Inflam- 
mation of a gland. 

Adeno'orapht, from ae^'/jy, a gland, and 
y^ei^ai, to describe. That which treats of 
the glands. 

Ad'enoid, fi-om «S»iv,a gland, and $ti»e, 
form. Resembling a gland. 

Adenol'ooy, from aint, a gland, and 
Xoyoe, discourse. The doctrine, nature, 
and use of the glands. 

Adenoph AP.Tsoi'Tis,from oi^r,», a gland, 
and ^owuyy^, the pharynx. Inflamma- 
tion of the tonsils and pharynx. 

Adenophtha'lmia, from ci!iv;y, a gland, 
and o<p9eOif/^ci, the eye. Inflammation of 
the Meibomian glands. 

Ad'enos, a species of cotton from Aleppo : 
called also marine cotton. 
Ad'enose, ) Lat. adenosMj. Glandiform: 
Ad'enocs, / having the shape of a ker- 
nel, or giand. 

Adenostt'leje, Gr. K^Y,y, a gland, and 
g-Tv'Ko?, a style. A subdivision of compo- 
site plants ; the branches of the style are 
covered with long glandular hair. 

Adephao^, the first primary and 
numerous division of coleopterous insects, 
all of which agree in being voracious; 
whence the name from uZripctyo; , vora- 
cious. The adephaga of Clairville, corres- 
ponds with eamivora of Cuvier. 
AsKTTjfrom od and ooto. A name as- 

sumed by alchymists, who had attained 
extraordinary skill in alchymical re- 
searches. The term is row used in a 
wider sense, to denote great proficiency, 
especially in some art. 

Ad'eps, Lat. Fat ; a concrete oily mat- 
ter which is contained in the cells of the 
adipose tissue. It differs in its physical 
properties in different animals, and in the 
same animal at different ages • it is white 
and insipid in the young, and has a deeper 
colour and stronger taste in those of 
greater age. Excessive fatness constitutes 
a disease, called polysarcia ; and it is ques- 
tionable whether fet generally does not 
indicate disease. 

Adessena'riass, from adesse, to be pre- 
sent. In church history, a sect who hold 
the real presence of Christ's body in the 
eucharist, but not by transubstantiation, 
Adeect'ed, in Algebra, consisting of dif- 
ferent forms of the unknown quantity, 
e. g. x' + ax + b = o, is an adjected qua- 
dratic equa'ion : it contains both the first 
and second powers of i. 

Adpilia'tion, from ad and filins, a son. 
A Gothic custom, whereby the children 
of a former marriage arc put upon equal- 
ity with those of the second marriage. 
This is otherwise called unio prolium, and 
is still retained in Germany under the 
name of einkindschafft. 

Adhe'siox, Lat. adhtssio. In physio, 
the force with which two bodies of dif- 
ferent kinds remain attached to each 
other, when they are brought into con- 
tact: distinct from cohesion, which is the 
force uniting together the particles of a 
homogeneous body. In stirgery, the re- 
union of divided parts, by a kind of 
inflammation called the adhesive. In 
pathology, the morbid union of contiguous 
parts, by means of adhesive inflammation. 
Adian'tum, maidenhair: a genus of 
thin-leaved ferns, consisting of a><out fif- 
teen species, most of which belong to hot 
climates. The only native specimen is 
the A. capilhis venei-is, formerly employed 
in the manufacture of syrup of capillaire ; 
a hardy perennial. Flowers from May to 
July ; class cryptogamia, order Jilices. 
Name, etiiokyrov, from «, not, and 
itcctviu, to grow wet ; the leaves not being 
easily wetted. 
Adiaph'orists, ) from ot^ixipa^os, indif- 
Adiaph'orites, J ferent. Moderate Lu- 
therans: the name given in the 16th cen- 
tury to the followers of Melancthon, who 
was more pacific than Luther. 
Adiaph'oresis, ) from a, not, and 5/«. 
Adiaphko'sis, ) ^o'loj, to dissipate. 
In medicine, deficient perspiration. 

Adiaph'orous, from ciZiottpo^oi , indif- 
ferent. In chemistry, synonymous witk 

AD J 2 

AnivPNEU'sTiA, from «, not, and 
ii»tTtiai, to perspire. In medicitie. dimi- 
nution or obstruction of perspiration. 

AoiARRHfF.'A, from*, not, and Siot^giai, 
to flow throutth. In medtcine, suppres- 
sion of any of the natural evacuations. 

ADiNTiNiTiM.aLatin phrase, meaning 
indefinitely, or to infinity. 

Ad Inquirendum, a writ to command 
inquiry concerning something coimected 
with a cause in a court of law. 

Adipoceratio.n, the process of being 
converted into adipocere. 

Adipoce're, ( from adeps, fat, and cera 

Ad'ipocire, ) (Fr. cire), wax. A pecu- 
liar substance, intermediate between fat 
and wax, and closely resembling sperma- 
ceti. It results from the spontaneous 
conversion of animal matter when ex- 
posed to running water, or more speedily 
by maceration in dilute nitric acid. It is 
produced also, but not so rapidly, by 
heaping together large masses of animal 
matter; as was exemplified, on an im- 
mense scale, on the removal of the bodies 
li-om the Cimetifere des Innocens in Paris, 
in 1787. When the coffin-lids were taken 
oflf, the bodies were found flattened into 
irregular masses of soft, ductile, greyish- 
white matter, resembling common white 
cheese. All the soft parts were converted 
into this substance; the bones were fran- 
gible ; and no trace of viscera remained : 
all were confused together, and blended 
in a common mass of adipocere. 

Adipocere-minfrai,, a fatty mineral 
matter, found in the argillaceous iron ore 
of Merthyr: inodorous when cold, but 
when heated it emits a slightly bitumi- 
nous odour. Fuses at 160" Fah. 

Adipose, 1 Lat. adipostis, from adeps, 

Adipous, ) fatty : e. g. the adipose mem- 
brane is the tissue containing the fat in 
its'cells in the animal body : the adipose 
ducts contain the fat. 

Adip'sv, Gr. «Jii1/«, Ri medicine, ab- 
sence of thirst; mostly symptomatic of 
brain diseases. 

Adip'son, from ». not, and ii-^x, 
thirst. A medicine which allays thirst, 
e. g. liquorice. 

Adit, Lat. fiditm, (i-om ad and eo,to go. 
The horizontal entrance to a mine, some- 
times called the drift. It is usually made 
in the side of a hill. The term is often 
used as synonymous with air-shaft. 

Apjacent-anoi.e, in geometrii, an angle 
immediately contiguous to another, so 
that one side is connected to both angles. 

Ad'jective, Lat. adjectivum quasi ad- 
juiu-titmm. Adjective cotoun, in dyeing, are 
•uch as require to be fixed by some base 
or mordant. 

ADJocaNMENT. 1. The closing of a scs- 
»icn of a public or official bodjr. 2. The 
tinr.e or interval during which a particular 

r AD J 

official body intermits its business. The 
close of a session of parliament is called » 
prorogation : the close of a parliamtnt i» 
a dissolution ; an intermission of business 
for a definite time is an adjournment. 
Parliament has the privilege of adjourn- 
ing itself, but its prorogation is the act 
of the sovereign. 

Adjudica'tioh, the act of trying and 
determining judicially, l. The decision 

ofacourt. 2. In Scotch law, anactionhy 

which a creditor attaches the heritable 
estate of his debtor, or his debtor's heir, 
in security of the payment of the debt; 
or an action by which the holder of an 
heritable right, labouring under a defect 

of form, may supply that defect. 3. 

Transferring the property of a thing sold 
by auction to the highest bidder. 

Adjunct, Lat. a^uncttis, joined, from 
adjungo, to join to. 1. Literally, some- 
thing added to another, but not essen- 
tially a part of it, e. g. water in a sponge 

is an adjunct to the sponge. 2. lameta- 

physics, a quantity of a body, or of the 
mind, whether natural or acquired, e. g. 
colour, weight, form, &c. in the body, and 

thinking in the mind, are adijuncts. 3. 

In ethics, adjuncts are what are otherwise 
called circumstances : these are reckoned 
seven, viz. quis, quid, ubi,quibus, auxiliis, 
cxir, quomodo, qua)ido.——i. In grammar, 
words added to other words to amplify 
the force of other words, e. g. the history 
of the French revolutimi. The words in 
italics are adjuncts to ?iisto)-y. — Webster. 

5. In music, the word is employed to 

denominate the relation between tffe 
principal mode, and the modes of its two- 

In the Royal Academy of Sciences at 
Paris, there are twelve membei-s called 
adjuncts attached to the study of some 
particular science. Geometry, astro- 
nomy, mechanics, chemistry, botany, 
and anatomy, have each two members. 
These appointments were instituted in 

The Koman adjunct deities were in- 
ferior deities, added as assistants to the 
principal gods ; e. g. Bellona to Mars ; 
the Cabiri to Vulcan ; the Lares to the 
Good Genius, and the Lcmures to the 

Ad Jura Regis. In law, a vrrit which 
lies for a clerk presented to a living by 
the sovereign, against those wh? en- 
deavour to eject him to the prejudice of 
the sovereign's title. 

Adjustment. The act of adjusting: 
settlement, e. g. of a loss incurred at sea, 
by the insured. In this cjjse, it is usual 
for the insurer to Indorse upon the policy, 
" Adjusted this loss at £ — per cent, pay 
able at days. M. N." This is con- 
sidered as a note of hand, and, as such, if 
primA facie evidence of thp debt. 




Ad'jctage, from ad and jacU>,jactus, \ 

Aj'utage, from Fr. ajouter, to join. j 
The tube fitted to the mouth of a vessel, 
through which the water of a fountain is 
to be played. It is by its means that the 
water is directed into any desired figure, 
so that the diversity of fountains consists 
chiefly in the diflferent structure of their 

Ad'jut.^nt, Lat. adjutant, aiding. In 
mtlitary affairs, an officer who assists the 
major by receiving and communicating 
orders, and therefore has sometimes been 
caUed the aid-major. Each battalion of 
foot and regiment of horse has an ad- 
jutant, who receives orders from the 
brigade-major, to communicate to the 
colonel and subalterns. He places guards, 
receives and distributes ammunition, as- 
signs places of rendezvous, &c. 

Ad'^1- is the chief ad- 
jutant : he is to an army what the ad- 
jutant is to a regiment. 

Ad'jctants-Ge.ner.vl, among the Je- 
suits, were a select body of fathers who 
resided with the general of the order, each 
of whom had a province or country as- 
signed to his care. Their business was 
to keep up correspondence with such 
countries by means of their delegates and 
emissaries, and give information of state 
occurrences to the father-general. 

Adjutorium, Lat. from ad andjuro. In 
anatomy, a name given to the humerus 
from its usefulness in lifting the arm. 

Adjuvant, Lat. ad,uva)is, helping. Ad- 
jutant : applied to an ingredient intro- 
duced into a medical prescription, to aid 
the operation of the principal ingredient 
or basis. 

Adlega'tion, Lat. ad and legatio, from 
lego, to send. In the public laws of the 
German Empire, a right claimed by the 
states, and by some princes, of joining 
their own ministers with those of the 
emperor in all negotiations where the 
interests of the empire are concerned. 

Admanuen'sis, from ad and manus, the 
hand. In old law books, a term denoting 
laymen, who sware by laying their hands 
on the bible ; whereas the clergy were 
forbidden to swear so, their word being 
deemed equal to an oath. 

ADMEA'srREMENT,from ad and measure- 
ment. In law, the adjustment of shares of 
something to be divided ; e. g. Admeasure- 
ment of dower takes place when the widow 
of the deceased claims more than belongs 
to her as dower : Admeas^iremeut of pasture 
takes place when any one of the persons 
who have title to a common pasture, puts 
more cattle to feed upon it than he ought. 
These take place by writ of admeasurement, 
addressed to the sheriff. 

Admin icula'tor, Lat. fTomadminietilor, 
to give help. In church history, an officer, 
ctberwise called the Advocate of the poor. 

Admin istra'tion, the act of admini$t«r- 
ing ; management or government of public 

affairs ; the office of an administrator. 

2. The executive part of a government, 
consisting in the exercise of the constitu- 
tional and legiU powers, the general super- 
intendence of national affairs and the 

enforcement of laws. 3. The persons 

collectively who are entrusted with the 
execution of the laws, and the super- 
intendence of public affairs : the chief 
magistrate and his coimcil, as in America ; 
the council alone, as in Great Britain. 

i. The management of the estate 

ofan intestate person, a lunatic, &c., under 
a commission from the proper authority. 

5. Among ecclesiastics, the power with 

which a parson is invested both as re- 
gards the temporalities and spiritualities 

of his cure. 6. In commerce, the name 

given by the Spaniards to the staple 
magazine at Calao, in Peru, where all 
ships loaded with European goods were 
required to tmload and pay duties. 

Administra'tor, Lat. from ad and win- 
ister. In law, the person to whom the 
goods, &c., of a person who died intestate 
are entrusted. He must give accoimt of 
the same when required. The bishop of 
the diocese, when the person dies, is 
regularly to grant administration ; but, if 
the deceased has goods in several dioceses, 
administration must be granted by the 
archbishop in the prerogative court. The 
persons to whom administration is 
granted, are first the next of kin to the 

deceased, and then to a creditor. 2. In 

Scotch law, a tutor, curator, or guardian, 
having the care of one who is incapable 
of acting for himself. — Administrator is 
used in several other senses, e. g. an 
advocate of a church ; a person appointed 
to manage the revenues of an hospital, or 
other charitable institution ; a prince who 
enjoys the revenues of a secularized 
bishoprick ; the regent of a state during 
a minority, or a vacancy of the throne. 

Administr-a'trix, a female who adminis- 
ters upon the estate of an intestate person. 
Ad'miral, an officer who commands the 
naval forces, and decides all maritime 
causes. According to Ducange, the 
Sicilians were the first, and the Genoese 
the next, who gave this name to the 
commanders of their fleets; deriving it 
from the Ar. (mir, or amir, a commander, 
a designation applicable to any com- 
manding officer: hence low Lat. amira, 
amiras, admiralis, Sp. and Port, admirante, 
Fr. amiral: the termination al, is probably 
from asA?, the sea. The admiral has the 
same authority over the maritime forces, 
that a general has over the land forces. 
There are three ranks of admirals, the 
admiral, the vice-admiral, and rear- 
admiral, besides the lord hxgh admiral. 


■who is the ninth ffrcat oflBcer of state in 
Enjrland. He superintends all maritime 
affairs, and has the Rovemment of the 
navy ; but this office is now executed by a 
certain number of commissioners, called 
lordt of the admiralty. These have juris- 
diction over all maritime causes, and 
commission naval officers. The office of 
lord hijfh admiral was held by William 
IV., while duke of Clarence, in 1827, and 
following year. The admiral of the fleet is 
the hiijhest officer under the admiralty : 
■when he embarks on an expedition, the 
tmion flag is displayed at the main-top- 
gallant mast-head. The vice-admiral is an 
officer next in rank to the admiral : he has 
command of the second squadron, and 
carries his flag at the foretop-gallant 
mast-head. This name is given also to 
certain officers, who have power to hold 
courts of vice-admiralty in various parts 
of the British dominions : there are up- 
wards of twenty such. Appeal lies from 
their sentence or award to the admiralty 
court in London. The rear-admiral, next 
in rank to the vice-admiral, has command 
of the third squadron, and carries his flag 
at the mizentop-gallant mast-head. Ad- 
mirals on shore receive military honours, 
and rank with generals of the army. 
Admiral is also an appellation given to the 
most considerable ship of a fleet of mer- 
chantmen, or of fishing vessels. 

Admiral, in cottchology, the popular 
name of a sub-genus of magnificent shells 
of the volute genus (voluta). There are 
four species : the grand-admiral, the orange- 
admiral, the vice-admiral, and the extra- 
admiral. The first is of an elegant white 
enamel, variegated with bands of yellow, 
which represent in some measure the 
colours of the flag of a man-of-war. It is 
distinguished from the ^ice-admiral by 
a denticulated line, running along the 
middle of the largest yellow band. The 
orange-admiral has more yellow than any 
of the others, and the bands of the extra- 
admiral run into each other. In entomo- 
logy, a species of "butterfly, which lays 
her eggs in the nettle." 

Ad'miralty, the office of the lord high 
admiral, whiih is discharged (usually) by 
seven commissioners, called lords of the 

MIRALTY, is the supreme court for the 
trial of maritime causes, held before the 
lord high admiral, or lords of the admi- 
ralty. All crimes committed on the high 
8cas,orin rivers beneath the bridge, next 
the sea, are cognisable only in this court : 
trialby judge and jury. Subordinate to 
this court, there is another of equity, 
called court-merchant, wherein all causes 
between merchants are decided, agreeable 
tc the rules of the ci>-il law. In the 
'xUted Sutes of America, there is no 

) ADO 

admiralty court distinct from the ethers ; 
the district courts are invested with ad- 
miralty powers. The prize court, which 
decides causes relating to prizes in time 
of war, is a separate court from the court 
of admiralty, but is usually presided over 
by the same judge. 

Admika'tion, in grammar, the character 
( ! ) used after a word, or at the close of a 
sentence, or a remarkable or emphatic 
nature, is called a point, or note of admira- 

Admis'sion, Lat. admissio, from ad and 
mitto, admittance. 1. Among ecclesiastics, 
the act of a bishop's admitting a clerk to 
be qualified for a cure : this is done after 
examination, by pronouncing the formula 
admitto te habilem. Any person presuming 
to be admitted without episcopal ordina- 
tion forfeits 100/. 2. Among logicians, 

&c., grant of an argument or proposition 
not fully proved. 

Admittendo CLERico,a^Tit granted to 
a person who has recovered his right of 
presentation in the common pleas : it di- 
rects the bishop or metropolitan to admit 
his clerk. 

Admittendo in Socium. a writ asso- 
ciating certain uctaUe persons of the 
county to the justxei of the assize already 

Admixtion, Lat. »dmiztio, of ad and 
misceo. The union of substances by mix- 
ing them. The admixed bodies retain 
their characteristic properties : they un- 
dergo no chemical change, as they do in 

Admoni'tiojt, Lat. admonitio, of ad and 
moneo. A part of church discipline, which 
consists principally in warning an offender 
of his irregularities. By the ancient 
canons, nine admonitions were necessary 
before excommunication. 

Admortization, from ad and mors, 
death. The reduction of property in lands 
or tenements to mortmain (q. v.). 

Adnas'cest, Lat. adnascens. Growing 
to some other thing. 

Ad'nata, Lat. from ad and nascor to 
grow. 1. In anatomy, one of the coats of 
the eye, called also allniginea. It is that 
portion of the conjunctiva which covers 

the scelerotic coat. 2. Such parts of 

animal or vegetable bodies as are usual 
and natural, as hair, wool, horns ; or acci- 
dental, as fungus, and the several epi- 

sitical plants. 3. In horticulture, offsets 

of plants germinating underground, as 
from the lily, narcissus, hyacinth, and 
afterwards grow to the roots. 

Ad NATE, Lat. adnatus, grown to. Ap- 
plied to parts which appear to grow to 
other parts : e. g. in botany, when a leaf 
adheres to the branch or stem by the sur- 
face or disc itself; or when the stipules 
are fixed to the petioles. 

AooLSCEBA, a gtnus of coleopterous In- 


«ect8. Name, from mBsXa; and xtfoK, 

In reference to the form of the antennae. 
Belongs to the elaterides of I-atreille. 

Adon'ai, a Hebrew, Chaldean, and Sy- 
rian name of the Supreme Being, meaning 
Lord or Sicstainer. 

Ado'nia ancient festivals kept in 
honour of Adonis, by females, who spent 
two days in lamentations and the most 
infamous pleasures. These Adonia were 
celebrated by the Greeks, Egyptians, 
Syrians, Sicilians, &c. 

Ado'nic, ) pertaining to Adonis, the 

Adoni/an, j fiivourite of Venus. Adonic 
is applied to a kind of short verse, consist- 
ing of a dactyl, and a spondee or trochee, 
e. g. rdrd jAvintitt. It was originally xised 
in bewailing the fate of Adonis. 

Ado'nis, pheasant's-eye, or bird's-eye. 
A genus of plants of the class polyandria, 
order polygynia.'^ There are eight species, 
resembling the anemone in appearance, 
but smaller. The A. auttimnalis, an an- 
nual common in our gardens, is the only 
British specimen. Name, »imis, the my- 
thological youth, from whose blood it is 
fabled to have sprung. 

Ado'nists, among critics, a party who 
maintained that the Hebrew points ordi- 
narily annexed to the consonants of the 
word Jehovah are not the natural points 
belonging to that word, and that they do 
not e.xpress the true pronunciation of it. 

ADOPT'ER,a two-necked chemical ves- 
sel, placed between a retort and receiver, 
to lengthen the neck of the retort, and 
thereby give more space to elastic vapours. 

Adoptians, a sect which held that, with 
regard to his human nature , Christ was not 
the natural, but the adoptive son of God. 

Adoption, Lat. adoptio, from ad and 
opto, to choose. 1. The act whereby one 
man makes another his heir, giving him 
all the rights of a son. Adoption was 
common among the Greeks and Romans, 
who had many regulations concerning it. 
The Lacedemonian law required that it 
should be confirmed before their kings ; 
at Athens, slaves, madmen, and persons 
under age were incapable of adopting ; 
and at kome, adoptions were confirmed 
before the prastor in an assembly of the 
people, or by a rescript from the emperor. 
The adopter, besides, was required to be 
at least eighteen years the senior of the 
adopted, and the natural father required 
to renounce all authority over his son, 
and consent to his translation into the 
family of the adopter. The various cere- 
monies of adoption have given rise to 
many kinds of it : e. g. adoptioti by testa- 
ment, the appointment of a person to be 
heir by will, on condition of his taking 
the name, &c. of the adopter: adoption 
6v matrimony, t^ie taking the children by 
• fonner marriage into the condition of 

) ADO 

children of the second marriage : adop- 
tion by baptism, the spiritual affinity con- 
tracted by godfathers was supposed to 
entitle the godchild to a share of the god 
father's estate : adoption by hair was per- 
formed by cutting off the hair of a person, 
and giving it to the adoptive father: 
adoption by arms, an ancient ceremony of 
presenting a suit of armour to one for hi« 
merit or valour, which laid the person 
under an obligation to defend the giver 
Among the Turks, the ceremony of adop 
tion is performed by obliging the person 
adopted to pass through the shirt of the 
adopter. In France, the adopter must 
have neither children nor other legiti- 
mate descendants. 

Adoption is also used for many kinds 
of admission to a more intimate relation, 
as the admission into hospitals, particu- 
larly that of Lyons, and is, therefore, very 
nearly equivalent to reception. 

ADonA'TioN, Lat. adoratio. The act of 
worshipping; the worship paid to the 
Supreme Being. Among the Jews, adora- 
tion was performed by bowing, kneeling, 
and prostration. Among the Romans, the 
devotee, with his head veiled or covered, 
applied the right hand to his lips, the 
forefinger resting on the thumb, which 
was erect, and then bowing he turned 
round from left to right. The Ganls 
thought it more religious to turn from 
right to left : the Greeks to worship with 
their heads uncovered. The Christians 
copied the Grecian rather than the Ro- 
man mode, and univei-sally uncover when 
they perform any act of adoration. In 
modem times adoration is paid to the 
pope by kissing his foot, and to a prince 
by kneeling and kissing his hand. The 
word has been sometimes used in the 
sense of acclamation, e. g. a pope is said 
to be elected by adoration, when he is 
elected by sudden acclamation, without 

ADORirsi, a genus of coleopterotis in- 
sects ; the species are foreign. The ado- 
rium is included among the isopodes of 

Adosccla'tion, Lat. adosctilafio, from 
ad and osailum, a kiss. A term used by 
naturalists to denote impregnation by 
mere external contact: this takes place 
in many birds and fishes. It is also used 
in botany for the impregnation of the 
plant by the falling of the farina on the 
pistils ; and also for the insertion of one 
part of a plant into another. 

Ados'sed, English of adossie, part, of 
adosser, to place back to hack ; dos, the 
back. A heraldic term denoting two 
figures or bearings placed back to back. 

Ado'xa, 1 Moschatel: a genus of a 

Ado'xia, ( hardy perennial plant, pe 
culiar to Britain; class octandria, order 
tetra^nui. Name, mi without, and 2«{«, 

ADU 31 

florj/, from the humble aspect of this little 
flower. There is only one species, the 
A. tnoschaleliiiui, 80 called from its smell- 
ing like musk. It is also known by the 
name ot bastard fumitory; grows in shady 

Ad rON-nrs omnium, literally, " to the 
weight of the whole." These words after 
the name of any ingredient, in a medical 
prescription, signify that the weight of 
such ingredients is equal to that of all 
the others put together. — Lat. 

Ad Qi'OD DAMNUM, UterdUy, " to what 
damage." The name of a writ issued 
before certain liberties are granted, as, a 
fair, market, Ac, ordering the sheriflf to 
inquire what damage may be causctl by 
•uch grant. — lot, 

Adpres'sed, Lat. adpresstts. Appressed : 
pressed close together ; applied to branches 
or leaves, when they rise nearly parallel 
to the stem, and are close to it, e. g. the 
branches of the Genista tinctoria and 
leaves of the Thlaspi catnpestris. 

Adrift, a nautical term denoting the 
condition of a vessel broken from her 
moorings. It is the participle of the Sax. 
Tcrb adnftan, to drive. 

Adroga'tion, a species of adoption 
among the Romans, by which a person 
was admitted to the relationshipof a son, 
derived from ad and rogo, to ask ; in refer- 
ence to the questions put to the parties. 

Adstrictiov, Lat. adstrictio, from 
ttringo, to bind. In medicine, 1. The 
action of an astringent. 2. Constipa- 

ADui.\'RiA,themoonstone of lapidaries : 
a transparent white -coloured variety of 
prismatic feldspar, with a silvery or 
pearly opalescence. The finest crystals 
are found at Adula, the sumnut of St. 
Gothard. The sunstone of the lapidaries 
is the Siberian variety of Adularia ; it is 
of a yellowish colour, and numberless 
golden specks appear distributed through- 
out it. 

Adult, Lat. aduUus, grown to matu- 
rity: oleo, to grow. Among citilians, a 
person upwards of 14 years of age. The 
term is also applied to animals and plants 
at a state of maturity. 

Apcli'ert, Lat. adtUterixtm,tTom ad and 
tilter, other. The crime of married per- 
sons, whether husband or wife, who 
violate their marriage vow by inconti- 
nence In Europe and America, adultery 
Is reckoned a private offence : none but 
the husband being allowed to intermeddle; 
and except in Scotland, though the hus- 
band be guilty of adultery, the wife is not 
allowed to prosecute him for the same. 
In England adultery is a spiritual offence, 
ard therefore the injured party can have 
no other redress than to bring an action 
of damages axainst the adulterc'r,.and to 
divorce and strip the adulteress of her 


dower. — See Divorce. In scriptural lan- 
guage, adultery is sometimes used for 
idolatry, and at other times for any spe- 
cies of unchastity. It is in this sense that 
divines interpret the seventh command- 

AtiuLTERT, in church affairs, means the 
thrusting a pers»)n into a bishoprick dur- 
ing the life of the bishop. 

Adumbra'tion, umbra. In heraldry, a 
figure painted of the same colour as the 
ground of the field, but darker. 

Adus'tion, Lat. adustio, from ad and 
uro, to burn. In surgery, the same with 
cauterisatimi (q. v.) 

Adva'nce, from ad and ran, the front. 
In commerce, 1. To supply beforehand, to 

furnish on credit. 2. Additional price 

or profit on the prime cost of goods. 

3. Money paid before goods are delivered 
upon consignment. This is usually from 
a half to two-thiids of the value of the 
goods coioigned. 

Advancb-ditch, ) In fortifications, that 

Advance-moat, ) drawn round the 
glacis or esplanade of a place. 

Advancement, in law, provision made 
by a parentforachild,by gift of property, 
during the parent's life, to which the 
child would be entitled, as heir, after the 
parent's death. 

Ad'vent, Lat. adventus, from ad and 
teiito, to come. A 'loming : appropriately 
the coming of the Saviour. It is intended 
as a season of devotion, with reference to 
the past and future coming of Christ, and 
includes four sabbaths before Christmas, 
beginning at St. Andrew's day, or on the 
sabbath next before or after it according 
to the day of the week on which the 2oth 
of December falls. 

Adventit'ious, Lat. adcentitius, extra- 
ordinary. Added extrinsically, e. g. 
among citi7imi«, goods which are acquired 
accidentally, are SJiid to be adventitiotts. 
The same is said of fossils, as shells, &c., 
which are found embodied in other fossils. 
Applied also to diseases which are not 
hereditary or congenital ; and in botany, 
to anything which appears out of the 
ordinary course of natuie. It is in speak- 
ing of natural things, what abnormai is in 
speaking of productions of art. 

Adv en'tube. Ft. aventure. See Advent. 
1. Among satiort, something which a 
seamen is permitted to carry aboard, with 
a view to sell for profit. Seamen usually 

call this n vettture. 2. A bill of adteulure 

is a writing signed by a person who takes 
goods on board of his sliip, wholly at the 
risk of the owner. 

Adventurer, one who adventures, e. g. 
merchant-adventurers constituted a com- 
pany, fonned for the purpose of exploring 
unknown regions, and opening up new 
cliaunels of trade; called also ibv soeittf 
of advaUurtrs. 

A D V 

Ad'verb, Lat. ndverbium, from ad and 
rerbtim. In ijrammar, a word used to 
modify the sense of a verb, participle, 
adjective, or attribute, and usually placed 
near it ; e. g. he spoke j?Men%; the day is 
extremely cold, where the words fliieiMy 
and extremely are adverbs. This part of 
speech may be called a modifier, as its use 
is always to qualify the sense of another 

Adversa'ria, Lat. from odrersiM. Among 
theancients.R book of accounts, not unlike 
our journals and day-books, and so named 
from the debt and credit being placed in 
opposition to each other. The word also 
imports, among literary persons, a species 
of commonplace-book, in which the notes 
are not digested under regular heads. 

Advers'ative, Lat. adversatinis. In 
^amnwir, a word denoting some difference 
or opposition between what goes before 
and what follows it; e.g. he has genius, 
but wants application. The word but is 
an adversative conjunction. 

Bxit is not, however, always an adver- 
sative conjunction ; it often implies 
something superadded. It has therefore 
two senses : in the first it is a corruption 
of hot, the participle of the Saxon verb 
hutan, to he out, and in the second it is 
the imperative of botan, or boetan, to 
make better, and is radically the same 
as het, in the word better. "Boetan" is 
the verb to boot. 

Adversifo'li.vte, ) Lat. ndcersifolium, 

Adversifo'i-ious, j from adrersiis and 

falitim, a leaf. Having opposite leaves : 

applied to plants where the leaves are so 

arranged on the stem. 

Advice, from Fr. avis, opinion, whence 
the verb aiiser, to advise. Advice is usually 
given by one merchant or banker to an- 
other, by letter, infonning him of the hills 
or drafts drawn on him, with all particu- 
lars of date, &c., &c. For want of such 
letter of advice, it is allowable to refuse 
accepting a bill of exchange. 

Advice-bo\t, a small vessel employed 
to carry despatches, &c. 

Ad vit*m aut culpam, an office to be 
held quamdiu se bene gesserit, that is, till 
the death or some delinquency of the 

Ad'vocate, Lat. advocatus, from ad and 
voco, to call. Advocate, in its primary 
sense, signifies one who pleads the cause 
of another in a court of civil law : hence 
it came to signify one who pleads the 
cause of another before any tribunal or 
judicial court. The fees are of agratuitous 
character, and cannot be recovered at law. 
In England and America, advocates are 
the same as counsel or counsellors. In 
England they are of two degrees, barris- 
ters and Serjeants: the former being ap- 
prentices or learners, cannot, by ancient 
eutom, be admitted seijeants till of 16 



years standing. — In Scotland, the faculty 
of advocates is a society of eminent lawyers 
who practise in the highest courts, and 
who are admitted members only on the 
severest examination at three different 
times. It consists of about 200 members, 
from whom vacancies on the bench are 
usually supplied. — The lord-advocate is the 
principal crown-lawyer. He pleads all 
the causes of the crown, and is the public 
prosecutor in criminal cases, fn France, 
the avocats form a separate order, of 
which each member is attached to a par- 
ticular local court. — Advocates have dif- 
ferent titles, according to their particular 
duties. — At Rome, ccmsistorial advocates 
appear before the consistory, in opposition 
to the disposal of benefices. Among the 
ancient Romans, the fiscal advocate de- 
fended causes in which the public revenue 
was concerned. — Feudal advocates were of 
a military kind: to attach them to the 
church, they had grants of land, with 
power to lead the vassals of the church to 
war. — Juridical advocates became judges, 
in consequence of their attending causes 
in the earl's court. — Matrictilar advocates 
defended the matricular or cathedral 
churches. — Military advocates were em- 
ployed by the church, to defend it by 
arms, wh«n force was the eloquence of 
Europe. There were besides, elective ad- 
vocates, chosen by the chapter, bishop, 
abbot, &c. ; nominative advocates, appoiatei 
by the emperor, pope, &c. In France, 
there are two kinds of advocates : those 
who plead, and those who only practise, 
like our chamber-counsellors. In Germany , 
an advocate is a magistrate appointed, in 
the emperor's name, to administer justice. 
Advoca'tion, Lat. ad and vocatio. Among 
civilians, (he act of calling another to as- 
sist in pleading some cause. — A bill of ad- 
vocation, in Scotland, is a written applica- 
tion to a superior court, to call an action 
before them from an inferior court: the 
order granted, is called a letter of advocation. 
Advocatione decimartm, is a writ for 
claiming a fourth part or upwards of 
tithes belonging to any church. 

Advowee', he who has the right of ad- 
rotcson. 2. The advocate of a church, &c. 
Advow'son, in English law, a right of 
presentation to a vacant benefice: the 
right of patronage. The word is derived 
from advocatio, because the right was first 
obtained by such as were founders, bene- 
factors, or defenders, that is, advocates of 
the church; hence those who have this 
right are styled patrons. 

Advotcsons are either appendant or »n 
gross : the first are such as are annexed 
to a manor or lands, and pass as ap- 
purtenances of the same; wherea* 
advowson in gross, is a right of iTP«en- 
tatipn subsisting by itself, and belonging 
to the patron, independent ol landi. la 


either ca«e, artTowsons are no less the 

property of the a<lTowee than landed 

estates, and may be granted away by 

deed or will, and are assets In the hands 

of executors. 

Advoyer, Nor. Fr. adroes. A chief ma- 
gistrate of a town or canton in Switzer- 

Adysa'mia, Gr. aSvvofiia. A defect 
of Tltal power (Sifi'af; is). 

A'DYTt'M, Gr. o8vT0v. The most sacred 
place in the heathen temples, correspond- 
ing to the Jewish Uoly-of- Holies. The 
term is deriTed from a, not, and fiv'w, to 

ADZ, or ADDICE, Sax. adese. A cutting 
tool of the axe kind ; the blade is thin or 
arching, and set at right angles to the 
handle. It is chiefly used for paring away 
inequalities on boards, planks, &c. 

jEacea, Grecian festivals in honour of 
..Eacut, who, on account of his justice on 
earth, was supposed to be appointed one of 
the judges in hell. 

jEchmalotarcha. the title giren an- 
ciently to the principal governor of the 
Hebrew captives residing in Chaldea, As- 
syria, &c. The Jews called him Roich- 
Galuth, or chief of the captivity. At pre- 
sent the KChmalotarch is only the head of 
the Jewish religion, like the episcoput Ju- 
dworum in England, the altarch at Alex- 
andria, and the ethnarch at Antioch. 

.£des, a temple of an inferior order 
among the Romans. From aifirj?, dark, 
being originally dark buildings. The nam* 
latterly became synonymous with templum, 
or temple. 

iEDiLE. In ancient Rome, an oflBcer 
who had charge of the public buildings 
(oedet), and, indeed, buildings of all kinds, 
highways, aqueducts, public places, spec- 
tacles, Ac. The rediles were four in num- 
ber, and of two classes — the plebeian and 
curule. Julius Csesar afterwards added two 
other plebeian sediles, called cereal : their 
business was to in8p<'Cl weights and mea- 
sures, public stores of provisions, Ac. 

^D<EOTOMY, from otfioi ' and refivoi. 
The anatomy of the organs of generation. 

.fiDOPTosis, from aiSoioi' and tttwctis. 
Genital prolapsus. 

jEgagropile, L&t tegagropilvu, from 
Ti-yaYpos and -Ao?. a. a concretion 
found in the stomach of the chamois-goat 
(sometimes in of deer, cows, Ac), con- 
sisting of hair which the animal has swal- 
lowed in licking itself. These balls were 
formerly called bezoari, and believed to 
possess the same virtues as the oriental 

ificiCERAS, a genus of plants found in the 
Molucca Islands. Class pentandria, ovXtt 



monoffynia. Nam* from ojf, a goat, and 
Kepai;^ a horn, the pods having some re- 
semblance to the horn of the goat. 

.fiGiLOPS, from ai$, a goat, and wi^, an 
eye. 1. A sore under the inner angle of 
the eye : now generally considered a stage 
of the fistula lachrymalis. Named from the 
supposition that goats are peculiarly liable 

to it. 2. Hard-grass : a genus of hardy 

European annuals, of the class polygamia 
and order moncecia. There are seven spe- 
cies. — Xamed from its supposed virtues in 
curing the disease called ceffilops. 

jEgis, in mythoTogy, is particularly used 
for the shield or cuirass of Jupiter and 
Pallas. Named from ai-yis, a goat's skin, 
with which shields were anciently covered. 

v£go'ceros, the same with jEgicerat 
(q. v.) 

.(Egopo'dicm, goat-weed, gout-weed, or 
goat's-foot. A British genus of plants, of 
the class pentandria and order trigynia : 
named from aiS, a goat, and -ovs, a foot, 
" the leaves being cleft something like the 
foot of that animal." There is only one 
species, ^'. podagraria, found in gardens 
and wet places. The root is pungent and 

^GYPTiLES (Latinised ^gyptUia). A 
species of ornament in Egyptian architec- 
ture having a light-blue hgure en a dark 

Aellopodes, the name of a pedo-motive 
carriage lately exhibited in the metropoli* 
by Mr. Revis, of Cambridge. It consists of 
two large driving wheels, urged round bj 
cranks acted upon by treddles, on each of 
which the rider's weight is thrown alter- 
nately. The name, in which the only novelty 
consists, is from AHlo, one of Actseon's dogs 
(Ov. Met. ui. 219), and novs, ttoSos, %. 

.Slurus, the Egyptian god-cat, some- 
times represented in architectural deoora- 
lious in proprid persoml, and sometimec as 
a man with a cat's head ! 

^oi.ic, pertaining to jEolia or jEolik. 
The ^olic dialect is one of the five dialect* 
of the Greek tongue, agreeing in most 
things with the Doric dialect. The j£olia 
verse consists of an iambus er spondee, 
then of two anapests separated by a long 

.lEoLiAN, pertaining to ^olus (q. t.) 
JSoLlAN-HABP, a musical instrument, so 
named from its producing its wild and often 
exquisite strains merely by the action of 
the wind. It is made thus : a box of thia 
deal is made of such a length as will suit 
the window into which it is to be fitted ; 
a number of strings (catgut) are fixed upon 
the mouth of it, and tuned in unison. It 
is fitted into the window with the •triati 

A ER 34 

iEoLopiLE, from uSoUts (q.v.), and fru>J», 
a passage. A hollow metal ball, with a 
small hole into which a slender pipe is 
fitted : the ball being half- filled with water 
and heated, vapour issues vehemently 
from the orifice. It is used principally to 
show the convertibility of water into 
steam, but Avas anciently used as bellows, 
and is still sometimes used as a blow-pipe. 

JKoLorno.N, from JEoUis. the god of the 
■winds, and (pii/r>,. voice. The name of a 
musical instrument somewhat resembling 
a cabinet ])ianoforte in shape, &c. Its 
tones are produced by metall'c springs, 
■et in vibration by the air produced from 

iEox, from amy- a?e, durati:>u. A. term 
tised in the Platonic phiiosoph;- v> desig- 
nate a virtue, attribute, or perfeition. 
The Platonists represented the D'jily as 
an assemblage of aons. The Gnostics 
considered eeons as certain substantial 
powers, of divine natures, traanatJng 
from the Supreme Deity, and performing 
various parts in the operations of the 


pregnate vith carbonic acid, formerly 
called aerial acid ; e. g. aerated water. 

Aeba'tion, from i-^j, air. The satura- 
tion of a liquid with some gas; e.g. the 
aeration of water with carbonic acid or 
fixed air. 

Aerial, Lat. aSrius. In painting, the 
term is applied to the diminishing in- 
tensity of colour on objects receding from 
the eye. 

Aeria.1, Plants, a general name for such 
plants as derive their nourishment chiefly 
from the atmosphere, e.g. ihe epidendra , 
aerides, &c. These are often, especially in 
the East, suspended by a string in a room, 
as ornaments, and continue to blossom 
even for months, without earth or water. 

Aekiass. In church history, a branch 
of Arians who take their name from 
Aerius, who maintained that there was no 
difference between bishops and priests. 

Ae'ripes. air-plants. A genus of per- 
ennials of four species, natives of Cliina 
and the East Indies. Class gynandria, 
order monandria. Name, «-<^ and nSof . 

Aerification, from o^r, air, and /acio, 
to make. 1. The act of passing from a 
liquid or solid state into gas or elastic 
vapour. 2. Being filled with air. 

Aeriform, from aer, air, and forma, 
form. Having the nature and properties 
of air ; e. g. the gases are aeriform fluids. 

Aero-Dtnamics, from icv,^, air, and 
ZviBCfjus, power. That department of ex- 
DsamcRtal science which treats of the 
ncctiou of air and the mechanical effects 
»f &ir in motion. 

Aekuokaph V, from oiy,», air, and yagc^^, 

to describe. A description of the atmo- 
sphere, its nature, &c. It Includes me- 

Aeh'olite, from i^j, air, and X<S»y, 
a stone. A meteoric stone. See Meteor- 


Aero'logt, from «-<§, air, and Xey»(, 
science. That branch of physics which 
treats of the nature and properties of the 
atmosphere as regards its salubrity. 

Aerolcm, an ancient weight, equal to 
the sixth pan of an obolus, or about 2 grs. 
It was the same with the Greek ^ix\}to-j;. 

Aeromel, from aSr, and mel, honey. 
Manna {mel aereum), which was believed 
to descend like dew from ^he atmosphere. 
It was also ca]led^^ocrefx.i\i,Tnelroscidum, 
or honey-dew. 

Aerometer, from a^», air, and ^tr^ey, 
measure. I . An instrument for ascertain- 
ing the weight or density of the atmo- 
sphere. 2. An instrument for ascertain- 
ing the relative bulk and density of the 

ier'ometry, from ctr,^, air, and /xirgiv, 
measure. 1. That branch of aerography 
which considers the pressure, elasticity, 

and rarefaction of the air. 2. The art 

of measuring the relative bulk and density 
of gases. 

Aeronautics, the science of navigating 
the air in balloons. See Aeron act. 

Aerophobia, from aiij, air, and ^eSo;, 
fear. Dread of wind; symptomatic of 
hydrophobia, and occasionally observed 
in hysteria and phrenitis. 

Aerophttes, from elr,^, air, and fvrot, 
a plant. Plants which live exclusively in 
air, in distinction to hydrophytes, Avhich 
Live under water. 

Aerostat, from i^j, air, and a-ratro?. 
sustaining. An air-balloon, a fire-balloon. 

Aerosta'tics, from i^^, air, and e-Tures, 
sustaining. 1. The same with aerostation, 

{q. v.) 2. The same with pneumatics, 

(q. V.) 

Aerosta'tion, from «»;», air , and iff-cufu, 
to weigh. The art of raising, suspending, 
and latterly, of guiding balloons in the 
air. Primarily, the word signified the art 
of weighing air or aeriform fluids, but is 
now used synonymously with aeronautics, 
(q. v.), though not very correctly. 

jErl'oo, primarily, the rust of brass 
(«s) , latterly, verdigris. The linimentum 
eeruginis of the London Pharmacopoeia, 
corresponds with the old mel jiHgyptiacum, 
or oxymel earuginis. 

Ms, the Latin word for brass. Among 
the Romans, as meant coined money, in 
contradistinction to ces grave, money paid 
by weight. 

.SisccLACEJE, a natural order of ez^ge 
nous Plants, consisting of the hor«e-cli«» 




nut {ceiculxM Iiippocattanum), and other 
nearly allied species. 

Isocline, an alkaline substance, ex- 
tracted from the horsecht-snut {cetctUui). 

^'SCULUS, the horsechesmU ; a genus of 
shrubaceous plants, of the class heptandria, 
and order monogynia. There are six spe- 
cies, with some varieties ; uatires of the 
northern parts of Asia and America. Name 
from etca, food. 

The bark of the common horsechesnut 

tree (uE. Jtippocastanuin) is much es- 
teemed on the Continent as a febrifuge ; 

and it is bjr some considered superior to 

TeruTian bark. This tree is now well 

known in Britain. 

.SSHNA, a sub-genus of neuropterous 
insects (dragon-flies), included in the libel- 
lula of Liunseus. 

.iESTUKTJCS, Gr. niff^TjTiKO?, having 
the power of perception by means of the 
senses. In the fitie ard, the science which 
derives the first piinciples in all the arts 
from the effects wliich certain combinations 
have on the mind, as connected with nature 
and right reason. It is intimat«ly related 
to sentiment, and links together with feeling 
the different parts of a composition. 

.fiSTlVAL, Lat. (EStivaHs, pertaining to 
summer {attas), e. g. wstival solstice. Ap- 
plied also, 1. To plants which flower during 
summer. 2. To diseases which appear du- 
ring summer. 

j;sTiVATioN, Lat. cestivatio. 1. The ef- 
fect produced by summer heat {cBitat). 

S. The state of the bud before the evolution 
of the ceroUa. 

JESTUARIUM, Lat. from cestuo, to heat. 
An apparatus for convoying heat. The term 
U chiefly used by medical writers. 

AETHEOGAMOLS, from ai.O'S, and 7a- 
fJio?, marriage. A term used to express 
characteristically the nature of cryptogamic 

JEthiops, a name given by the older 
chemists to several black powders, on ac- 
count of their colour ; e. g. cethiops mar- 
tUUi* was the black deutoxide of iron ; 
athiops per se was the protoxide of mer- 
cury ; cethiops attimalis and vegetabilis were 
the powders formed by the incineration of 
animals and vegetables ! The term aethiops 
mineral is still popularly used to denote 
the black sulphuret of mercury, which is 
formed by triturating mercury with sulphur, 
till the whole forms a deep black powder. 

MinvsK, fool's parsley, OT lesser hemlock, 
a genus of plants of two species. The Bri- 
tish species, ^. cynapium, resembles p|arsley, 
and is often mistaken for it : it is poisonous. 
Class, pentandria, order, diffynia. Xame 
from aidw, to burn, on account of Its acrid 

Aethriscofs, from al6pio<;, dear, and 

(TKorreoi, to view. An Instrument con- 
trived by Sir J. Leslie, to measure the vari- 
ations of radiation in different states of the 
atmosphere. It consists of the differential 
thermometer, having one of the balls 
excluded from the light, and the other 
placed in a metallic cup, exposed to a 
clear part of the sky ; the heat radiates 
from it rapidly, and the temperature falls ; 
exposed to a cloud the radiation is re- 
turned, and there is no reduction of tem- 

.Stiology, from atriov, a cause, and 
^6yo<:, discourse. 1. A figure of speech, 
whereby in relating an event, we unfold 

the causes of it. 2. The doctrine of 


.fiTiTES, from a^TO?, an eagle. The 
lapis aquilcB, or eagle stone : a variety of 
the oxide of iron and clay. It is found in 
hodular masses in the coal formations of 
Great Britain, and is known to mineral- 
ogists by the name of clay-iron ore. It 
takes its name from a popular notion, that 
the eagle carries it to her nest to prevent the 
eggs from beeomiug rotten. 

AETa'MA,\Gr. from a toc, an eagle. 

A'ETos /The name given by Greek 
architects to the tympanum of a pediment, 
from the custom of decorating the apex or 
ridge of the roof with figures of eagles. The 
name thus first given to the ridge, was trans- 
ferred to the pediment itself. 

Affa, a weight used on the Guinea coast, 
equal to an ounce troy. Half an affa is 
called an eggelni. 

Affectation, Lat. affectatio, from affecto, 
to seek for overmuch. In the five arts, 
overcharging any part of a composition with 
an artificial and overstrained aj^earance. 
In colouring, drawing, or action. 

Affeer, in law, to assess or reduce an 
arbitrary amercement to a precise sum, 
according to the circumstances of the case. 

AFFEEKMENT, the act of affeering an 
amercement. See Affeer. 

AFFEEROR, 1 In law, one of several per- 

Affeerer, ^sons appointed in courts 

AFFERER, J leet, courts baron, Ac, to 
settle the fines upon those who have been 
guilty of faults arbitrarily punishable. See 

Affet'to, Affetcoso, or Con Affetto, 
Ital. from Lat. affecto. In music, a direc- 
tion to perform certain notes in a soft and 
affectionate manner, and therefore rather 
inclined to slow than the reverse. 

Affida'vit, In law, a declaration upon 
oath before a competent authority, more 
particularly when reduced to Meriting and 
signed by the party. 

The term is an old law verb In the 

perfect tense ; fie made oath, from ad 

and fides, faith; t^ffldo, I confirm by 


AFP 36 

Aftinitt, Lat. affinitas, from qffinis, 
near. 1. Amons civilians, the relation of 
one of the parties married to the kindred 
of the other. It is distinguished into 
three kinds: (a) IHrect affinity is that 
suhsistinu; between the husband and his 
•wife's relations by blood, or between the 
"Wife and her husband's relations by blood. 
(6) Secondary affinity is that which subsists 
between the husband's and wife's rela- 
tions by marriage, (c) Collateral affinity 
is that which subsists between the hus- 
band and the relations of the wife's 
relations. The degrees of affinity are 
ahvays the same with those of consan- 
guinity. 2. In natural history, aielatioa. 

of animals to one another in the similarity 
of a greater proportion of their organisa- 
tion : distinct from analogy, which denotes 
a resemblance of external form. Thus, 
anatomy shows that the porpoise has an 
affinity to man, and its appearance denotes 

a close analogy to a fish. 3. In chemistry, 

the tendency which dissimilar particles of 
matter have to combine together and 
form new compounds, and the power 
■which causes them to continue in com- 
bination. It is otherwise called chemical at- 
traction. This preference ofimiting, which 
a given substance is found to exhibit with 
regard to other substances, is by an easy 
metaphor called elective affinity, and is of 
two kinds : (n) When a simple substance 
is presented to a substance compounded 
of two elements, and unites with one of 
them so as to exclude the other, the effect 
is said to be produced by simple elective 
affinity: it is called simple, because only 
one compound is decomposed, — elective, 
because the substance seems to choose one 
body to combine with rather than another. 
(6) "When two compound substances, each 
consisting of two elements, are brought 
together, and a mutual exchange of an 
element takes place, by means of which 
two new substances are formed differing 
in their properties from the original com- 
pound, the effect is said to be produced 
by double elective affinity, by complex af- 
finity, or by double decomposition. — It often 
happens, that bodies which have no ten- 
dency to unite are made to combine by 
means of a third, which is then called the 
viedium : thus, water and the fat oils are 
made to unite by means of an alkali in 
forming soap. Some writers call this action 
the affinity of intermedium, others disposing 
affinity, others again reciprocal affinity. — 
Affinity agrees with sensible attraction in 
every point which it has been possible to 
determine. All the elementary substances 
yet known are 54 : by the union of these 
with one another are formed the almost in- 
n'lmerable substiinces which are met with 
io nature, or which are only formed arti- 
flc'ially. These substances have, besides, 
dtfferent degrees of affinity for one another. 


Affirm Alios, a solemn declaration, 
tinder the penalty of perjury, by those con- 
scientiously objecting to an oath ; in laiff^ 
equivalent to testimony on oath. An indul- 
gence to Quakers under Will. III., extended 
to all conscientious scruples under Will. IV. 

ArriR'MATivE. In algebra, synonymovs 
with positive: the term applied to qu<tn- 
titles which have the sign -t- prefixed to 
them, in contradistinction to negative 
quantities, which have the sign — pre- 
fixed to them. 2. In logic, a term used 

to denote the quality of a proposition 
which asserts the agreement of the pre- 
dicate with the subject. Example : " Man 
is an animal." 

ArFLA'Tus,Lat. from afflo, to blow upon. 
A blast of wind. The word is also used 
for a species of erysipelas, which attacks 
suddenly, as if produced by some unwhole- 
some wind blowing on the part. 

Affo'rcement, from ad and force. In 
old charters, a forti«ss for defence. 

Afforesta'tion , from ad &nd forest. The 
turning of ground into forest or wood 
land, as was done by the first Norman 
kings in England, for the purpose of 
affording them the pleasures of the 

Affrat, or Affraimest, from Fr. ef- 
frayer, to frighten. In law, the fighting 
of two or more persons in a public place, 
to the terror of others. A fighting in 
private is not an affray in the legal sense. 

Affronted (Fr. affrontie). In heraldry, 
front to front: applied to animals that 
face each other. 

Affronting. In A«ra7'fry, opposed face 
to face. See Affronted. 

AFFrsioN, from Lat. ad anifutido, to 
pour out. Affusion with cold water is a 
mode of treatment in fever, brought into 
general notice by the late Dr. Currie, of 
Liverpool : it consists merely in placing 
the patient in a bathing tub, and pouring 
a pailful of cold water upon the body. 
This mode of treatment has been gene- 
rally attended with success, when em- 
ployed in the early stage of the disease. 

Afora, from Lat. a, and /ores. A term 
applied to plants in which the seed-TesseU 
are not furnished with valvules. 

Afore, from a, and fore. In nautical 
language, towards the head of the ship ; 
further forward, or nearer the stem; e.g. 

" afore the windlass." Afore the mast is 

applied to a common seaman, or one who 
does duty on the main-deck, or has no 
command or office aboard. 

Aft. In nautical language, applied to 
what pertains to the stem of a ship, as, 

the aft part of the ship. Fore and «y* 

means the whole length of the ship. 

night aft means in a direct line with th« 
stem. See Abaft. 

After-birth, the same wltb ptac«rUm 
(q. v.i. 




ArTER-cRop, the second crop from the 
•ame ground in the same year. 

After-guard, the seanian stationed on 
the poop, or after part of a ship, to attend 
the after sails. 

After-most. In nautical laiujuape, near- 
est the stern ; opposed to foremost. 

Afterpiece, in theatricals, a piece per- 
formed after a phiy ; a farce or other light 

Aftehsai Ls , tlie sails of the mizen-mast, 
and stays between the main and the 

Afterswarm, any of the swarm of bees 
which leave a hive after the first. 

Afzelia, a jrcnus of shrubaceous plants 
of three species, natives of Sierra Leone. 
Class dcfa»id> in, order iiwtioffynia. 

Aga, Per. aka, lord or master. In the 
Turkish doniinions, a commander or chief 
officer. The title is also given to great 
landholders, and to the eimuchs of the 
Sultan's seraglio. It is also a common 
title of respect in addressing a distin- 
guished person. 

Aga'llocuor, \ dyiXXoxou, aloes-wood 

Aqa'llochum, i llignum alots). The pro- 
duce of a large forest tree, to be found in 
most countries between the 24' of north 
latitude and the equator. It seems to be 
the result of the diseased action of a small 
part of a few trees of the same kind, and 
the rest of the wood is without value. 
The kind most valued — and it was at one 
time reckoned nearly as valuable as gold 
—is so soft and resinous, that it may be 
modelled with the fingers. It is in high 
repute for fumigations and incense in all 
Hindoo, Mohammedan, and Catholic 

Agalma'tolite, figure-stone {kyaXfjux 
andx/flaf) ; a sub-species ofmica of various 
colours. The best specimens are those of 

Agape (pron. ag'apy). Among the pri- 
mitive Christians, a love-feast held before 
or after communion. The meaning of the 
name [ayot^rTi, love,) was latterly taken 
in too literal a sense, and this feast be- 
came scandalous : it was finally sup- 

A.o'aphitz. Sf.'e TcBttuoiSE. 

Aoa'ric, \ the mtishroom ; a genus of 

Aga'ricds, i plants of the class cr!/;»<0(?a- 
tiiia, and or^et fungi. The plants of this 
(i;enus approach more nearly to animal 
matter tlian any other productions of the 
vegetable kingdom. Name, iya^mh, 
because primarily fo'ind near the river 
Agaros, in Sarmatia. 

Agaric, mineral, a variety of soft car- 
bonate of lime. It is found in the clefts of 
rocks, in pieces loosely cohering, and so 
light as nearly to swim on water. It 
takes its name from its resemblance to a 
fon^tu in colour and texture. 

Ao ASTRics, Gr. «, without, and ycum-.f, 
stomach. A name formerly given to 
certain animalcules, on the erroneous 
supposition that they were devoid of 
internal digestive organs. The name 
is still used to designate a family d 

Agate, a genus of semipellucid gems, 
the basis of which is calcedony, blended 
with variable proportions of jasper, 
amethyst, quartz, opal, heliotrope, and 
cornelian. When cut and polished, agates 
present an appearance of waving lines, 
sometimes accurately parallel, as rifion. 
agate, and sometimes containing a resem- 
blance to mosses, ferns, &c., as in Mocha 
stone, and sometimes the parallel lines 
are zigzag, as In /i»r<(/Jca(jwi agate. Name 
•yayai-TKt because found near the river of 
that name In Sicily, afterwards called 
achates, and finally agate. 2. An in- 
strument used by gold wire-drawers ; so 
called from the agate in the middle of it, 
through which the wire is drawn. 

AoATHiDiuM, a genus of coleopterous 
insects belonging to the family of Clavi- 
palpl. Name from ayadt;, a clue, in 
reference to the faculty possessed by the 
species, of rolling themselves uito a ball, 
in which state " they feign death in the 
most imperturbable manner." 

Agathod«mon, Gr. ocyciBoi, good, and 
iouf^cov, demon. In tnythology, a good 

Agatized, having the coloured lines 
and figures of agate ; e. g. agatized wood, a 
species of horastone, apparently produced 
by the petrifaction of wood. 

Aga've, the generic name of the Ameri- 
can aloe. There are fourteen species, 
thirteen of which are beautiful shruba- 
ceous plants, the other a perennial. Class 
heiandria , order monogynia . Name aj-ayaj 
noble, in reference to the beautiful appear- 
ance of the great aloe, which rises up- 
wards of twenty feet, and its branches 
form a pyramidal top. The genus is the 
type of a subdivision of the amarylllda- 
ceous plants. 

Agedoite. See Aspakaoin. 

Age'm A, a body of soldiery in Macedonia, 
not unlike the llouian legion. 

Aoemoolans, such children as were 
obtained by a tax, levied every third year 
in the Turkish empire upon the Christians • 
the collectora usually took every third 
child, and the handsomest. 

Ages DA, from a<70, to act. 1. In theology, 
what one Is bound to perform, in contra- 
distinction to credenda, what one is bound 

to believe. 2. A memorandum-book of 

things to be daily attended to. 3. A 

ritual or liturgy. 

Agenesia, fix)m «, not, and ysrirtf, 
generation 1. Imfotence. 8- Any 

AGO ' 

anomaly of organization, consisting fn 
absence or imperfect development of the 

AoER, a Roman acre of land. 

Aoera'tum, the generic name of the 
bastard hemp {tgrimony. There are seven 
species, natives of America. Class ,vj/»i- 
genesia, order jwlygamia requaJis. Xame, 
etyri^uTOv, from et and ^^o;, old, in refer- 
ence to the length of time -which the 
Howers of some of the species preserve 
their beauty. 

AoEr'sTiA, from oe, not, and yuifJ^u, 
to taste. A defect or lose of taste ; symp- 
tomatic of many diseases. 

AoGER, Lat. from ad and gero, to heap. 
A fortress, a tumulus. 

Aggerose, full of heaps. 

Agglomerate, from agglomero, to roll 
Into a ball. Applied : 1. In botany, to the 
stamina of plants when collected into 
a globular form, as in Anotia triloba, and 
to amentae when of a similar form, as in 

Finus syltestris. 2. In anatomy, to 

glands in the same sense as aggregate. 

AoGtcTiNANT, from Lat. agglutino, to 
glue together. 1. Any viscous substance 
M'hich unites other substances by causing 

an adliesion. 2. The adhesion of parts 

by the effusion of a coagulating medium. 

AoGLUTiNATioN, the action of an agglu- 
tinant. In surgery, thQ natural process of 
adhesion in wounds. 

Aggravation, from ad and gravis, 
heavy. The addition of one degree of 
guilt to another. Technically, an eccle- 
siastical censure threatening excommuni- 
cation after three admonitions used in 
vain. Fronl aggravation, the next step 
is re-aggravation, which is the last ex- 

Aogregata, the second family of Ace- 
phala nuda. This family consists of 
animals analogous to the Ascidii^, but 
united together in a conmion mass, so 
that they seem to communicate orsani- 
cally with each other, and in tliis respect 
to connect the Mollusca with the Zoo- 
phytes. Hence the name of the family, 
from aggrego, to flock together. The form 
of the mass is sometimes that of a single 
star, e. g. the hotrylla ; sometimes that of 
many stars strung together, e. g. the pyrn- 
soma; sometimes the mass is globular, 
e. g. the polycUna. 

Aggregate, from Lat aggrego. toassem- 
ble together, from grex, a flock. Inphysics, 
a whole or mass foi-med by the uniting 
together of many parts of the name kind : 
the chemical properties of the aggregate 
do not differ from those of its parts. The 
smallest parts into which ah aggregate can 
he divided without altering its chemical 
properties are sometimes called integrant 

parts. 2. In botany, fhe term is applied 

to flowers composed of many small florets 

i AGI 

having a common undivided receptacle, 
the anthers being distinct and separate 
the florets commonly standing on stalks, 
and each having a partial calyx. Aggregate 
flotcers are, therefore, opposed to simple 
flowers. .3. In nixo, applied to a corpora- 
tion, the existence of wliich is preserved 

by accession of new members. 4. In 

anatomy, applied to glands which are 
clustered together. 

Aggregation. 13y ntlracHon of aggre- 
gation is meant the power which causes 
homogeneous bodies to tend towards each 
other, and to cohere when united. The 
aggregate differs from a hnap, ■>» hose parts 
do not cohere ; and from a mixture, which 
consists of parts dissimilar in their nature. 
The word is used of solid, liquid, and 
gaseous bodies. 
AoiLo, ( In old law books, a person of 
Aoilpb. t so little account that whoever 
killed him was not liable to any fine for 
so doing ; 

Agio (Italian), the difference in valne 
between bank-s'.ock, or money, and cur- 
rent coin, or cash. Also the rate of pre- 
mium which Ls given when a claim that 
can only be legally demanded in one kind 
of money is paid in another. Thus, in 
countries where the standard is silver, 
the receiver will often pay agio for gold. 
The agio is subject to variations. The 
term is also jornctimes used to denote 
the premium on the discounting of a bill. 
Apio of Assurance is the same with 
what, in this country, is called policy ol 

Agist. In law, to take the cattle of 
others to graze at a certain sum: used 
originally for the feeding of cattle in the 
king's forests. The word is probably 
from Fr. j?c^«i-. from the old word gister, 
to lodge for a short time. 
Aoistaob, \ In law, the taking of 
AGisTME:«r, [other people's cattle to 
Agist^tion. ,' graze, especially in the 
king's forests, and also the profits thence 
arising. These tenns also denote a tax. 
burden, or charges levied for repairing the 
sea-banks iu different parts of England. 
The agistment- tithe is a tithe paid to the 
vicar for pasturage of barren cattle, usu- 
ally 10 per cent, on the agistage-money 
taken hy the agistor. , This tithe is abo- 
lished in Ireland. 
Aoistor, \ An officer of, the king's 
Aoistator, / forest, who has the care of 
Agister. } the cattle agisted, andcol- 
lects the money for the same : hence called 
giit-taker, which is popularly rendered 

Agitato (Ital. froml^at. agito), in music, 
denotes a broken style of performance, 
adapted to awaken surprise. 

Agitator, that which agitates. In the 
time of Cromwell, "there were certain 
officers appoiated by the army to watcfc 


over its concerns, called agitators." The 
word is Latin for charioteer, that is, one 
who drives, from ago, to drive. 

Aola'ofe, a genus of "hawk-moths" 

[crepuicula ria) . 

Aglet, iFr- aigtUlUtte, a point, from 

AiQLET, \aigxtille, a needle. Qu. from 

«;yX»i, bright. 1. A tag, or knob, on a 

point, usually made to represent some 

animal, often a man. 2. In botany, a 

pendant at the ends of the chives of 
flowers ; e. g. in the rose and tulip. 

AoLET-BABT, a Small image on the top 
of a lace. 

Agi.ia, the generic name given by 
Ochsenheimer to the Bombyxtan of La- 

AoLossA, a genus of nocturnal Lepi- 
doptera belonging to the sub-family of 

A'gmen, a part of the Roman army, 

which, drawn up in the form of an oblong 

parallelogram, answers to what modems 

call a col%ttnn. From ago. 

The Roman army consisted of three 

agmina, the van (primum agmen), main 

body {medium agmen), and rear {postre- 

mum agmeti); but the square {agmen 

qttadratum), and the column {agmen 

pilatum), were the forms in which the 

armies were usually brought to the 


Adnata, the same with adnata (q.v.) 
Agnate, flrom Lat. ad and nascor, to be 
bom. Any male relation by the father's 
side, in contradistinction to cognate, (q. v.) 
Agnation, relation by the father's side, 
or descent in the male line, distinct from 
cognation, (q. v.) 

AoNEL, from Lat. a^nns, a lamb. An 
ancient French coin .value 1 2 sols 6 deniers : 
it had the figure of a lamb struck on it, 
and was therefore indifferently called 
nurnton d'or and agnel d'or. 

Aono'men, Lat. from ad and nomen. 
Among the ^wnans, a kind of fourth or 
honorary name bestowed on a i)erson on 
account of some noble action, or extraor- 
dinary virtue or accomplishment ; e. g. 
•he agnomen A/ricanus was conferred 
upon Publius Cornelius Scipio, on ac- 
count of his great achievements in 

Ag'non, a name given by Fabricinsto a 
genus of dragon-flies. 

AoNOTHER'irM,an extinct animal of the 
miocene period ; order matiimalia, allied 
to the dog j but of very large size. Named 
from oiyteiai and S-r,ftoy. 
Germany, has furnished the only species 
as yet recognised. 

AoNts CisTrs, a species of vitex; so 
called from aytoi, chaste, from its sup- 
posed power of preserving chastity. The 
Athenian ladies reposed on the leaves of 
this plant at the theunophorla or feasts 

39 AGR 

of Ceres. The Lat. cattus, chaste, now 
added to the name, forms a duplication of 
the sense 

Agnls Dei (Xflmfc of God). In the Xo- 
mish church, a cake of wax stamped with 
the figure of a lamb supponing the banner 
of the cross. It is consecrated by the 
pope, and distributed to the faithful. 
Also a prayer, which begins " Agnus Dei 
qui tollis peccata mundi."" 

Aqnvs Scythicus {Sa/thian lamb) A 
name given to the roots of a species of fern 
{poll/podium Barotnez) . It is covered •^rlth 
brown woolly scales, and in shape re- 
sembles a lamb : it is found in Russia and 

AooMrHiA,AooMPHiAN8, the name given 
by Ehrenberg to those rotifers in which 
the jaws are deprived of teeth : from a, 
without, and yof^^ios, a tooth. 

A'gon, etyuv. In Roman antiquity, 1. 
The place where agonistic games were 

celebrated. 2. The day on which the 

rex sacrorum sacrificed a victim. 

Aoona'lia, Roman festivals in honour 
of the god Agonitis. 

AooNisTics. In church history, such of 
the disciples of Donatus as he sent to 
fairs, markets, &c., to propagate his doc- 
trines : fi-om aycuvia-TKi , a champion. 

Ago'nits, \from ayooviiiu, to strive. 

Ago'nicm, f The Roman god of business 
and gymnastics. 

Aoosoth'eta (dyaivoOirr,;). In archeo- 
logy, the superintendent of the gymnastic 
games : he inspected the discipline of the 
athletae,and adjudged the prizes. 

A'gora, the market-place of a Greek 
town. It was in the agora that the as- 
semblies of the people met; hence the 
name from the verb ayoi^uv, to assemble. 
The Agoranomi were certain magistrates, 
who had charge of the markets, and col- 
lected the customs imposed upon certain 

Agouti, I the popular name of the 

AoovT\,\ Chloromys of Cuvier. The 
agouties very much resemble hares and 
rabbits in disposition and the nature of 
their flesh, and, indeed, may be said to 
hold the place of those animals in the 
Antilles and hot parts of America. 

Aoregarian, Lat. agregarius, from 
ager, a field. Pertaining to lands. The 
agregarian laws of the Romans were those 
which related to the division and distri- 
bution of public lands, accruing to the 
state by conquest. These land* were 
leased out by the state to tho patricians 
at a nominal rent , and the plebeians gained 
nothing by them. This abuse was at- 
tempted to be reformed by the agregarian 
laws, the object of which was to restrict 
the quantity occupied by individuals, and 
to cause a real rant to be paid from them 


for the support of the army. There were 
many laws relating to the distribution of 
the conquered lands, but that called agre- 
garia lex, by way of eminence, originated 
with SpuriusCassius, in 486, B.C. 

Aoree'me.vt, In the^ne arts, a certain 
degree of resemblance in style and cha- 
racter, whereby the parts seem to belong 

to each other. 2. In law, the consent 

of persons to anything done or to be done. 
" All agreements, to be valid, ought to be 
on a stamp, cr at least duly stamped at 
the Stamp-office within 21 days after the 
date of the agreement. We derive this 
term iramediateiy from the Fr. agrement. 

Agrestis, Lat. from ager, a field. Per- 
taining to the tield : the trivial name of 
many plants. The term is opposed to 

AoaiA (a-y^ia)- 1- The common holly 

{Ilex aquifolium). 2. A pustular disease 

of the skin, accompanied with redness and 

Ag'ricvlture from Lat. ager, a field, 
and cultura, cultivation. In a general 
gfjwe, the cultivation of the ground for the 
purpose of producing vegetables and fruits 
for the use of man and beast. In this 
sense, the word includes gardening or 
horticulture, and also the raising and 
feeding of cattle. But appropriately, the 
word is used to signify that species of 
cultivation which is intended to raise 
grain and other crops in large quantities. 
The word is thus synonymous with hus- 
bandry, and opposed to horticulture. The 
term is also sometimes considered to in- 
clude every description of territorial im- 
provement, as embanking, road-making, 
draining, planting, &c. 

AoRiEL^A, the oleaster or wild olive ; 
{ay^iog, wild, and iXet'tai, the olive-tree). 

Agrifo'lium, the holly-tree, so named 
from aypoi, fierce, and folium, leaf, on 
account of its sharp prickles. 

Ag'rimonia, I a genus of plants. Class, 

Ag'kimont, ) dodecandria,orAei: digynia. 
The name cc^ysuayyi was given by the 
Greeks to a plant supposed to cure the ca- 
taract in the eye, called aeyriua. There 
are seven species of this perennial, one of 
which, A. eujmtoria, is common in Britain, 
in waste places, as road-sides. 

AG'RiMoNY,the popular name for Agri- 
nionia (q. v.). Hemp agrimony is Bidens 

Agbiococci'mela, the sloe-tree (Pruntts 
spinosa), from ei,y^)oi, wild; xoxxo;, a 
berry ; and /M-Ma, an apple-tree. 

Agrionid^, the name of a family of 
dragon-flies {Zibelhila, I^ia.), of which the 
type is the hlne dragon-Qyi Agrionpuella), 
found frequenting the sides of ditches in 
most parts of Britain. 

Asaip'ETisT, from Lat. ager, a field, and 

4U AG 1/ 

jvfo.toseek. One who claims a portion 
in the division of lands. 

Agrip'pa, a difficult birth. AgrippcB, 
children of difficult birth, ab cegro partu. 

Agrom'tza, a genus of muscides (q. v.). 
From oty^ii and /xv^ai, a fly. 

Agro'nomv, from 


a field, and 

vifjkOi, a rule. The art of cultivating the 
groimd : sometimes used synonymously 
with agriculture. 

Agrostem'ma, corn-cockle or rose-cam- 
pion {A.githago). A genus of the class de- 
candria, and order pentagynia. Name, 
ciyeou tm/LCf^<x, garland of the field. The 
trivial name githago is from gith, the 
Celtic word for any peculiar black seed. 
There are, besides that mentioned, seven 
foreign species, most of which are per- 

Agro'stis, bent-grass. A genus of the 
class triandria, and order digynia. Name, 
ay^iitrrii, given by the Greeks to grasses 
generally, from ay^os, a field. The genus 
contains about 24 species, five of which 
are British, mostly perennials. 

Agrostol'ogy, from ay^aia-ns, grass, 
and Aeyoj, discourse. The part of botany 
which relates to grasses. The term is 
commonly used as synonymous with 

Agryp'nia, from aygys-yej, sleepless. 
Agrypny, sleeplessness. 

Agrtp'nocuma, from ocy^vfrvos, sleep- 
less, and aiufjux, lethargy. A lethargic 
state, common in bad cases of typhvis 
fever. It is synonimous with coma-vigil. 

Ague, a disease consisting of febrile 
paroxysms, which completely subside and 
return at certain intervals. The febrile 
paroxysm is distinguished into three 
stages — the cold, the hot, and the sweating 
— and these follow in regular succession. 
The name is also applied to a sense of 
chiUiness, attended with shaking, though 
in health. The word is Goth, agis, fear, 
which is one of the chief characteristics 
of the disease. Ague-cake, the popular 
name for a tumour, consisting of an en- 
larged spleen, which projects under the 
false ribs on the left side : it occurs in 
persons who have suffered from pro- 
tracted ague. Ague-drop. The medicine 
sold under the name of Fowler's tasteless 
ague-drop is a solution of arseniate of 
potash in water {liquor arsenicalisot the 

Ague-free, a name sometimes applied 
to sassafras, on account of its supposed 
febrifuge qualities. 

Aouil'laneuf, a form of rejoicing 
among the ancient Franks on the first day 
of the year ; it was derived from the dru- 
idical custom of cutting misleto, which 
was held sacred by the druids, who, on 
the first day of the year, consecrated it, 




by crying afjuillannif, " a new year to the 
misleto" [a, to, gtii, niisleto,andrn»JH«</, 
the new year)'. This cry is said to be still 
observed in some parts of France, but for 
the purpose of cxtractinK new-year-»rifts. 

AoYREAS, from ccyv^)!, a collection. 
An opacity of the crystalline lens of the 

Aha, a sunk fence, not visible without 
near approach. 

Ahkad, in nautical language, denotes 
the situation of an object in advance of 
the ship : opposed to astern. The word is 
composed of a, for at, and head. 

Ah ICC TAT LI, a poisonous serpent of 
Mexico, somewhat resembling the rattle- 
snake, but destitute of rattles : its poison 
is as fatal as that of any known species. 

Ahriman, \ one of the chief deities of 

Akiman, ) the ancient Persians. Ah- 
rimanwas the god of evil, opposed to 

Ah DLL, from Sax. helan, to cover. The 
situation of a ship when all her sails are 
ftirled on account of the violence of the 
•wind, and when, having lashed her helm 
to the lee-side, she lies nearly with her 
side to the wind and sea, her head being 
somewhat inclined in the direction of the 

Ahcitla, a worm peculiar to the lake 
of Mexico, about four inches in length, as 
thick as a goose-qxiill, and having a hard 
and poisonous tail containing a sting. 

Ahcitzote, a small amphibious qua- 
druped of tropical America : its body is a 
foot long, its snout long and sharp, its 
skin of a dark brown. 

Ai, the three-toed sloth {Acheus tridac- 
tylxu, F. Cuvier). " A species in which 
sluggishness, and all the details of the 
organisation which produce it, are carried 
to the highest degree." The animal takes 
the name M from its peculiar cry, as it 
takes the name of Sloth from its tardy 
movements. It is of the size of a cat, and 
is the only mammiferous animal knoM'n 
which has nine cervical vertebne. 

Aid, Fr. nider, to help. Assistance. 1. 
In English laic, a subsidy granted by par- 
liament, and making a part of the king's 
revenue. In France, aids are equivalent 
to customs or duties on exports and im- 
ports. 2. In England, a tax paid by the 

tenant to his lord ; originally a gift : use 
and want converted it into a right de- 
mandablc by the lord. The aids of this 
kind were chiefly three. (1). To ransom 
the lord when a prisoner. (2). To make 
the lord's eldest son a knight. (3). To 
marry the lord's eldest daughter. 

Aid frier, a petition made in court, to 
call in help from another person who has 
interest in the thing contested. Thus a 
tenant for life may pray in the aid of him 
in remainder or reversion, that is, he may 
pray or petition that he be joined in 

the suit to aid or help to maintain ine 
title. The petition is otherwise caue«/ 
aid prayer. 

Aids, Thb Court of, in France, is a 
court which has cognizance of causes 
respecting duties or customs. 

Aids, in the manige, cherishings used 
to avoid the necessary corrections. The 
inner aids are the inner heel, leg, rein, 
&c. ; the outer aids are the outer heel, leg, 
rein, &c. 

AiD-DE-CAMP, in military affairs, an 
officer whose duty it is to receive and 
communicate the orders of a superior of- 
ficer. — This word is French, aide-de-camp, 
but naturalized, and it would perhaps be 
well to naturalize its pronunciation also. 

AioDE Marine, a variety of topaz of a 
bluish or pale green colour. 

AiGciLLE, Fr. for a needle. An instrument 
used by engineers to pierce a rock for the 
lodgement of powder, in mining, &c. 
Aiguille is also taken to mean the needle- 
like points or tops of granite rocks. 

AiGuiscE, ) in heraldry, a cross with its 

AiouissE, j four ends sharpened into 
obtuse angles. The term is French, from 
aiguiser, lo sharpen. It is sometimes 
written eguisci. 

AiLuaus, a genus of the plantigrade 
tribe of mammalia. There is only one 
species known, the patida of the north of 
India (the A. re/ulgens of Fred. Cuv.) : 
size, that of a large cat ; fur, soft and 
thick ; above, of the most brilliant cinna- 
mon red, behind, more fawn-coloured, 
beneath, deep black ; the head is whitish, 
and the tail marked with brown rings. 

Air, Fr. air, Ital. aira, 8p. ayre, Gr. 
ar:fi, Lat. aer, Ir. aer. The root is pro- 
bably TIN, whence •*TX, which means 
the vehicle of light. That fluid, trans- 
parent, impenetrable, ponderable, com- 
pressible, dilatable, perfectly elastic sub- 
stance, which surrounds the earth, 
constituting what we otherwise call the 
atmosphere. Air is one of ths four cla«sical 
elements of antiquity ; but modem che- 
mistry shows, that of 1000 parts, 788 are 
nitrogen, 197 are orygen,\i are i-n;)OMr, and 
1 carbonic acid. 100 cubic ins. weigh 31 
grains. The term air, though now re- 
stricted to atmospheric air, was formerly 
used to designate gases generally. Thus 
ammonia was called alkaline air ; nitrogen 
or azote, azotic air ; carbonic acid, /ixed 
air; AvLoric acid, Jluoric air ; carburetted 
hydrogen, heavy inflammable air ; sulphur- 
etted hydrogen, hepatic air; hydrogen, 
inflammable air; nitrogen, nitrotm air, 
phlogisticated air, and nitrous dephlogisti- 
cated air ; phosphuretted hydrogen, phos- 
phoric air; sulphurous acid, sulphureotu 
air; oxygen, vital air and empyreal air; 
and even hydrochloric or muriatic acid 
had the odi coxnomcn of marine air.^— 

AIR 4 

7. lu music, the term air signifies the 
melody or treble part of a musical com- 
position ; also the peculiar modulation of 
the notes which gives music its character. 
The common meaning is the leading part 
of a tune, as distinct from the bass, treble, 

and counter. 3. In painting, as the air 

is the medium in nature through which 
every object is viewed, it is to be trans- 
ferred to the imitation on the canvas, 
and the eflfccts which it produces, in re- 
gulating the sizes and colours of objects, 
constitute a large part of the artist's 

AiR.v, the hair-grass, a genu? of the 
class triandria, and order digynia. There 
are eleven species, seven of which are Bri- 
tish, and all the order perennials. Named 
from Bu^ai, to destroy. This name was 
anciently given to the bearded darnel 
Lolium temulentum) , on account of its in- 
jurious effects ; and now to this genus of 
plants, which it was thought somewhat 
to resemble. 

Air-Balloon. See Balloon. 

Air-Bladder, ) the sound or swim of 

Air-Bao, j fishes: an organ situ- 

ated in the abdomen, by altering the 
dimensions of which the fish regulates 
its depth in th"fe water. 

Air-Cells. I. Of plants : cavities in 
the stems and leaves intended to render 

the part buoyant in water. 2. OT birds: 

membraneous receptacles which commu- 
nicate with the lungs. These permeate 
throughout the whole body. 

AiR-Gu>-, a. pneumatic instrument re- 
sembling a musket, to discharge bullets 
by the elastic force of the air compressed 
into an iron or copper globe by means of a 
condenser. To produce an eflfect equal to 
that of gunpowder, 1000 atmospheres must 
be forced into the globe, that is, the air 
must be compressed into one thousandth 
of the bulk which it occupies at the com- 
mon pressure of the atmosphere, taken at 
the earth's surface. 

Air-holder, an instrument for holding 
air, for the purpose of counteracting the 
pressure of a decreasing column of mer- 

AIR-.TACKET, a jacket made of leather 
in which are several receptacles for air, 
communicating with each other, and 
fitted to receive air by means of a brass 
tube. This jacket is used by persons who 
cannot swim, to support them in the 
water. A jacket, formed of corks strung 
together, serves equally well. 

Air-lamp, another name for Doberen- 
nier's lamp. 

AiR-piPE, a pipe used to withdraw 
vitiated air from the hold of a vessel, &c. 
by means of communication with the 
fomace and the place to be cleared of 
noxious air. Through this pipe only, the 
^re is supplied with air : and as one end 


is placed in the hold, a perpetual current 
is thus kept up, the foul air b?ing con- 
stantly withdrawn from the hold to th» 

AiR-poisE, an instrument foi ascertain- 
ing the weight of a given quantity of air. 

AiR-PL.\^NTs. See Aerial and Aerides. 

AiR-pcMP, a pneumatic machine for 
exhausting the air of a proper vessel, A, 


by means of a pump, B. The figure repre- 
sents a section of the machine. CD 
supports the receiver. A, and the pump, 
B,is fitted air-tight to this sole. There is 
a communication-tube, t, through which 
the air passes from A on working the 
pump, just as water is drawn from a well 
by means of a common pump, from which 
this does not differ. See Pump. 

Airs. In the manage, the artificial mo- 
tions taught horses, as the demivolt, 
curvet, capriole. 

Air-sacs, certain receptacles of air in 
birds, or vesicles lodged in the fleshy parts, 
in the hollow bones, and in the abdomen : 
they all communicate with the lungs. 
These are supposed to be for the purpose 
of rendering the body specifically lighter, 
and to supply the place of a muscular 

Air-shaft, a passage for air into a 
mine, usually opened in a perpendicular 
direction, and meeting the adits or hori- 
zontal passages, to cause a free circulation 
of fresh air through the mine. It may 
be made to communicate with a furnace 

Air-thread, a name given to the spi- 
ders' webs which are often seen in autumn 
floating in long filaments in the air: they 
are attached to branches of trees and 
shrubs, and serve to support the spider 
when in search of prey. 

Air-trap, an opening for the escape of 
air from drains, or sewers, or pipes. 

AiR-vEssELs, spiral ducts or canals in 
the leaves and other parts of plants, which 
are supposed to supply them with air, 
after the manner of lungs in animals. 

Aisle (pron. i7e), Fr. aile, from Lat. 
ala, a wing. When a church is divided 
in its breadth into three parts, the two 
extreme outward divisions are called 
aisles, and the centre division the nave or 
middle aitU, although the last seems im- 



pToper, and" side aisle " seems a tauto- 

AizooN, a jrenus of exotics, of which 
there are several species : three, shrubs of 
the Cape of Good Hope ; one, an annual 
of the Canary Islands; and another, of 
Spain. Name cttt^aiof, from ««, always, 
and ^ftian, alive; the old name for the 
house-leek (sempervitnim). 

Ajar\r\th, an old name for lead. 

Ajuoa, the bugle. A genus of plants, 
of ten species and some varieties. Class 
didynamia, and order gijmnospennia. Four 
of the species are British, inhabiting 
pastures chiefly: they are hardy peren- 
nials. " Name altered from the abiga 
{abigo, to drive away) of the Latins, a 
medicinal plant allied to this." — Hooker. 

Ajcru-catinoa, a species of American 
parrot: colour green, with eyes of tiery 
red, encircled with white. 

Ajubu-curau , a species of the American 
parrot: colour lively green, with a blue 
crown, the throat and sides of the head of 
a fine yellow. 

Ajcru-para, a small American parrot, 
of an elegant green : the beak, legs, and 
circulets of the eyes, white. 

Ajutage, the same with AdjtUage 

Akera, a genus of mollusca, of the 
order tectibrauchiata. 

Axis, a genus of coleopterous insects, of 
the Melasoma family, and Pimellariae 
tribe. Named from m»is> »• javelin, in 
reference to their form. 

Ala, the wing of a bird, Lat. from 
uXsai, to enclose. 1. In botany: (a) The 
angles which the leaves or their stalks 
make with the stem or branches of the 
plant from which they arise are called 
alee or ariUcg. (6) The two lateral petals 
of papilionaceous flowers placed between 
the vexilUum and the carina are called 
alte. (c) The borders formed on the stem 
of a plant by decurrent leaves are called 
idis. [d) An appendage of some seeds, 
consisting of a membranous prolongation 
from the side of the seed. According to 
the number of these appendages, seeds 
are distinguished into monopterygia (1- 
winged) ; dipterygia (2- winged) ; triptenj- 
gia {3-winged) ; tetrapterygia (4-winged) ; 
Ttohipterygia (many- winged) ; and, from 
their form, molendinacea (windmill- wing- 
ed). — Hooper. 2. In anatomy, the lobes 

of the liver, the lateral cartilages of the 
nostrils, the cartilaginous parts of the 
ears, are called al<s. The term is also ap- 
plied in the ss»me sense as axilla. 

Alabaster, Lat. from ikXi^eurr'or, 
compounded of a, without, and Xat/lsv, 
a handle. S«e Alaeastrites. This name is 
applied indifferently to two minerals : calr- 
sinter, which is a carbonate of lime, and 
nrsum, which is sulphate of lime. The 

latter is the alabaster of the ancients, 
used by them, as it is now, for the pur- 
poses of sculpture, as for making small 
statues, ornamental vases, perfume-boxes, 
bottles, &c. 

Alabastri'tes, Lat. from i.Xat^x.e'rpj- 
TT.i, alabaster-stone: gypsum. Horace 
calls it onyx. Also, among the ancients, a 
vase without a handle, for holding per- 
fumes ; often seen as ornaments on tomb- 
stones. Pliny compares them to oblong 

Alabastrites were often made of other 

materials than alabaster, as lead, gold, 

coloured glass, terra-cotta, and the com- 
mon stones of the country. 

Ala;, plural of ala (q. v.). In the an- 
etent Xoman architecture, the al<swere re- 
cessses or alcoves for conversation or 
study, surrounded on three sides by seats : 
their thresholds were of mosaic work. In 
malacology, a species of shell-flsh. 

Ala'gao, the local name of a shrub of 
the Philippine Islands, used by the natives 
for making cataplasms for diseases of the 
belly and head, for tumours, &c. 

Al'agas-os, a name of the sacrum and 
coccyx. ^ 

Ala'lia, from etXnXut, speechless. De 
feet of articulation. 

Ala'lite, a variety of augitc, called also 
diopside; so named" by Bonvoisin, from 
his finding a variety of it near the vil- 
lage of Ala, in Piedmont. 

Ala-mire, in music, the lowestnote but 
one in Guido Are tine's scale. 

Alamode, Fr. A la mode, after the fa- 
shion. In comtnerce, a thin, glossy silk, 
for scarfs, &c. It is often called simply 

Ai.angia'ce.s, a natural order of plants 
closely allied to the myrtacete : the typi- 
cal and only genus is alangium (q. v.) 

Alanoicm, a genus of showy Indian 
trees of two species. Class polyandria, 
and order monogynia. Named from alangi, 
the Malabar name of the first known spe- 
cies. The other species is called angolam 
by the nati ves. 

Ala'ris, Lat. ftflm ala. Formed like, or 
pertaining to, a wing. Alaris extemus, 
the external pterygoid muscle, which 
takes its rise from the wing-like process 
of the spheroid bone. 

Alarm. Alarm-bell, a bell rung to give 

notice of danger, as of fire. Alarm-giin, 

a gun flrcd to give notice of an enemy. 

Alarm-post, a rendezvous appointed In 
case of defeat, in time of war. Alarm- 
clocks sometimes have alarms, absurdly 
called alartims : they can be so adjusted 
as to give notice of the hour at any time 

Alarm watch, a watch that strikes the 

AiABMODOM. a genus of shells of the Si* 

ALB i 

mily unionidne, having two cardinal and 
no lateral teeth. 

ALASMoDo'NTiNiE, & sub-family of unio- 
nidae ; the typical genus is the alasmodon. 

Alate, Lat. alatw, winged: having di- 
lations like wings. Applied; I. In botany, 
to stems and- leaf-st.alks when the edges 
and angles are longitudinally expanded 

into leaf-like borders. 2. In concho- 

logij, to shells having an expanded lip, or 
■when any portion of them is much ex- 

Alau'da, the generic name of the lark: 
a granivorous bird which builds on the 
ground, and generally sleeps there. There 
are several species : the sky-lark {A. ar- 
vensis), is universally known by its per- 
pendicular mode of soaring, and powerful 
song; and the crested lark {A. cristata), 
is well known for the power it has of 
erecting the feathers on the top of the 
head into a tuft. Kame, from ad, and 
laudo, to praise. It is classed among the 
conirostres by Cuvier, in the order pas- 

Alba, ) Lat. aJbzis, white. A vestment 

Albe, i worn by priests of the Roman 
Catholic church. It diflfers from the sur- 
plice in fitting more closely to the body, 
and being tied with a girdle. 

Alba-Firma, anciently a rent paid in 
silver, and not in coin, which was called 

Al'batross, the most massive of aU 
aquatic birds, called sometimes the great 
gull, and diomedea, by Lin. The D. exu- 
lang is the species best known to navi- 
gators, who, on account of its size, white 
plumage, and black wings, and because it 
is particularly common beyond the tropic 
of Capricorn, call it the Cape sheep. To 
English sailors, however, it is best 
knowTi by the name of the man-of-war- 
bird. It is classed in the famUy of longi- 
pennes, and order palmipedes, by Cuvier. 
Kamed from atcatros or alcatross, by 
■which the early Portuguese navigators 
designated all oceanic birds. 

Albertus, a gold coin of the time of 
Albertus, archduke of Austria. 

Albicore, a marine hsh, noted for fol- 
lowing ships : named from Port, albacor, 
the little pig. 

Albige'nses, \ A party of reformers 

Albige'nois, i who separated from the 
Church of Rome in the 12th century. 
They take their name from Albigeuois, a 
small territory in France, where they re- 
sided. They are sometimes confounded 
with the V'nJ-denses, but they were prior 
to them in time, and diflfereiit from them 
in some of their tenets, and resided in a 
different paj-t of Fi-ance. The Catholics 
made war upon them, and they gradually 
dwindled till the Reformation, when the 
remains of them fell in with the followers 
of Zv inglius and the Genevan Protestants. 

i ALB 

Albinism , the anomaly of organisation, 
which distinguishes tlie albino. It is re- 
garded as a disease. 

Al'bino, (from aZ&MS, white). A white 
descendant of black parents, or a white 
person belonging to a black race. The 
name was originally given by the Portu- 
guese to negroes who were born mottled 
with white spots, or whose entire skin 
was wliite. 

The whiteness of the albino is not 
similar to that of the fair European : it 
is pallid and death-like, communicating 
a peculiar and very unpleasant appear- 
ance to the individual. The hair is 
white on every part of the body, the 
iris is of a pale rose colour, the eye can- 
not bear a strong light, and vision is 
very imperfect during the day-time. 
For this reason, the albinos of Africa 
sleep during the day and go abroad 
during night, when they see with great 

Albion, an old name of England still 
used in poetry : supposed to be given on 
account of its -white chalk cliffs, {albus, 

Albite, a name of tetarto-prismatic fel- 
spar : a variety of felspar in which the 
alkali is soda instead of potash. It is 
sometimes gray, green, or red ; but gene- 
rally white, whence its name from albus, 

Albora, a disease of the skin terminat- 
ing without ulceration, but with fetid 
evacuations from the mouth and nose : it 
is described as a complication of morphew, 
serpigo, and leprosy. 

Albuca, bastard star of Bethlehem. A 
genus of shrubaceous plants of 15 species, 
all natives of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Hexandria — monogynia. Name, irovaalbu- 
cum, the daffodil. 

Albugi'nea, Lat. from aZiwpo, the white 
of the eye. The outer coat or tegument 
of the eye is called tunica albuginea oculi 
by anatomists, on account of its white- 
ness. It is otherwise called the conjunc- 

Albugineocs, Lat. albugineus, pertain- 
ing to, or resembling the white of the eye, 
or of an e^g ; e. g. albugineous humour 
is the aqueous humour of the eye. 

Albu'go, the white of the eye, from 
albus, white. Technically, a white spot 
on the corner of the eye, which causes 
blindness ; otherwise called Leucoma. 

Albila, a geni;s of fishes of the trutta- 
ceous kind. An Indian species {A. indica) 
is called by the Dutch " wit-fish." Ano- 
ther species {A. nobilis) is very plentiful 
in the German lakes. 

At.BiM, {Latin). Literally anything 
white. 1. Among the Momans, a while 
table, board, or register, on which the 
names of public officei-s and public trana- 
actiona were written. 2. The term U 


»KW generally used to desij^iate a book 
originally Wank, kept at places of resort, 
■wherein visitors insert their names. Also 
% hook much in fashion, especially among 
ladies, wherein friends and visitants are 
compelled to insert verses, mottos, &c. 
Some illustrated annual publications, de- 
signed for light reading, are likewise so 
called, in reference to their similarity to 
the albums of young ladies. 

Albu'men , the white of egg, (from albus, 
white). 1. Atiimal allntmeti. This sub- 
stance is one of the chief constituents of 
all animal solids. The white of egg is 
almost pure albumen, being combined 
only with a little water, soda, and saline 
matter. It abounds in the serum of the 
blood, the humours of the eye and the 
fluid of dropsy. From its coagulability, 
albumen is much used for clarifying 
liquids ; and as it forms precipitates with 
the solutions of almost all the metallic 
salts, it is a ready antidote against some 
of the metallic poisons. 2. Vegetable al- 
bumen. This vegetable principle bears a 
close resemblance to animal albumen , and, 
like it, is coagulable by heat. It is pro- 
cured from gluten, of which it is a consti- 
tuent. It is never deleterious, however 
I>oisonons the plant may be which af- 
fords it. 

AuBCM GR.5:crM, the white excrement 
of dogs, sometimes used to soften leather 
in the process of di'essing it, after the de- 
pilatory action of lime. It principally 
consists of phosphate of lime. 

Alburn, the small fish otherwise called 
Weak. It belongs to the order of abdo- 
minals, and genus cyprinus: is deemed 
delicious food, and artificial pearls are 
sometimes made of its scales. Named 
from albumus, whitish. 

Albu'rncm, Lat. albus, white. The soft 
■white substance which, in trees, is found 
between the inner bark and the wood. 
In process of time it acquires solidity, and 
becomes itself wood. It is popularly called 

AiCA, a genus of birds including the 
««<* and piiffin. These birds inhabit the 
northern seas : their wings are too small 
to support them in flying, which they, 
therefore, do not attempt; but live on 
the ocean and breed on the rocks. They 
belong to the brachypterous family of 
palmipedes. Twelve species are enu- 
merated. The name alca is latinised from 
aik or attk, the name of these birds in 
the Feroe Islands and the north of Scot- 

Ai-caba'la., \ a tax formerly imposed in 

Axcava'la, i Spain and her colonies, 
consisting originally of 10, and subse- 
quently of 14 per cent., ad valorem, on all 
property sold as often as it changed hands. 

Alc.\ic, in ancient poetry, a term applied 
to several kinds of verse, from Alcttut, 

45 ALC 

their inventor. The following are 8p«ci- 

1. Eheu ! I fuga | ces, | Postume, I Postume, 
Labun | turan | nil | nee pie | tasmoram. 

2. Afferet | indom | tsque | morti. 

3. Cur timet fla | vum Tiberim | taagere, 
curl olivuni? 

Alca ID, lin the polity of Spain and 

Alcalde, /Portugal, a magistrate an- 
swering nearly to our justice of the peace : 
the Moors have an officer of the same 
name, but he is invested with supreme 
jurisdiction both in civil and criminal 
cases. The title is written in Spain al- 
cayde ; in Portugal alcaide ; the common 
root of which is Ar. kaidon, governor, 
with the prefix al, the; hence also the 
cadi of the Turks. 

Alcalimeter, a graduated glass to be 
employed in determining the quantity of 
alkali in the potash and soda of com- 

Alcamphora, a Brazilian herb, the 
croton perdicipes of botanists. The leaves 
are used in decoction against syphilis, and 
as a diuretic. 

Alcanna, the Arabic name of three 
plants. (1.) The Latcsmiiainermis. (2.) A 
species of filaria. (3.) The anchusa tiiu:- 
toria. It is also the name of a powder 
prepared from the Egyptian privet, used 
by the Turkish females to give a golden 
colour to the nails and hair. — Infused in 
water it gives a yellow, in vinegar a red, 

Alcantara, the name of a town in 
Spain, from which the military order of 
the knights of Alcantara took its name, 
otherwise called the knights of the pear- 

Alcarazzas. a species of porous earthen 
ware, made in Spain, for cooling liquids 
by promoting evaporation of the trans- 
uded water upon the external surface. 

Alcavala, in Spain, a tax on the trans- 
fer of every kind of property, real or 
personal. To this tax, which has been aa 
high as 14 per cent., and which is levied 
on the same property at every transfer, is 
perhaps to be traced the real cause of the 
ruin of Spanish manufactiu-crs. 

Aloe, the elk. Name from tiXxij, 

Alcea, the hollyhock : a genus of plants. 
Class monodelphia , order polyandria. Name 
dXx.ia, given by Pliny to a species of 

Alcedo, the kins-fisher: a genus ol 
tennirostres of the order passerintt. 
There are numerous species of this genus, 
with one or other of which almost every 
part of the world is furnished. They 
frequent rivers, feed on fish, which they 
capture by precipitating themselves into 
the water, and nestle in boles on the 




banks. Blue is the predominating colour ; 
the wings and tail are short, the beak 
long, straight, angular, and pointed. 

The bird known to the ancients by 
this name, is described as little bigger 
than a sparrow ; feathers purple, mixed 
with white, neck long and slender, bill 
green, and proportioned in length to the 
neck. During her incubation, which 
was in the sands of the sea-shore, the 
sea remained perfectly calm : these 
days, forty in number, were thence 
called Aicy'douida, or Halcyonei dies, that 
is "halcyon days." See HxLcroti . 
Alchemil'la, the geneiic name of ladies'- 
niantle, of which there are seven species, 
and three of these British. Class tetran- 
dria, order monogynia. Named from Ara- 
bic, alkemelyeh, on account of its sup- 
posed alchemical virtues. 

Alchemy, a pseudo-science, which had 
for its object the transmutation of the 
baser metals into gold and silver — the 
discovery of an alkahest or universal 
menstruum — a panacea or universal re- 
medy — a univei-sal ferment, and many 
other things equally ridiculous. It was 
much cultivated in Europe during the 
i6th and 17th centuries, and, notwith- 
standing the chimerical nature of its 
objects, we are indebted to its followers 
for many important discoveries in che- 
miiitry and medicine. The earliest notice 
that we find of alchemy, is in an edict of 
the Roman emperor Diocletian, com- 
manding all books which treat of the art 
of making gold and silver to be burned. 
The term is composed of the Arabic al, 
the, and kHmya, secret, from kamay, to 

Alciopa, a genus of articulata, of the 
order dorsibranchiata, of Cuvier. 

Alcmanian, pertaining to Alcman, a 
lyric poet of the 27th Olympiad, celebrated 
for h& amorous verses. — Alonanian verse 
consists of two dactyls and two trochees. 
Al'co, an American quadruped nearly 
resembling the dog, but mute and melan- 
choly. This circumstance has given rise 
to the fable, that dogs transported to 
America become mute. The animal was 
used as food by the native tribes and the 
first Spanish settlers, but it is said now 
to be extinct. It is known also by the 
name of zechichi. 
Alcoates, 1 definite compounds of 
Aloo»olates, j alcohol and various 
saline substances : discovered by Professor 
Graham. The alcohol seems simply to 
replace the water of crystallization. 

Al'cohol, a word compounded of Arabic, 
al, the, and k6hol, a paint for the eye- 
brows. Sulphuret of antimony reduced 
to a verv fine powder is used for this 
purpose by eastern ladies, and is called 
al kdhol ; akohol came ultimately to signify 
anything raised to the highest degree of 

fineness and purity, and (in Europe) now 
designates the purely spirituous part of 
liquors which have undergone the vinous 
fermentation. It is light, transparent, 
colourless, of a sharp, penetrating smell, 
and a warm stimulating taste. It cannot 
be frozen by any known degree of cold, 
and boils at ni** Eah., sp. gr. 792, but 
the strongest spirit obtained by mere dis- 
tillation is 820 ; and alcohol can rarely be 
had from the shops less than •835. Its 
constituents are 2 atoms of carbon, 3 of 
hydrogen, and 1 of oxygen. "When dis- 
tilled with sulphuric acid, ether is pro- 
duced. Alcohol burns with a pale tlame, 
producing carbonic acid and water. It 
give* no smoke. 

Alcoholiza'tion. 1. Conversion into 
alcohol. 2. liectification of spirit till 
wholly dephlegniated. 3. Reduction of a 
substance to an impalpable powder. 

Alcohol'ometer, ( an instrument for 

Alcouol'imeter, ) ascertaining the a- 
mount of absolute alcohol in a given 
quantity of alcoholic fluid. Sike's hy- 
drometer is generally used in England for 
this purpose. 

Al'cob., a small star adjoining to the 
large bright one in the middle of the tail 
of ursa major. The word is Arabic. 

Al'coean, see Alkoran. 

Alco've, a part of a room, separated by 
an estrade or partition of columns, or by 
other corresponding ornaments, in which, 
is placed a bed of state, and sometimes 
seats for company. The use of alcoves, as 
well as the word, which we have altered 
from alcoba, seems to have been derived 
from the Spanish builders, and by them 
from their Arabian conquerors. They 
have fallen into disuse. 

The Sp. word is from Ar. al kubbeh, a 

place for the bed, the i*oot of which is 

khatib, sleep. 

Al'cton, a trivial name of the king- 
fisher. Sec Alcedo. 

Alct'osites, spongiform fiint fossils, 
common in the chalk formation. 

Alcy'dnicm, a genus of polypi, placed 
in the family corticati, by Cuvier. The 
animal grows Jn the form of a plant : the 
stem or root is fixed, fleshy, gelatinous, 
spongy, or coriaceous, with a cellular 
epidermis penetrated with stellated pores, 
and shooting out tentaculated oviparous 
hydrae. The best known species is that 
popularly called "Dead Man's Hand," 
A. digitaUim, Lin. 

Aldeba'ran, a star of the first magni- 
tude in the constellation Taurus, called 
also the Bull's eye. Term, from Ar. al, 
the, and dtbrdn, a leader. 

Aldehyde, a newly-discovered, colour- 
less, inflammable liquid, having a pecxiliar 
ethereal smell; sp. gr. "79; boils at 71" 
Fah. It is named from the first syllables 
of oteohol and d«^<irogenatas, and may 



be prepared by distillation from 1 part of 
water, 1 part of alcohol, IJ binoxide of 
manganese, and IJ of aqueoua sulphuric 
acid. Symbol. O C» H». 

Aldehidic acid is prepared from alde- 
hyde, and is composed of oxygen, hydro- 
gen, and carbon. 

Al'der, a tree -which usually grows in 
moist or boggy places: it is the Betiila 
alnm of the botanist, and is a native of 
Europe, from Lapland to Gibraltar ; and 
of Asia, from the "White Sea to Moimt 

Alderman, from Sax. alb> olc'i aldeft, 
older, and man. 1. Among our Saxon 
ancestors, the second order of nobility : it 
answered to our title of earl , it was infe- 
rior to aUieling, but superior to thane. 
The title was also used in the time of 

Edgar for a justice or Judge. 2. In 

present usage, a magistrate or oflScer of a 
town corporate, next in rank below the 
mayor. In London there are 26 aldermen, 
each having one of the wards of the city 
committed to his care. The office is for 
life. They are, by their office, justices of 
the peace, and, with the mayor, constitute 
the court of corporation. In other bo- 
roughs, the aldermen are, by 5 & 6 W. 4, 
c. 76, to be in nimiber one-third of the 
councillors, one part to be elected tri- 
cunially from among the councillors. 

Aldine Editions, in bibliograpr.y , those 
editions of the Greek and Roman classics 
■\vhich proceeded from the press of the 
family of Aldus Manutius, first established 
at Venice, not long after the year 1490. 
The impress is an anchor and dolphin 
engraved on the last page. 

Ale, a fermented liquor made from malt 
and hops, and chiefly distinguished from 
beer, made of the same ingredients, by 
a smaller quantity of hops being used in 
its preparation, which renders it less 
bitter, and less fitted to keep than beer. 
The word is altered from Sax. eale. See 

Aleato'rium, in the old Roman archi- 
tecture, an apartment appropriated to 
the use of players with dice {aieee). 

Ale-Conner, an officer in London, 
whose business it is to inspect the mea- 
sures used in ale-houses, &c. The situa- 
tion is now a sinecure. Conner, from 
Sax. con, to see, examine. 

Alector, the generic name of the Hocco. 
" The hoccos are large gallinaceae of Ame- 
rica, which resemble turkeys, with a 
brown, round tail, formed of large stiff 
quills. They live in woods, feed on buds 
and fruits, build on trees, and are very 
social and easily domesticated." Name, 
aXi«T*{,the cock, for what reason un- 

Alicto'rii, the alectoriui lapis or cock- 
*toM (•Xf»rw{, a cock) : a peculiar stone, 


said to be got in the stomach of the cock, 
and fabled to possess great medicinal 

Albctorides, a tribe of gallinaceous 
birds, including the curassow, and analo- 
gous species. Typical genus Alector (q.v.). 

Alee. In nautical language, when the 
helm is moved over to the lee-side, it is 
said to be alee or hard alee. 

Alehoof, a name of a species of ground- 
ivy ; the Glechoma hederacea of Lin. The 
leaves are used in clarifying ale. The 
name is Dutch, eiloof. 

Alembic, from Ar. al, the, and umbeq, a 
kind of cup. A chemical vessel used in 
distilling, called also a Moorshead. It is 
made of, metal, or earthenware ; 
consists of a bottom part, called the cu- 
curbit or boiler, to which is adapted a 
head, called the capital. The head is of 
a conical figure, and has its external cir- 
cumference or base depressed lower than 
its neck, so that the vapours which rise, 
and are condensed against its sides, run 
down into the ciicular channel formed by 
the depressed part, from whence they are 
c6nveyed by a tube into a receiver. 

Alem'broth, salt of wisdom. The al- 
chemists gave this name to a preparation 
made by dissolving equal parts of corro- 
sive sublimate and sal ammoniac in dis- 
tilled water, and adding carbonate of soda 
as long as any precipitate was formed. 
This precipitate is the sal alembroth: a 
hydrochlorate of mercury and ammonia, 
and the same with the hydrargyrum 
preecipitatum albinn , or white precipitate 
of mercury of the present London phar- 
macopoeia. The word is Arabic, and sig- 
nifies the key of art. 

Alepi DOTE, any fish whose skin is not'co- 
vered with scales (ecAajTis, without scales) . 

Ale-silver, a duty paid to the Lord 
Mayor of London by sellers of ale within 
the city. 

Ale-taster, an officer appointed in 
every court-leet, and sworn to inspect 
ale, beer, and bread ; and examine the 
quality and quantity within the precincts 
of the lordship. 

Aletris, a genus of exotic perennials, 
of eight species, belonging to the class 
hexandria, and order monogynia. 

Alel-bitbs, the generic name of a South 
Sea shrub, which belongs to the class 
nionacia, and order monuiidphia. Name, 
from «A£:^{o», flour. 

Alexandrian Scmool, an academy or 
learning of all kinds, founded at Alexan- 
dria, by Ptolemy, son of Lagus, and sup- 
ported by his successors. The grammar- 
ians and mathematicians of this school 
were particularly celebrated. Among the 
first may be mentioned Aristarchus and 
Aristophanes ; and among the latter Pto- 
lemy and Euclid. 

A L G 


AtEXAN'DRiNA, the bay-tree or laurel of 
Alexandria: is so called from the place 
of its growth. 

Alexan'drine, ) An epithet applied to 

Alexan'drian, la kind of verse, con- 
sisting of 12 and 13 syllables alternately ; 
80 called from a poem, in French, on the 
life of Alexander the Great. The French 
tragedies ai-e generally composed of Alex- 

Alexiphar'mic, from «X£|a;, to expel, 
and (fotp/jucxov, poison. Antidotal : that 
has the power of expelling poison or in- 
fection by fortifying the system against it. 

Aloa, a sea- weed. Algte (plural of alga) 
is the name of one of the seven families, 
or natural tribes, into which the whole 
vegetable kingdom is divided by Lin- 
naeus, who defines them as plants, the 
roots, leaves, and stems of which are all 
in one. Under this description are com- 
prehended all the sea-tceeds (plants which 
grow in salt-water), and such fresh- water 
plants (conferva) as vegetate exclusively 
under water. The algce form the third 
order, the class cryptogamia. 

Algaro'ba, the name of a tree found in 
the southern parts of Europe and in some 
parts of Asia, especially Palestine. Its 
pods are filled with a sweetish powder, 
>vhich is supposed to have been the locusts 
on which St. John fed in the wilderness. 
Name, from Arabic, al, the, and garoba, 
a bean-tree. 

Al'gahoth. When chloride of antimony 
(butter of antimony; is poured into water, 
the metallic oxide is precipitated in the 
form of a white powder, which is powder 
ofAlgaroth: it is, therefore, a subchloride 
of antimony. It acts as a violent emetic, 
and takes its name from Victor Algarotti, 
a physician of Verona. 

Algebra, the science of quantity in 
general or universal arithmetic : it treats 
of the method of representing magnitudes 
and their relations to one another in 
general terms, by means of symbols and 
signs respectively ; and by such method 
of representation, it comprises all parti- 
cular cases of quantities, and their con- 
nection with each other, in general lan- 
guage, dependent upon the nature of the 
questions in which they are involved. 
The sj-mbols employed are the letters of 
the alphabet, and the signs are, + for 
addition; — , for subtraction; =, for 
equality, and > , for inequality ; X , is 
sometimes used for multiplication; and 
-7-, for division : but the use of these signs 
is generally evaded by more concise modes 
of denoting the operations for which they 

" Algebra is the European corruption 

of an Arabic phrase, which may be 

thus ■WTitten— «rf jebre al makabalah, 

meaning restot %tion and reduction. The 

earliest work on the subjeot is that of 
Diophantus, a Greek of Alexandria, 
who Jived between a.d. loo and a.d.400, 
but when cannot be well settled, nor 
whether he invented the science himself 
or borrowed it from some eastern work. 
It was brought among the Mahometans 
by Mohammed ben Musa (Mahomet, 
the son of Moses), between a.d. 800 and 
A.D. 850 ; and was certainly dtrived by 
him from the Hindoos. The earliest 
work which has been found among the 
latter nation, is called the Vija Genita, 
written in the Sanscrit language, about 
A.D. 1150. It was introduced into Italy, 
from the Arabic work of Mohammed, 
just mentioned, about the beginning of 
the 13th century, by Leonardo Ronacci, 
called Leonard of Pisa ; and into Eng- 
land by a physician, named Robert 
Recorde, in a book called the Whetstone 
of Witte, published in the reign of 
Queen Mary, in 1557 ."—A2igusius De 

Algebra'ic, ■} Pertaining to algebra ; 
Ai.oebra'ical, J containing an opera- 
tion of algebra, or deduced from such an 
operation. Thus an algebraic curve is 
one of which the relation between the 
abscissa and ordinates is expressed by an 
equation which contains only algebraic 
quantities : in contradistinction to a 
transcedental curve, in which the relation 
is expressed in infinite series. See also 
Equation and Quantity. 

Al'geneb, a star of the second magni- 
tude, on the right shoulder of Perseus. 

Al'ool, a star of the third magnitude, 
called Medusa's head, in Perseus. 

Al'gorab, a star of the third magni- 
tude on the right wing of Corvus. 

Al'guazil, an officer in Spain, corre- 
ponding to the bailiflf in England. 

Alha'ce.!, a tribe of plants in the natural 
system ; type alhagi. 

Alha'gi, the prickly hedysarum; a 
shrub of the Levant. Kame altered from 
the Arabic name Algul or Aghid. 

Alias the Latin word for otherwise: a 
term used in judicial proceedings to con- 
nect the different names by which a 
person is called, who has assumed ficti- 
tious ones. Alias is also the name of a 

second writ, issued when the first has 
failed to enforce the judgment, as an alias 
capias, &c. 

Alibi, the Latin word for elsewhere; a 
law tei-m used where a person charged 
with an offence, pleads that he could not 
have committed it, because he was at the 
time elsewhere. The part of a plea which 
avers the party to have been elsewhere, 
is also called an aiibi. 

Alico'neda, a large tree found in Congo, 
from the bark of which a kind of flax is 
Al'idadb, an Arabic name for the index 

A. LI 49 

•which moves about the centre of an as- 
trolabe or quadrant, carrjing the sights 
of the telescope, and showing the number 
of degrees and minutes of altitude on the 
quadrated limb of the instrument. 

Alien, from Lat. alius, another. In 
law, a foreigner : one not within the alle- 
giance of the sovereign; opposed to 

In France, a child bom of residents 
-who are not citi/ens is an alien. In 
IJritain, the children of aliens bom in 
that countr>' are natural-bom subjects ; 
and the children of British-bom sub- 
jects, owing allegiance to the crown 
of England, though bom in other coun- 
tries, are naturalised subjects, and 
entitled to the privileges of resident 

Aliena'te, Lat. alienattu. Applied to 
leaves of plants, when the first leaves give 
■way to others totally different from them. 
Alien a'tion, in law, denotes the act of 
making over a man's property in lands, 
tenements, &c. to another person. 

To alien or alienate in fee, is to sell or 
convey the fee-simple of lands, &c. 

ALiEN-nnTT, a tax ujKyn goods imported 
by aliens, beyond the duty upon like 
goods imported by citizens ; a discrimi- 
nating duty on the tonnage of ships be- 
longing to aliens ; or any extra duties 
imposed by law im aliens. 

Alienatiojj-o»ticb, an office to which 
all writs of covenant and entry, on which 
lines are levied and recoveries suffered, 
are carried, to have fines for alienation 
set and paid thereon. 

Al'imest, from Lat. dlimentum, nou- 
rishment. In Scotch law, the natural ob- 
iigation of parents to provide for children, 
IS termed the obligation of aliment. 
ALiME.NTARi-r*NAL, | a name given to 
Alimentary DUCT, j the whole con- 
duit through which the food passes from 
the mouth to the anuj. The presence of 
this duct may be said to form the tme 
characteristic of the animal. The tho- 
racic duct is sometimes so called. 

Alimentary LAW, among the Romam, 
a law that obliged children to support 
their parents, when they were unable to 
provide for their own sustenance. 

Alimony, Lat. alimonia, from alo, to 
feed. An allowance made to a woman 
legally separated from her husband, when 
she is neither charged with elopement nor 
adultery. The sum is fixed by the pro- 
per judge, and granted out of the hus- 
band's estate. 

Aliped, wing-footed, from ala, a wing, 
and pes, a foot. Subitantively, an animal 
whose toes are connected by a membrane, 
and which serse for wings, e. g. the bat 
is an aliped. 

ALiacANT, from Lat. aliguantum, a 
little. In arithmttic, au aliquant uiunber 


is one which does not me:i«ure anothei 
exactly, e.g. 6 is an aliquant part of 20, 
for 6 does not divide 20 without leaving 
a remainder. 

Aliuiot, from Lat. aliqtiotiet, some- 
times. In arithmetic, an aliquot part ol 
a number is one which measures it a 
certain nimiber of times ; e.g. 7 measun^s 
21 , and is therefore called an aliquot part 
of 21. See Measure. 

Alis'ma, the icnter-plantain ; a genus of 
plants of the class hexandria, and order 
polygynia. There are five British species, 
all hardy perennials, inhabiting the mar- 
gins of lakes, rivers, ditches, &c., whence 
the name, from Celtic alis, water. 

Alisma'ce.!, an order of aquatic planis 
in the natural system; tjpical genus 
Ali-trunck, ) in entomology, the pos- 
Alitrcncus, i terior segment of the 
thorax to which the abdomen of the in- 
sect is afltaed, and which carries the legs, 
properly so called, and the wings. 

Aliza'rine, a substance extracted from 
madder, and believed by some to be the 
dyeing principle of the root. It is, how- 
ever, to be observed, that the richer 
madders of Avignon afford little or no 
alizarine ; and that the purpurine, from 
which the alizarine is immediately pro- 
cured, is a richer dye than the ptire sub- 
stance itself. The term is derived from 
ali-zari, the commercial name of madder 
in the Levant. 

Alkahest, a term used by Paracelsus 
to signify a liquid capable of removing 
every kind of obstruction ; and by Van 
Helmont, to designate a universal solvent, 
capable of reducing every substance in 
nature to a state of purity. The prepa- 
ration of this wonderful fluid was one of 
the chief objects of alchemy. Query.— If 
it dissolves all substances, in what vessels 
could it be contained ? 

The term is usually derived from the 
Arabic, but others maintain that Para- 
celsus compounded it of the German 
words all and geist, spirit ; others, again, 
assert, that it is nothing more than & 
corruption of alkali est, so that the ety- 
mology appears as difficult as the pre- 
paration of the wonderful fluid of 
which it is the name. 
Alkali, 1 from Arabic kali, -with th« 
Alcali, i common prefix al, the plant 
called glasswort (from its use in the ma- 
nufacture cf glass), or rather the salt ob- 
tained from the ashes of the plant. A 
general name in chemistry for all bodies 
which combine with acid, so as to neu- 
tralise or impair the activity of the 
latter, and produce certain saline sub- 
stances, differing in their properties from 
either. The name was formerly confined 
to the three substances potash, soda, and 
ammonia, but it is now extended to na* 

ALK { 

merous other substances, and these are 
become the representatives of three 
classes of alkalies, the vegetable, mineral, 
anianimal. The firet two are called fixed 
alkalies, and the third is called volatile 
alkali. They hare these properties in 
common: they change the vegetable 
purples and blues to green, the reds to 
purple, and the yellows to brown, both 
before and after being saturated with car- 
bonic acid ; they are powerful solvents of 
animal matter, with which, as with fat of 
oil, they combine, and form soap. 

Al'kalimeter, an instrument for ascer- 
t*ining the amount of absolute alkali in 
f omraercial potash and soda by the quan- 
tity of acid of a known strength which 
a given weight of it will neutralise. 

Ai,'ka.loid, from alkali, and uho;, like. 
A substance possessing some of the 
properties of an alkali. The name is 
applied to a large class of vegetable sub 
stances possessed of alkaline properties, 
and which are more commonly designated 
feaetable alkalies. These generally consist 
of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitro- 
gen, and possess great medicinal activity. 

Al'kanet, the plant bugloss (Anchusa 
tinctoria), the root of which yields a fine 
red colour to alcohol, oil, wax, and all 
unctuous substances. The colouring 
matter is confined to the bark : it is 
named by chemists alcannine or anchusic 
acid. The name is altered from alkenna 

Alkeken'gi, the Arabic name of the 
winter cherry {Physalis alkeketiyi). The 
berry is medicinal. 

Alken'na, the Egyptian privet , (a species 
of Lawsonia), the pulverised leaves of 
■which are much used in eastern countries 
for staining the nails of the fingers yeUow. 
The powder being wetted forms a paste 
■which, bound on the nails for a night, 
gives colour enough to last for several 
weeks. The name is Arabic, al, the, and 
liinny, a dye. 

Alker'mes, an Arabic name of a cele- 
brated remedy in the form of a confection, 
of which kennes (q. v.) forms the basis. 

Alkoo'hl, Alkoo'l, a preparation of 
antimony (black tilphuret), used by 
oriental ladies to tinge their eyelids, eye- 
lashes, and eyebrows of a black colour. 

Al'korxn, (from Ar. al, the, and koran, 
book, that is, the hook,hy way of eminence, 
as we say the bible. The book -which con- 
tains the Mohammedan doctrines of faith 
and practice. It was written by Moham- 
med in the dialect of the Koreish, which 
is the purest Arabic ; but the languages 
of Arabia have suffered such changes 
since it was written, that the book is no 
longer intelligible to the Arabiar.« them- 
selves, without being studied i<ke any 
Other book written in a dead ^n^uage. 


The great doctrine of the koran is the 
unity of God ; that there never was, and 
never can be more than one orthodox 
religion ; that the ceremonies of -worship 
are only temporary, and may be altered 
by divine direction, yet the substance 
being eternal truth continues immutable ;' 
and that whenever religion became cor- 
rupted in essentials God in his goodness 
re-informed mankind by his severa . pro- 
phets, of whom Moses and Jesus Christ 
were the most distinguished, till Moham- 
med, who is their seal, and no other is to 
be expected after him. 

Alkor'anist, one who adheres strictly 
to the letter of the koran, rejecting all 
comments. The Persians are alkoranists. 
The Arabs, Turks, and Tartars admit many 

All, the whole. All in the wind is a 
phrase -which expresses the state of a 
ship's sails when they are parallel to the 

direction of the wind. All hands ahoay ! 

the phrase by which a ship's company 
are summoned on deck. 

Allagite, a mineral of a brown or 
green colour ; massive, semi-opaque, frac- 
ture conchoidal ; it is a carbo-silicate of 

All.vh, the Arabic name of God, com- 
pounded of the particle al and elah, ador- 
able, i. e. the Adorable. 

Alla IJreve, Italian, according to the 
breve. In music, the name of a movement 
whose bars consist of the note called a 
breve. It is denoted at the beginning of a 
staff by a C with a vertical line through it. 

Allaman'da, the generic name of a 
shrub of Guiana, the leaves of which are 
used at Surinam as a specific for colic. 
Pentandria — Monogynia. 

Alla Capella, Italian, literally, accord- 
ing to the chapel. In music, the same as 
Alla breve (q. v.), this time being princi- 
pally employed in movements used in the 
church or chapel. 

Al'lanite, a mineral named in honour 
of Mr. Thomas Allan of Edinburgh. It is 
a siliceous oxide of cerium, and is found 
in Greenland. 

Allanto'ic, pertaining to the eitlanMs. 
The allantoic acid is obtained fiom the 
fluid of the allentois. The same acid was 
formerly called the ammotic acid, being 
supposed to exist in the liquor amnii of 
the cow. 

Allanto'id. The allantois is also called 
the allantoid membrane. 

Allanto'is, from olWo., a sausage, and 
s'Sof , likeness. A thin membrane which 
exists in most of the mammalia, situated 
between the chorion and amnion , and com- 
mtmicatlng with the bladder of the canal 
called the urachtis : it contains the urine 
of the foetus. 

Allaktox'icom, from »XXetf. a sausage, 






and Tol^iJcot, poison. A poison developed 
in putrid sausages made of blood and 

Alleojl'tjon, in ecclesiastical courts, a 
formal complai nt or declaration of charges. 
In law, the production of instruments or 
deeds to justify something. 

Allegiance, the duty or fidelity of a 
subject to his sovereigu or government. — 
The oath of allegiance is that taken in 
acknowledgment of the temporal autho- 
rity of the sovereign, as the oath of su- 
premacy acknowledges the sovereign to be 
the supreme head of the church. The 
term is old Fr. from Lat. alligo, of ad 
and ligo, to bind. 

Al'legort, from ecXXttyifiec, of ti^Xcf, 
Other, and etyo^u/ai,to speak. A figurative 
sentence or discourse, wherein something 
else is signified tlian the words in their 
literal meaning express. The principal 
subject is thus kept out of view, and is 
described by another subject, which is 
represented so as to bear some resemblance 
to it in properties and circumstances. 
The reader or hearer is thus left to collect 
the meaning from the resemblance which 
he can find between the secondary and 
the primary subject. 

Alleore'tto, in mttsic, denotes a move- 
ment of time quicker than andante, but 
not so quick as allegro. See Allegro. 

Allegrissimo, in music, means very 
lively. See Allegro. 

Allegro, Ital. from leggiere, to be merry. 
In music, a word denoting a brisk move- 
ment; a sprightly part or strain. There 
are two other degrees of the same : allegris- 
simo, very lively ; allegretto, or poco allegro, 
a little lively. The word piu, more, is 
sometimes prefixed to strengthen the 

ALLELtr'iAH (in Heb. IT-"!? 7n, praise 
to Jah). Praise to Jehovah : a word used 
to denote pious joyand exultation, chiefly 
in hymns and anthems. The Greeks re- 
tained the word in their EAfAi» I»i, praise 
to lo ; probably a corruption of Jah. The 
Komans retained the latter word in their 
lo triimiphe. 

ALLELtJiAH, a name given to wood sor- 
rel {oxalis acetosa). It was so called, be- 
cause the alleluiah was sung in the church 
at the time when its leaves first appeared 
above ground. 

Al'lemand (French). In mtmc, a slow 
air in common time, or grave, solemn 
music with a slow movement. Also the 
name of a brisk dance common in Ger- 
many and Switzerland. 

Alle'rion , in heraldry, an eagle without 
beak or feet, with expanded wings, de- 
noting imperialists vanquished and dis- 
armed. The word is also written o/en'oM. 

All-fours, a game at cards played by 
two or four persons ; so called from pos- 

session of the four honours by one person, 
who is then said to have all fours. 

All-hallows, all-saints -day : the first 
day of November, dedicated to all the 
saints in general. 

All-heal, a popular name of several 
plants ; e. g a species of hedge nettle 
(stachys palustris) , is called "clown's all- 
heal;" and a species of St. John's wort 
{hypericum androstemum) , has the name 
of all-heal, besides several others. 

Allia'czocs, pertaining to garlic (al- 
lium) : having the properties of garlic. 

Alliance. 1. In civil and canott law, the 
relation contracted between two persons 

or two families by marriage. 2. In 

politics and international law, a treaty en- 
tered into by sovereigns or states, for their 
mutual safety and defence, or for the 
purpose of attacking some other state, or 
for both ; sometimes also the instrument 
of confederacy.— The term is Fr. alliance, 
the root of which is lier, to unite. 

Alligation, Lat. alligatio, of ad and 
ligo, to bind. A rule in arithmetic to 
find the value of compoimds, consisting 
of ingredients of different values. It la 
divided into two kinds. 1. Alligation 
medial is when the price and quantitiea 
of several simples, which are to be mixed, 
are given to find the mean price of the 

mixture. 2. Alligation alternate is when 

the prices of several things are given to 
find the quantities which must be taken 
of them to make a mixture of a given 
mean price. 

Al'ugator, a species or rather subgenus 
of the crocodile family of reptiles ; to 
which belongs the crocodilus lucius of 
Cuvier. The animal belongs to the lizard 
order (sauria, Cuv.), has a long naked 
body, four feet, five toes on each fore foot, 
and four on each hind one, armed with 
claws, and a serrated tail. The mouth is 
very large and furnished with sharp teeth ; 
the skin is brown, tough, and on the 
sides covered with tubercles. The larger 
of these animals grow to the length of 17 
or 18 feet ; they live in and about the rivers 
of the southern parts of North America ; 
eat fish, catch hogs on the shore, or dogs 
when swimming. In winter they burrow 
in the mud, and remain torpid till spring. 
Name altered from allagarto, from Sp. 
and Port, lagarto, a lizard. 

Alligator-pear, a West Indian flruit, 
resembling a pear in shape. It is the 
fruit of the Laurus Persea of Linnxus. 

Allin'emekt, from Fr. alignement, a 
squaring, a row, from ligne, a line. 

Allioth, a star in the tail of the Great 
Bear(«r«i mayor), much employed in fina- 
ing the latitude at sea. 

The Arabs gave the name of AHwik 

or AUiuth, meaning " the horse," to 

each of the three stars in the tail u^ Uk» 

Great Bear, on account of their appeu^ 
E 2 


inglike three horses, ranged for draw- 
ing the waggon represented by the four 

stars called Charles' Wain. 

Al'lium, garlic ; a genus of plantsof the 
class hexandria, and order mmiogynia. 
There are upwards of 60 species, almost 
all of which are hardy perennials. Eight 
species are British. The A. porrum, or 
leek, and the A. cepa, or onion, are perhaps 
among the most useful of the species ; and 
the A. Canadense, or Canada onion-tree, 
which bears excellent eatable onions on 
the top of the stalk, is perhaps the most 
remarkable. Name latinized from Celtic 
all, acrid. 

Alloca'ton, from Lat. ad and loco, to 
place. The admission of an article of an 
account, or the -allowance of an account. 
In the English Exchequer. The certificate 
of allowance of cost of taxation, granted 
by the master or other officer of court, is 
in practice termed an allocatur. The writ 
de allocatione facienda is directed to the 
Lord Treasurer or Barons of the Exche- 
quer, commanding them to allow an ac- 
countant such sums as he shall lawfully 
expend in the execution of his office. 

Allochroite, a variety of the dodeca- 
hedral garnet. It is found massive, of a 
green, brown, gray, or yellowish colour ; 
lustre, glimmering. Name, from «uA.X«f , 
other, and %fa/a, colour, expressive of 
the changes of colour it undergoes before 
the blow-pipe, by the action of which it 
is finally converted into a fine black 

Allodiai,, pertaining to ailodium (q. v.), 
and opposed to feudal. 

Allodium, freehold estate : land which 
is the absolute property of the owner: 
real estate held in absolute independence, 
without being subject to any rent, service, 
or acknowledgment to a superior: op- 
posed to fettd. In England there is no 
allodial land, all land being held of the 
sovereign : in the United States of Ame- 
rica, most lands are allodial. The word 
is probably latinised from Celtic allod, that 
is, all, complete, and od, possession. 

Allonge, from Fr. allonger, to lengthen, 

to thrust. 1 . A pass with a sword made 

by stepping forward and extending the 

arm. 2. A long rein when a horse is 

trotting in hand. 

Allo'pathy, Lat. allopathia of etXXo(, 
other, and ^etOos, disorder. The effect 
of a medicine which cures a diseased 
action by inducing another : opposed to 

Allophane, a mineral of a blue, green, 
or brown colour; occurs massive, or in 
imitative shapes. It is hard and brittle, 
and gelatinizes in acids. Name, from 
aXXoi, other, and <fKi¥iu, to appear. 

Allotment oFLAuns. Any piece of land 
•et apart for a special purpose is called an 



allotment. Thus, when a cottage has 
more land than suffices for a garden, it is 
commonly called a cottage allotment. 

Allotriophagy, from ocKKtrftoe, extra- 
neous (.things), and (pocvu, I eat. A desire 
to eat what is improper for food, depraved 
appetite : symptomatic of disease. 

Allowances. In selling goods, or in 
paying duties upon them, certain deduc- 
tions are made from their weights, depend- 
ing on the nature of the packages in which 
they are inclosed, and which are regulated 
in most instances by the custom of mer- 
chants, and the rules laid down by public 
offices. These deductions are termed 
allowances ; and are further distinguished 
by the epithets Draft, Tare, Tret,s.n6. Cloff, 
which see in their places. 

Allot', from Fr. alloyer, to mix one 
metal with another, perhaps from A la loi, 
the proportions being regulated by law ; 
but more probably from allier, to unite. 
To alloy is to mix one metal with another 
by fusing them together : the compound 
formed is called an alloy. Formerly the 
term was restricted to compounds formed 
of gold and silver, with other metals of 
inferior value, but it is now extended to 
any compound of any two or more metals 
whatever, except when one of the con- 
stituents is mercury : the term amalgam 
is then used to denote the compound. 
Brass, bronze, and type metal are familiar 
instances of alloys. When a metal of in- 
ferior value is used to deteriorate another 
metal, as gold, the inferior metal is some- 
times distinguished as the alloy. Thus, 
when gold is alloyed with copper, the 
copper is called the alloy, although strictly 
the term is referable to the compound. 
Thus our gold coin is an alloy, consisting 
of 11 parts pure gold and one part copper ; 
and our silver coin is likewise an alloy, 
consisting of 111 silver and 09 copper. 
The silver alloy used for plate is the same 
as that used for coin, and the purity is 
guaranteed by the assay stamp of the 
Goldsmiths' Company. To produce an 
alloy of two metals, they must be fused 
together. AUoy is sometimes written 

-\ll-saints, the first day of November, 
called also All-hallows. 

All-souls, the second day of Novem- 
ber, which is set apart by the Romish 
church, to supplicate for the souls of the 
faithful deceased. 

Allspice, a popularname of the Myrtus 
pimenta, or more particularly the dried 
berry of that tree, which has a spicy, 
pungent, but agreeable aromatic taste. It 
is a native of Jamaica, and is thence called 
Jamaica pepper : similarly, the Chimo- 
nanthus fragrant of Japan is called tlie 
Japan allspice. 

Allu'med, Fr. allumit, lighted. In ht 




rtUdry, applied to the eyes of heiu«t«, when 
they are drawn sparkling and red, 

Alld'via.l, composed of alluvion. 

Atur'vios, \ Lat. alluvio, ot tvi and luo, 

AtLc'viuM, I to wash. Detritus, con- 
sisting of earth, sand, jrravcl, stones, or 
other transported matter, which has been 
washed away and deposited by water 
upon land, not permanently submerged 
beneath the waters of lakes and seas. 
Alluvion is distinguished by geologists 
into ancient and modem : the first is cha- 
racterisi'd by the fossil remains of large 
extinct manimaliaandcarnivora; and the 
second, by the remains of man and co- 
tcmporaueous animals and plants. 

Alm.».. 1. An alchemical name for 
^ater. 2. In Egyptian customs- See 


Ai.MADic. 1. A bark canoe used on 

some parts of the coast of Africa. 2. A 

long boat used at Calicut, in India, 80 feet 
in length, and 6 or 7 broad ; called also 

Alm/^oes't, the name of a celebrated 
book dra^vn up by Ptolemy ; being a col- 
lection of the problems of the ancients 
relative tn geometry and astrology. Its 
original fireek title was 'Swra^is Miyia-rv 
(the Grent Computation). The Arabians 
translated it in the ninth century, and 
prefixed their article oZ, the, to the word 
Idiyia-TK, which, when the work was re- 
translated into Latin, was corrupted into 
AUnagesiMm; whence English Almagest. 
The best modem edition is that published 
at ParLs in 1813-15, in 2 vols.,4to. Itcon- 
tains tne Greek and a French translation, 
by M. Halma. 

Ai-MA Mater, fostering mother. The 
najne sometimes given to a university by 
tii03« who have taken their degrees in it. 
Al'manac, (A small book containing 
Al'masxck, ' a calendar of daj-s and 
months ; the rising and setting of the sun ; 
the age, changes, &c., ef the moon, 
eclipses, tides, church festivals, &c., for 
the ensuing year. The Nautical Almanac 
and Astronomical ephimeris is a kind of 
national almanac, published for every 
year, by anticipation, under the direction 
of the Commissioners of longitude : the 
astronomical calculations are adapted to 
the meridian of Greenwich. The term is 
compounded of Arabic al and tnditdch, 
reckoning, perhaps from fMtvxxos ,<>■ lunar 

Alman'dine, Vr. almandine. It. alaban- 
diiux. A beautiful mineral of a red colour, 
of various shades : commonly translucent, 
often transparent. It is usually temied 
precious garnet: the finest crystals are 
those of Ceylon and Pegu, where they 
occur in the sand of the rivers. 

company with singing and dancing. They 
derive their name from having received 
a superior education to other women. 

Al'mehralf.s. In Mohammedan tnotqtut, 
a niche pointing out the direction of tho 
kebla, or temple of Mecca, towards which 
the faithful look during prayer. 

Almond, the seed or kemel of the nut 
or fruit of the almond-tree {amygdalu* 
coinmunis), which grows spontaneously in 
warm countries, particularly in Barbary : 
it nearly resembles the peach. There are 
sweet and bitter almonds, but they are 
only distinguishable by the taste and 
by chemical analysis. Sweet almonds 
contain 54 per cent, of a fixed oil ; bitter 
almonds contain less of this oil, but they 
yield instead a bitter poisonous principle, 

known in chemistry as amygdaline. 

2. The tonsils, two glands near the basis 
of the tongue, are called almonds of the 
throat, from their resemblance to that 
fmit ; and the external glands of the neck, 
situated near the ears, are called almonds 

of the ears. 3. Among lapidaries, almonda 

signify pieces of rock crystal, used in 
adorning branch candlesticks: they are 

so called in reference to their form. 

4. A measure, by which the Portuguese 
sell their oil, is called an almond (vrritten 
almude) : 26 almudes = 1 pipe. 

Almond-fcrnace, a furnace used by 
refiners to reduce to lead the slags of 
litharge, used in refining silver, by the 
aid of charcoal. 

Almond-paste, a paste made of blanched 
bitter almonds, white of egg, spirit of 
wine,&c. It is a cosmetic for softening the 
skin and preventing chaps. 
Almond-tree. JJee Am sgdalus. 
Almoner, a distributor of alms. By the 
ancient canons, every monastery was to 
dispose of a tenth of its income in alms to 
the poor, and all bishops were obliged 
to keep an almoner. This title is some- 
times given to a chaplain, as an almoner 
of a ship or regiment. The lord almoner, 
or lord high almoner of England, is an 
ecclesiastical officer, usually a bishop, 
who has the forfeiture of all deodands, 
and the goods which accrue from felo de 
se, which he is required by his office to 
distribute among the poor. — The grand 
almoner of France is the first ecclesiastical 
dignitary, and has the superintendence of 
hospitals and other charities. 

Almonrv, the residence of the almoner, 
or the place where the alms are distri- 
buted. Hence the words ambry, aumbry, 
and Scotch, aumery. 

Alms, whatever is given out of charity 
to the poor. Tenure by free alms, or fl-ank- 
almoign, was that by which the pos- 
sessor was bound to pray for the soul of 
the donor, whether dead or alive. By this 

Al'me. In Egyptian customs, the alme tenure most of the ancient monasteries 
*ae girte, whose ofcupution is to amuse 1 and religious houses in England held their 




lands, as do the parochial clergy, and 
many ecclesiastical and eleemosynary 
establlslunents Rt the present day. 

Almccan'tab, the Arabic name of each 
of a series of circles of the celestial sphere, 
■which are conceived to pass through the 
f-entre of the sun or of a 8tar parallel to 
the horizon. The almucantars are the 
fame, with respect to the azimuths and 
horizon, v, hich the parallels of latitude are 
with respect to the meridians and equator. 
Almucantar-staff, an instrument of 
box or pear-tree, having an arch of 15 
degrees : formerly used at sea for observing 
the sun's amplitude at rising or setting, 
and the variations of the compass. 

Al'mude, a wine measure in Portugal, 
of which 26 make a pipej written also 
almond, (q. t.). 

Al'mug, the Scriptural name of a tree 
or wood, which the Vulgate translates 
lifftiia thynia; the Septuagint, urought- 
tcood, and which some consider to be 
ehony. The Rabbins render the word 
coral, but the more common opinion is 
that it means gummy or resinous wood in 
general, and perhaps especially the shit- 
tim. See 1 Kings x. 11. 
Alnude. SeeALMUDE. 
Al'kcs, the generic name of the alder- 
tree, of which there are 15 species besides 
many varieties. Class monoecia, order 
tetrandria. The common alder {A. glutin- 
o%a), is frequent in Kritain; inhabits wet 
meadows and moist grounds. The bark 
and leaves are employed in dyeing and 
tanning leather; wood valuable for piles 
of bridges, &c. Name Latinized of Celtic 
nl, near, and Ian, the river bank " where 
the alder dank delights to dwell." 

Aloe, the name of a genus of plants 
comprehending upwards of 100 species, 
some of which are arborescent, others 
shrubaceous, and some perennials ; all 
natives of warm climates, and most of 
them of the south of Africa. Class hex- 
andria, order monogynia. Name aloe, Gr. 
«.'Ao7;, of uncertain origin, but perhaps 
from the Arabic name alloch. 

A series of trials has been made with- 
in these few years, at Paris, to ascer- 
tain the comparative strength of cables 
made of hemp and of the alo6 from Al- 
giers. Of those of equal size, that made 
of aloe raised a weight of 2000 kilo- 
grammes (about two tons) ; that made 
of hemp a weight only of 400 kilo- 

A'loes, the inspissated juice obtained 
from the leaves of some species of the 
alog. It is bitter, gummy, and resinous, 
and extensively used in medicine. There 
arc four sorts. 1. The Sofo<rinefl/oM, im- 
ported from the island of Socotra, in the 
Indian ocean: it is obtained from Aloe 

spicata. 2. The Hepatic aloes takes its 

luuae from its lirer colour : it in obtained 

from the Aloi vulgaris, or true alog, ac- 
cording to Sibthorp, but others believe 
that it is the produce of the Aloiperfoliata. 

3. The Cfl6fl/me (Horse) o/oe* is merely 

the coarsest species of the Barbadoes or 
hepatic aloes. It is extensively used in 

veterinary medicine. 4. The Cape aloet 

is obtained from the same species of the 
plant as the Socotrine, but it is of a coarser 
quality. The use of aloes in medicine is 
to stimulate the large intestines. 

Aloe'tic, pertaining to the aloS, or to 
aloes : containing aloes, e.g. an aloetic me- 
dicine. Braconnot has given the name of 
aloic or aloetic acid to a substance obtained 
by treating aloes with sulphuric acid ; bat 
Chevreuil regards it as an artificial tannin. 

Aloft, in nautical language, in the top, 
at the mast-head, or on the higher yards 
or rigging. 

Alo'gians, a sect of ancient heretics, 
who denied Jesus Christ to be the Aeye;, 
or "Word, and, consequently, rejected the 
gospel of St. John. 

Alogotro'pht, Lat. alogotrophia, from 
HX»yos, disproportionate, and -r^o^nt 
nutrition. An unequal nutrition of dif- 
ferent parts of the body, especially of tlie 
bones, in the disease called rachitis. 

Aloof, in nautical language, the com- 
mand to the man at the helm to keep the 
ship near the wind when sailing upon a 

Alope'ces, from aXaw^iJ, a fox. The 
psoas muscles are sometimes so called, 
probably because they are pectiliarly 
strong in the fox. 

Alo'pect, Lat. alopecia, of ee.Xaivr,^j 4 
fox, the urine of which is said to occasion 
baldness. Fox-evil: a disease which is 
also called scurf: it consists in a falling- 
ofF of the hair, from any or every part ol 
the body. The term is now nearly syno- 
nymous with baldness. 

Alopecu'rcs, the generic name of the 
fox-tail grass. Class triandria, order rfi- 
gynia. There are 12 species, 6 of which 
are British, mostly perennial. Name, 
from aXoa-rf . a fox, and ov^a, a tail ; the 
flowers being arranged in tail-like stalks. 

Alo'sa, a fish called the shad {A. tidga- 
ris). It is a sub-genus of the clupese or 
herring family, but is much larger and 
thicker than the clupea or herring. 

Alpag'na, the Damalus paco of Lin. and 
the Paces of Pennant : it is used as a beast 
of burden in Peru. 

Alph \, the name of the first letter of the 
Greek alphabet, and omcj/a, the name of 
the last ; whence the metaphorical ex- 
pression, alpha and omega, meaning the 
first and the last. 

Alphabet, oi,X0a. and (2r,T», that is, A. 
and B. The ordinary series of letters or 
syllables 'in syllabic alphabets) of a lan- 
gua^^e. The number of letters differ is 




iifferent lanffua««»: liie Hebrev? con- 
tains 22 letters; as alx) the Ckaldee, Sa- 
maritan, Syriac, Persian, a.nd ^thi- 
opic. The Irish, which is the same as the 
Pelasgian or Scythian, has only 17; the 
Greek alphabet, which was brought by 
Cadmus into Greece from Phu?nicia, and 
was also Pelasgian in its origin, consisted 
of 16, to which 8 were afterwards added. 
The ancient Arabic alphabet consisted of 
24 letters, but 4 were added, making 28. 
The Sanscrit (Devanagarce) alphabet con- 
tains 100 letters. The Coptic consists of 
32, the Turkish of 33, the Georgian of 36, 
the Russian of 39, the Spanish of 27. the 
Italian of 20, the Latin of 22, the French 
of 22 (strictly 28), and the English of 26. 
The Chinese have no propter alphabet. 

ALPHo'NsiN,a surgical instrument for 
extracting balls from gun-shot wounds ; 
so called from its inventor, Alphonso Fer- 
rius, a Neapolitan physician. 

Ai,pbo'nsine Tables, the name given to 
a set of astronomical tables compiled by 
Older of Alphonsus, king of Arragon, in 
ih*^ first year of his reign {.*..d. 1252). 

Al'phus, from ocX(pos, white. The spe- 
cies of leprosy called vitiligo, in which 
the skin is rough, with white spots. 

Alpia, Al'pist. The seed of the fox- 
tail grass ; used for feeding birds. 

Alpis'ia, a genus of exotic pcreimials, 
of 15 species, of the class monaiidria, and 
order monogynia. Name, from alpinus, 
elevated, in reference to their favourite 

Alpine plants arc such low plants as 

grow naturally in mountainous situa- 
tions, where they are covered with 

snow during some part of the year. 

Alpin'iace.e, one of the names of the 
natural order of plants called Zingibe- 

AL'ariER, a Portuguese measure of ca- 
pacity, equal to about two gallons ; called 
also a cantar. It contains half an almude. 

AxauiFon, 1 names of a lead ore found 

ALaciFORE, j in Cornwall, and used by 
potters to give a green varnish to their 
wares ; hence called potters' ore. 

AiRtj'N.!;, small images carved out of the 
roots of trees, and held in great venera- 
tion formerly among the northern nations. 
They had the same rank as the penates of 
the ancient Italians. 

Al Seono, a direction in written music 
to return to a former part, where the cha- 
racter .;§• appears. 

Alsinacex, an order of weedy plants, 
of which the genus AUini is the type. 

Alsini, the generic name of the chick- 
%ceed, according to Linnscus ; but the A. 
media, or common chickweed, is now re- 
ferred to the genus Stellaria. The name 
is from «A««f > a shady place, and ?/>.v, 


Ai.sto'nia, the generic name of twogpe- 
ClfcS of Indian shrubs, class pentandriot 
order mo)UMfyHia ; the one resembles the 
tea-plant, the other is poisonous. Named 
in honour of Professor Alston, who first 
established the genus. 

Alstroeme'ria, a genus of American 
perennials, of the class hexatuiria, and 
order monogynia. There are thirteen 

Alt, ) from Lat. alttis, high. A term 

Alto, i applied in music to that part of 
the great scale of sounds which lies be- 
tween F above the treble cleflf and G in 

A'ltar, Lat. alta, ara. See Ara. 1. An 
elevated place upon which sacrifices were 
formerly ofiered to some deity. Altars 
were originally of turf, latterly of marble, 
wood, or horn, and those of the Jews of 
shittim-wood, and covered with gold or 
brass. Some altars were round, others 
square, others triangular; but all faced 
the east, and there is no doubt but that 
they are as ancient as the practice of 

sacrificing. 2. In modern churches, the 

commimion-table, or table for the distri- 
bution of the eucharist, &c. 

A'ltaraoe the profits arising to priests 
on account of the altar ; also altars, erected 
before the reformation, in virtue of dona- 
tions, within parochial churches, for the 
purpose of performing mass, &c. for de- 
ceased friends. 

A'ltarist, ■) In old law-hooks, the 

A'ltar-thase, ("priest or parson to 
whom the altarage of a church belonged ; 
also a chaplain. 

Alterative, Lat. alterattis, causing 
alteration. Substantively, a medicine 
which establishes the healthy functions 
of the body, without sensible evacuation 
by perspiration, purging, or vomiting. 

Altern, Lat. alternus, of alter, other. 
Alternate : reciprocal. In crystallography, 
exhibiting on an upper and a lower part 
faces which alternate among themselves, 
but which, when the two parts are com- 
pared, correspond with each other. 

Altern-base, in trigonometry, is a term 
tised in contradistinction to the true-base ; 
e. g. in oblique triangles, the true-base is 
either the sum of the sides, and then the 
diff^erence is the altern-base ; or the true- 
base is the difference of the sides, and 
then the sum of the sides is the altern-base. 

Alter'nate, Lat. altematus, being by 
turns : one following the other in succes- 
sion of time or place. 1. In botany, ap- 
plied to branches and leaves, when they 
stand singly on each side, in such a 
manner that between every two on any 
side, there is but one on the opposite side. 

2. In heraldry, applied to denote the 

situation of the quarters. Thus the first 
and fourth quarters, and the second and 
third, are usually of the same nature, and 




are called alternate quarters. 3. In 

geometry, applied to the internal angles 
made by a line cutting two parallels, and 
lying on opposite sides of the bisecting 
line. Thus,— 

a and a' are alternate angles, and if the 
two straight lines be parallel they are 
equal. The alternate terms of a propor- 
tion are the first and third, and the second 
and fourth ; and the terms of the propor- 
tion are said to be taken alternately or 
by alternation, when the second and third 
are made to change places ; thus, — 
a : b :: c : d, hy alternation, becomes 
a : c •.-.h : d. 

Alterna'tiox, Lat. alternatio. In arith- 
metic, the alternation of numbers is called 
permutation. See Alternate. 

Aith^'a, the generic name of the marsh- 
mallow, of which there are 12 species, two 
of which are British. Class monadelphia, 
order polyandria. Name from otKQu, to 
cure, in reference to its supposed healing 

Al'tica, a genus of tetramerous cole- 
optera, of the family cyclica. Name from 
oAr/xo;, a leaper, in reference to their 
lively movements. The insect is known 
familiarly by the name of the garden flea. 

Altim'eter, from Lat. altiis, high, and 
fjUT^ov, measure. An instrument for 
measuring altitudes on geometrical prin- 
ciples ; e. g. a quadrant. 

Al'tin, a money of account in Russia, 
value three copecks. 

Altis'car, a species of factitious salt 
used in the fusion and purification of 
metals : it is crude borax, and now 
usually called tincal. 

Altis'simo, Italian, highest: applied in 

Al'titcde, Lat. altitudo, of alttis, high. 
1. Height : the elevation of the vertex of 
an object above its foundation, as the 
elevation of a column : the elevation of an 
object above the surface on which we 
st.ind, or other surface to Mhich we refer 

it, as the elevation of a meteor. 2. In 

tneiunration, altitudes are divided into 
accessilU and iftaccessihle , according as the 
base is approachable or inapproachahle. 
——3. In astronomy, the elevation of the 
s-m, a star, or other object aJ)Ove the 
horizon, is called its altitude ; and this is 
true or appareiit altitude, according as it 
is taken from the true or .-ippareni hori- 
zon. See Horizon. 4. The altitude of 

the eye, in perspective, is its* perpendicular 

height above the geometrical plane. 

5. Meridian altitude, in astronomy, is an 
•Jc of the meridian, between the hori2on 

and any star or point on the meridian. 
The difference between the true and 
apparent place of the star, caused by re- 
fraction, is called the parallax of altitude. 

6. Altitude of motion is its measure 

estimated in the line of direction of the 
moving force. — Dr. Wallis. 7. Deter- 
minative altitude is that whence a heavy 
body falling acquires a certain velocity, 
by its natural accelerations. 

Al'to (Ital. from Lat. altus), high. In 
music, the counter and tenor part; the 
part immediately below the treble or 
highest. The term is also tised to denote 
the tenor violin. 

Alto and Basso (high and low), in oli 
law, signified a submission of all differ- 
ences of every kind to arbitration. 

Alto-octavo (Ital.), an octave higher. 

Al'to-relie'vo (Ital. for hi^-h relief). 
The name given to that spcj^i of sciUp- 
ture in which the figures \Toiect half or 
more, without being wholly detached 
from the ground. See Bhlibvo. 

Alto-ripien'o (Ital.). iii muiic, a name 
given to the tenor of the great chorus, 
which sings or plays only In particular 

Alto-tenore (Ital.), tliat part of the 
great vocal scale between the mezio 
soprano and the tenor. 

Alto-viola, | (Ital.), a small tenor 

Alto-violino, J violin. Alto is sunid- 
times used in the same sense. 

Alu'del, Lat. a, and lutum, lute. A 
spear-shaped vessel open at both ends, 
used in sublimation. A series of them aj« 
placed above one another, and fitted ex- 
actly together, with a pot at the botti-nn, 
containing the matter to be sublimed, and 
a receiver at the top to collect the volati".« 
matter. They are no w rarely used except 
in Spain for distilling mercury. 

Alu'la, Lat. ala, a wing. In ornitho- 
logy, the group of ill- feathers attached to 
the carpus, and sometimes called the 
bastard wings [ala spuria). 

Alcm, Lat. alumen. Germ, alautn. A 
triple sulphate of alumina and potash, or 
ammonia : it is both native and factitious. 
It is usually obtained by roasting and 
lixiviating certain clays containin? 
pyrites, and to the leys adding a certain 
quantity of potash ; the salt is then ob- 
tained by crystallization. In medicine It 
is used as an astringent ; in dyeing, to fix 
colours ; in tanning, to restore the cohe- 
sion of skins ; in candle-making, to harden 
the tallow. The crystals are octahe- 
drons ; the taste acerb and subacid : the 
solution reddens the vegetable blues. It 
dissolves in about five parts of water at 
60' Fah. 

Alcm-earth, a massive mineral of a 
blackish-brown colour. It is nearly 
allied to the clay-slate, but contains a con- 
siderable quantity of bitimiinot^s matter 




Alu'min,!, ) one of the primitive 
Ald'mine, j earths, which, as consti- 
tuting the plastic principle of all clays, 
loams and boles, was called argil, or the 
argillaceous earth, but now being ob- 
tained in greatest purity from alum, it 
is called alumina. In its mixed state it is 
one of the most abundant substances in 
nature, but pure and unmixed it is one of 
the rarest. The sapphire and ruby are 
perhaps the purest native specimens of it : 
these gems are simply the clay crystal- 
lized and combined with small portions 
of colouring matter. To obtain it pure, 
it must be precipitated from alum by 
means of ammonia. Thus obtained, it is 
destitute of smell or taste, insoluble in 
"water, but mixes with it readily: may be 
made into a ductile paste, and kneaded 
into regular forms. Alumina was deemed 
an elementary substance, till Sir H. 
Davy's electro-chemical r€searches led to 
the knowledge that it is a metallic oxide, 
the metallic basis of which is called alu- 
minum, (q. v.). It consists of 5294 alu- 
minum, and 4706 oxygen. 

Alo'minite, a mineral of a snow-white 
colour, dull, opaque, and having a fine 
earthy fracture. It is a native subsulphate 
of alumina, and occurs chiefly in the al- 
luvial strata round Halle, in Saxony. 

Alc'minum, the metallic basis of alu- 
mina. It somewhat '• resembles pla- 
tinum in powder." Sp. gr. 137. The 
experiments of Sir H. Da\-y first led to 
the belief that alumina is a metallic 
oxide, but it was AVoehler who first suc- 
ceeded in separating the metallic sub- 
Alum-slate, 1 a bluish or greenish 
Alum-schist, ) black mineral, contain- 
ing more or Icsj iron pyrites mixed with 
coaly or bituminous matter. It occurs in 
the strata of brown coal, where the upper 
layers lie immediately under clay-beds. 
From this schist the greater portion of the 
alum manufactured in Britain is made. 
Minerologists distinguish between com- 
mon and glossy alum-slate. 
Alcm-stone, t Alum-stone is a mineral 
Alum-rock, j of a white colour, 
sometimes inclined to grey. It occurs in 
beds of a hard substance, characterised 
by numerous cavities, containing drusy 
crystallizations of basic alum. The beds 
in which the alum-stone occurs, is called 
alum-rock. Hungary yields large quan- 
tities. The alum-stone contains all the 
constituents of alum, being a siliceous 
subsulphate of alumina and potash: the 
alum-schists contain only two of them. 
Clay and sulphur, convertible into sul- 
phate of alumina: the alkali must be 

Aluta (Lat. for tanned leat\er). Leather- 
stone ; a sofc, pliable mineral, uot lami- 

Alve'.vrt, Lat. alvearium, of alveare, a 
bee-hive. The meatus auditorius extemtu, 
the hollow of the external ear, or bottom 
of the concha, where the wax is con- 

ALVE'oLAR,Lat. aheo?art». Appertaining 
to the alveoli or sockets of the teeth. 

Alve'olate, Lat. aheolatus. Having 
small cavities, so as to resemble a honey- 

Alve'ole, Lat. alveolus. A little cavity. 
Technically : 1. A cell in a honey-comb, 

in a fossil, &c. 2. A socket in which 

a tooth is placed. 5. A marine fossil, 

of a conical figure, e&mposed of a number 
of cells like a honey-comb, joined by a 
tube of communication. 

Alve'olite, a marine fossil composed of 
numerous concentric beds, each formed by 
the union of hemispherical cells : the body 
itself is usually of a hemispherical shape. 
From alveolus, and X/fl«j. Only one spe- 
cies is known, and it occurs in the Port- 
land stone. 

Al'vine, Lat. alvinus. Appertaining to 
the belly (alvus) : usually applied in rela- 
tion to the intestinal excretions. 

Al'vcs (Lat.), the belly: used in ana- 

Alt'pon, the Globularia alypum of Lin. 
It is a drastic purgative. Name, from «, 
not, and Xwr, pain. 

Aly'sm, Lat. alysmus, of «Xt/*, to be 
anxious. The inquietude which a patient 
exhibits under disease. 

Alys'scm, the generic name of the plant 
moditori, supposed to be a specific in cases 
of hydrophobia. Class tetradidynamia, 
order sHiculosa. There are ten species , all 
foreign. Name, from «, not, and A*ff-<r«, 

A.M. stand for artium magister, master 
of arts, the second degree given by uni- 
versities and colleges, and called in somo 
coimtries doctor of philosophy. Also for 
anno mundi, in the year of the world ; and 
ante meridiem, before noon. 

A'ma, from Dan. aam, a vessel. Written 
also Hama. 1. In church affairs, a vessel 

to contain the wine for the Eucharist. 

2. A wine measure of indefinite size, as a 
cask, a pipe. 

Amabt'r, an old British word, signify- 
ing " the price of virginity," and express- 
ing a barbarous custom which formerly 
prevailed in England and Wales, being a 
sum of money paid to the lord when a 
maid was married within his lordship. 

Amacr.*.'tic, I a lens photographically 

Am.vsthe'nic. J perfect, or which unites 
all the chemical rays into one focus, may 
be called amacratic {ec/Mc, together, and 
M^KTot, power), or amasthenic (tf-fiiira*, 
force). If this nomenclature be adopted, 
a diacratic or diasthenic medium will be 
one which U-ansmits the chemical pow« 




or force : dincratescence that quality in 
virtue of which it does so, &c. — Sir J. 
Herschel, Phil. Trans. 1840. 
Am'adou,) AspeciesofioWMs.orafraric, 
Am'adow. f found in the trunks of old 
trees, especially iu Germany, where it is 
called imnderschicamm. According to 
some, it is B. ignarius ; according to 
others, the B. fomentarius. Boiled in 
■water, dried, beaten with a mallet, and 
finally impregnated with a solution of 
nitre and dried, it constitutes »pMnA:,pj/ro- 
technic spunge. or (ierman tinder — names 
significant 'ot it; i"<i'.mmability. Black 
amadou is the sncn« «i»cerial impregnated 
"With gunpowder: this is black-match ; the 
common amadou is red-match. It is used 
on the Continent extensively instead of 

Amai'n (Sax. a, and msej^n, force). 
A nautical term, signifying to yield or let 
go suddenly. Thus, to let go amain, is to 
let fall or lower at once ; and to strike 
amain, is to let fall the topsails in token 
of surrender. To wave amain, is to make 
a signal to a vessel to strike its topsaDs. 

Amal'gam, a compound produced by 
mixing a metal, in a state of fusion, with 
mercury : any metallic alloy, of which 
mercury forms an essential constituent. 
The term is usually derived from ci/Mx,, 
together, and yot/xiu, to marry ; but Web- 
ster, with more probability, supposes it 
to be from f^XctyuM, of fMiXeia'o'u, to 
soften, as medallists commonly apply the 
term to soft alloys. 

Amalgama'tion, a process by which an 
amalgam is formed. 

Amalgamation is extensively em- 
ployed in extracting gold and silver 
from certain of their ores, founded on 
the property which mercury has of 
readily dissolving these metals as dis- 
seminated in the minerals, and thus to 
separate them from the earthy matters. 
The mercury is afterwards driven off 
from the amalgam by heat. 
AMALTHiE'A. In mythology, a goat of 
Crete alleged to have suckled Jupiter. 
The horn of this goat was the magic Cornu 
Copia, or horn of plenty. 

Amani'ta, a genus of fungi, some species 
of which are edible, others poisonous. 

Am'aranth. 1. The Amaranthus{ci.y.). 
—2. A colour inclined to purple. 

Amarantha'ce.e, an order of plants in 
the Natural System of Jussieu: typical 
genus, Amaranthns. The order compre- 
hends some other dry-flowered genera. 

Amaran'thine. 1. Resembling the ama- 
ranth. 2. Purplish. 

Amaran'thus, the Amaranth, or Flower- 
Oentle: a genus of annuals, of about fifty 
species, only one of which (and that a bad 
specimen) is a native of England. Class 
mefMicia, order pentandria. Name, from 

et, not, and f^et^ccitat, to fade ; or flowers 
which do not fade, commonly called 
" Everlasting Flowers." Love-lies-bleed- 
ing, Prince's-fcather, &c. are well known 
in our gardens. 

Ama'rine, a name given by some to the 
bitter principle of vegetables, from ama- 
rus, bitter. 

Amaryllida'ce.«, a natural order of 
beautiful endogenous plants, named from 
its typical genus amaryllis. The greater 
part of its species are bulbous plants, in- 
habiting the Cape of Good Hope and the 
tropical parts of both hemispheres. The 
snow-drop is the most northern example. 

Amartl'lis, the lily daffodil ; a genus of 
liliaceous perennials, of about forty spe- 
cies, much cultivated in flower-gardens. 
Class hexandria, order monogynia. Named 
from Amaryllis, a peasant girl, celebrated 
by Theocritus and Yirgil for her beauty. 

Am a'ti a , a subgenus of polypi, belonging 
to the Sertularia of Linnajus ; it is the 
name given by Lamouroux to the Sertu- 
laria of Lamarck. 

Amatory, from amo, to love. 2. la 

anatomy, the oblique muscles of the eye 
have been called mtisctdi amatorii, that is, 
amatory muscles, from their use in ogling. 
— Hooper. 

Amadro'sis, a f.tavPODa-1 s , from a/Mtu^ee, 
obscure. A diminution or total loss of 
sight, arising from a paralysis of the retina 
or optic nerve, and which may exist in- 
dependently of any visible lesion of the 
structure of the eye, or complicated with 
cataract or other affection. The disease 
is usually characterised by dilatation of 
the pupil and immobility of the iris, but 
these are not constant symptoms. It is 
also called ^u«asere?ia, the " drop serene" 
of Milton. 

Am'azon, from «, without, and ftetiof, 
breast. The Amazons are said to have 
been a race of female warriors, who 
foimded an empire on the river Thermo- 
don, in Asia Minor, on the coast of the 
Euxine, and that they cut off their right 
breast that it might not incommode them 
in shooting and throwing the javelin. 
The name was latterly conferred on some 
American females, who joined their hus- 
bands in attacking the Spaniards who 
first visited the country. This occurred on 
the banks of the Maraiion; and trivial as 
the circumstance is. it gave the name 
Amazon to that mighty river, and Ama- 
zonia to the country on its banks. 

Amazonb-stone, i a beautiful variety 

Amazo'nian-stone, i of prismatic fel- 
spar of a bluish green colour, found in 
rolled masses near the river Amazon. 

Ambarva'lia, religious fetes among the 
Romans, to propitiate Ceres, and so called 
from ambire arva, to go round the fields, 
the victim being carried round the fields 


at the proper season (the end of Mayl, and 
ti blessing invoked of ihe goiitlesd >m the 
coming harvest. 

Ambas'sador, a minister of the highest 
rank, employed by one sovereign or state, 
«t. the court of another, to manage the 
public concerns of his own government, 
and r-ipresonting the power and dignity 
of Ms sovereign. Ambassadors are ordi- 
'lary when they reside permanently at a 
foreign court, and extraordinary when 
sent on a special mission. Ambassadors 
are also called ministers; but envoys arc of 
louver rank, and only employed on spe- 
cial occasions. — Webster pleads the au- 
ihorivy of good authors for spelling the 
■vrord embassador, more especially as the 
orthography of embassy is established. — 
The etymology of the word is doubtful. 
"We have Jn riax. ambjhcfecjp, a mes- 
Kige-tayer : from Goth. nwrfftoA**, a servant ; 
but in th»- laws of Burgundy we find 
anibascia, service, and ambasciator, a scr- 
TRiit. whence probably Ital. ambasciadore, 
Vr. nmbnssadeur, and Ang. ambassador. 
Spelman derives the word from Germ. 
nmbaci, which Cesar calls ambactus, a re- 
tainer, whence Norm, amhaxeur. 

Ambe, 1 from a^^rt, the rim or margin 

Ambi, > of anything. A surgical in- 
strument for reducing dislocations of the 
shoulders; so called, because its extre- 
mity is rounded to tit into the axilla. It 
is not now used. 

Am'ber, a mineral solid of a yellow 
colour of various shades ; usually nearly 
transparent; brittle and inodorous except 
vfhen pounded or heated ; it then emits a 
fragrant odour. It has considerable lustre; 
bi^omes negatively and powerfully elec- 
trical by friction; is found in nodules 
varying from the size of coarse sand to 
halls of sevei-al poimds weight. Sp. gr. 
107 to 108. Constituents, carbon 7068, 
oxygen 777, and hydrogen 1162, which is 
so nearly the composition of vegetable 
resin, that it is now regarded as fossil 
resin by chemists generally. It often 
c'Mitains the remains of certain families 
of insects, as hymcnoptera, diptera, co- 
leoptera, and sometimes, though rarely, 
!' pidoptcra. "When distilled, it yields an 
nmpyreumatic oil and an acid sublimate, 
which has received the name of succinic 
acid. The name is from Sp. umbar, from 
Ar. ambaroH. Most of the amber imported 
into this country is brought from the 
Baltic. Amber is chiefly used for orna- 
mental purposes ; it is cut, for instance, 
into beads for necklaces ; it is also used 
in the manufacture of varnish. The sub- 
stance called fossil copal, which closely 
resembles amber, contains no succinic 
acid, ard is much less soluble in alcohol. 

AJt'BBRGBis. Fr. ambre and j;n.«, that is, 
gruf nmoer. K solid opaque ash-coloured 

59 AMB 

fat:y inflammable snb.stence, y.\ri*|a,>o<l 
like marble; remarkably ijuht, rugg#4 ,a 
its sui-face, and when heated, it has a 
frairrant odour. It breaks easily, but 
cannot be reduced to p<iwdor; melts llKo 
wax, does not effervesce with acids, is 
soluble in ether and the volatile oils, and, 
assisted by heat, in alcohol, ammonia, 
and the fixed oils. It is found generally 
in small, but sometimes in large masses of 
250 lb. fioating on the sea, near the coasts 
of India, Africa, and Brazil. There haa 
been much diversity of opinion regarding 
its origin — some supposing it to be a 
vegetable, others a mineral prodiiction, 
but it is now known to be a concretion 
discharged from the intestines of the 
spermaceti whale (physeter mncrncephalns), 
in which it is found abundantly on open- 
ing the animal. It is probably a pro- 
duct of disease. It is chiefly used in 
perfumery, the odour being exceedingly 
diflfusive. The name is sometimes cor- 
ruptly written ambcrgrease. 

Ambidex'ter, Lat. from nm6o, both, and 
dexter, the right hand. In law, a juror 
who takes money from both parties for 
giving his verdict. 

Ambi', from Lat. ambi, about, and 
geno, a produce. In geometry, a term ap-. 
plied to one of the triple hyperbolas of 
the second order, having one of its infinit<? 
legs falling within an angle formed by tho 
asymptotes, and the other without. 

Ambi'gu, Fr., from Lat. ambigwis, 
doubtful. A feast or entertainment con- 
sisting of a medley of dishes. 

Ambit, Lat. amWius, a circuit. In geo- 
metry, the perimeter of a figure ; the pe- 
riphery or circumference of a circular 

AM'BiTcs.Lat. from(jm6io,to encompass. 
1. In conchology, the outline of the valves 

of a shell. 2. In politics, a tenu used 

by the ancient Romans to designate can- 
vassing for office, by soliciting the suf- 
frages of electors. 

Am'ble, Fr. from ambler, to walk. In 
the manage, the pace of a horse when his 
two legs on one side move at the same 

Ambli'gon, 1 from ee.u.SXvi, obtuse, and 

Amblt'gon, iyetnx, an angle. An ob- 
tuse angled triangle ; a triangle with one 
angle more than 90°. 

Amblig'onite, I a massive, crystallised, 

Ambltg'onite, (greenish coloured mi- 
neral, which frequently occurs in granite 
alone, with green topaz and tourmaline, 
near Penig, in Saxony. Name from 
etf/,S>ivyeii»toi, obtuse-angled, in reference 
to the form of its crystals, which an« 
oblique, four-sided prisms. 

Amblo'tic, Gr. auZXaxris, abortive. 
j Having the power to cause abortion. 
1 Amrliu'pv. Lat. amblyopia, from Xfb* 




eXvtriaof et/^SXvs, duU, and ac^.the eye. 
Incipient amaurosis ; defect of sight, 
without apparent defect of the organs of 

Amblyrhyn'chus, Gr. ap^^Xv;, obtuse, 
and evyx'>i' snout. A genus of marine 
lizard. The A. cristatus is the only marine 
lizard now known. It is found on the 
shores of the Galapagos Islands. 

Amblyte'res, a genus of phyUophagii 
(leaf-eating insects). 

Amblyte'uls, Gr. (x.u,^Xv;, obtuse, and 
rrrisov, a fin. A genus of fossil fishes, 
which occur in the strata of the carboni- 
ferous order. Their teeth are small and 
numerous, and set closely together, like a 
brush. They are besides characterised by 
rounded pectoral and ventral fins, from 
which they take their generic name. 

Am'bon, ce.iJ.Quiv, a boss or knob. In 
anatomy, the margin of a socket in which 
the head of a bone is lodged. 

Am'ureada, a sort of factitious amber 
which the Europeans sell to the Africans. 

Am'breate, a salt formed by the com- 
bination of the ambreic acid with a 

Am'breic Acid. Ambreic acid is a pro- 
duct obtained by heating ambreine with 
nitric acid. 

Am'breine, a fragrant substance ex- 
tracted from ambergris, by digestion with 
alcohol. It is obtained in white tufts, 
which fuse at 100". 

Ambro'sia, AfjuZ^otnu, immortality. In 
mythology, the food of the gods : hence 
■whatever is pleasant to the taste or smell. 
The name has been given to many alexi- 
pharmic preparations, and to several 
plants, as tansy, botrys, &c. It is also 
the name of an American genus of plants 
of the class moncecia, and order pentan- 
dria. They are chiefly valued for their 
fiosculous flowers. 

Ambro'sian, pertaining to St. Ambrose. 
The Ambrosian ritual is a formula of 
■worship in the church of Milan, instituted 
by St. Ambrose in the fourth century. 
The Ambrosian chant was also composed 
for that church by St. Ambrose ; it is dis- 
tinguished from the Gregorian chant by 
monotony and want of beauty in its 

Ambro'sin, a coin of the middle ages, 
Struck by the Dukes of Milan ; on which 
St. Ambrose was represented on horse- 
back, with a whip in his right hand. 

Ambula'cra, Lat. ambulacrum, an alley. 
The narrow longitudinal portions of the 
shell of the sea-urchin (echmus), which 
give passage through their perforations 
to the tentacular suckers. 

Ambulant, Lat. ambulans, wandering. 
Ambulant, brokers, at Amsterdam, are 
certain exchange-brokers, or agents, who 

are not sworn, and whose evidence is not 
received in courts of justice. 

Ambul-a'tiom, Lat. atnbulo, to walk. In 
surgery, the spreading of a gangrene. 

Ambula'tor, in entomology, ar species of 

Ambclatc'res, Lat. plural of amhilator, 
a wanderer. The name given by Illiger 
to an order of birds nearly corresponding 
to the Passeres of Linnaeus. 

Ambulatory, not stationary; e. g. an 
ambulatory court, which exercises its 
jurisdiction in different places ; an ambu- 
latory will, which may be revoked at 

pleasure, before the person's death. 

2. Formed for walking, e. g. the term is 
applied to the feet of birds, when the toes 
are placed three before and one behinti, 
as in the lark. 

Am'bury, ( in farriery, a tumour, wart, 

An'bury, ) or swelling on a horse : it is 
soft to the touch, and full of blood. 

Ame'dians, a religious sect who stylel 
themselves the amati Deo, the beloved of 
God. The name is compounded of amo, 
to love, and Deus, God. 

Am'el, the old word for enamel, (q. v.). 

Amelan'chier, a genus of shrubaceous 
plants, class icosandria, order pentagynia. 
There is one European species and three 

Amel'lus, the starwort ; a genus of plants, 
class syngenesia, order pol. superjiua. 
Named from the ^os amellus of Virgil, but 
it is not the same. There are three spe- 
cies, natives of the Cape of Good Hope 
and America. 

A'men. This word, ■with slight differ- 
ences of orthography, is in all the dialects 
of the Assyrian stock. As a verb, it signi- 
fies to confirm or establish, to trust or 
give confidence ; as a noun, truth, firmness, 
trust, confidence. In English, after the 
oriental manner, it Is used at the begin- 
ning, but more generally at the ehd of 
declarations and prayers, in the sense— '6a 
it firm, he it established. 

Amen'd, ) In France, the amende ho- 

Amen'de. i norahle is an infamous pu- 
nishment (imposed for any false prosecu- 
tion or groundless appeal), inflicted on 
traitors, parricides, and sacrilegious per- 
sons. The culprit is delivered into the 
hands of the executioner, who strips him 
to the shii-t, puts a rope about his neck, 
and a taper into his hand : he is then led 
into the court, and begs pardon of God, 
the king, the court, and the country. For 
smaller offences, this is the amount of the 
punishment, but in some cases it is a 
prelude to banishment to the galleys, or 
even to death. The simple amende ho- 
norable consists merely in an acknowledg- 
ment and recantation in open court, 
bareheaded and kneeling, of the offence 

Amex'dmint, Lat. emendo. of 

A M E 



fault. In latv, the correction of an error 
in a writ or process. In parliatneiit, a 
■word, clause, or paragraph added to, or 
proposed to be added to, a bill. 

AMENOB'RHffiA, from «, ne^. /u,r,y, a 
month, and etai, to flow. Morbid irregu- 
larity of the menstrual discharge, a 
disease of which there are two species, 
emansio mensium, and siippressio mensium. 

Ame.nt, Lat. amentum, a thong. In 
botany, a catkin ; a species of inflorescence 
consisting of a simple peduncle, covered 
with numerous chaffy scales, under which 
are the flowers or parts of fructification, 
exemplified in the poplar, birch, willow, 
beech, &c. 

AMENTA'cEa:, amentaceous plants; a 
natural order, comprehending all such as 
have catkins or amenta. As this order 
was found to comprise plants of different 
liinds of structure, it has been broken up 
into several others. 

Amenta'ceous, having an ament or cat- 
kin; belonging to the order amentacea: 
growing in an anient. 

Amentia, Lat. amem, deprived of mind. 

Amen'tum, Latin of ament, (q. v.) ; called 
also jtdtts, nucamentum, catulus; also a 
name of the alumen scissum. 

Amer'cement, 1 Ft. merci. A pecu- 

Amer'ceament, J niary punishment in- 
flicted on an offender, at the discretion 
(mercy) of the court. It differs from 
a fine, which is a fixed sum prescribed 
by statute, whereas the amercement is 
arbitrary. It has now, however, become 
common to enact that the offender shall 
'bejined at the discretion of the court, and 
thus the Jitie being rendered indefinite, 
the word has in a measure superseded 
amercemetit (written in old law-books 
amerciament). — Amercement-royal is a pe- 
nalty imposed upon an officer for a misde- 
meanour in his office. 

Amerim'num, a genus of shnibaceous 
plants of two species. Class diadelphia, 
order decandria. Natives of the SVest 
Indies and South America. 

Ametabo'lia, amctabolians. A division 
of insects which do not undergo any 
metamorphosis. Hence the name, from «, 
without, and (Airot^okvi, change. 

Am'ethtst, Gr. kfjtXBvtrros t from «, 
priv. and fjutOixrxoj, to be inebriated. 
1. In mineralogy, a subspecies of rhombo- 
hedral quartz : it is merely coloured rock 
crystal. Its colour resembles that of the 
violet, and when perfect it is considered a 
gem of exquisite beauty ; but the colour 
is sometimes confined to one part of the 
stone, while the other is left almost co- 
lourless. This is the amethyst proper: it 
is called by lapidaries the occidental ame- 
thyst, in distinction to the orietUal amethyst, 
• variety of rhombohcdral conindum of 

the most perfect violet colour and extra- 
ordinary brilliancy and beauty. — The 
ancients supposed that wine drank out of 
an amethystine cup did not produce in- 
toxication. 2. In heraldry, a purple 

colour. It is the same in a nobleman's 
escutcheon, as pttrpure in a gentleman's, 
and mercury in that of a prince. 

Amian'th, ) Gr. a^<«i/7o; , undefiled. 

Amian'tht78» 1 Mountain- flax or earth- 
flax : a mineral of which there are seve- 
ral varieties, all more or less fibrous, 
flexile, and elastic. The colour is usu- 
ally grayish or greenish white, not unliko 
flax or unspun silk. It is incombustioifc, 
and anciently was woven into cloth, 
which when soiled was put into the fire, 
which cleaned it better than washing. 
Pliny states that its principal use was to 
wrap the bodies of the dead, previous to 
their being exposed on the funeral pile, 
that the ashes of the corpse might not be 
mixed with those of the wood. Amiaa- 
thine cloth, however, was very scarce, 
and was sold at an enormous price. Ami- 
anth includes the finer varieties of as- 
bestos (q.v.) It is found in great profusion 
in Corsica, and many other places, espe- 
cially in Germany. 

Amian'thinite, an amorphous variety 
of actinolite, having an amianthine or 
fibrous fracture. 

AuiANTHOiDE, from amiatith and ui»(, 
form. A mineral, in long capillary fila- 
ments of an olive-green, found at Osians 
in France. 

AMiAN'Trs,the same with amianthus or 
amianth (q.v.) Amiantus is the correct, 
but not the received, orthography. 

Amice, Lat. amictits, clothed. The 
square piece of linen cloth which the Ca- 
tholic priest ties about his neck , hanging 
down under the alb, when he officiates ai 

Amid, from a and mibb, the middle. 
Amidships is a nautical phrase signifying 
the middle of a ship with regard to her 
length and breadth. 

A'midine, the soluble basis of starcli 
Fr. amidon, starch. When starch has been 
gelatinized in water, it is converted into 
amidine, which is soluble in cold water ; 
but, according to Raspail, starch consist* 
of a vesicle which he terms amidine, and 
of a soluble matter contained within the 
vesicle, which he terms amidin. 

Amira.vte, in Spain, a high officer an- 
swering to our lord high-admiral. 

Am'ma, Au-imx,- In surgery, a girdle 
or truss used in ruptures: written also 

Am'maj», 1 in the German and Belgie 

Am'mant,) polity, a jud;<e who has cog- 
nizance In civil cases. In France, a notary 
public. Germ, amtmnnn, the root of 
which is ampt, office, charge. 

A M M 02 

Am'mi, Bishop' s-weed, a genus of umbel- 
liferous plants of four species. Class pen- 
tandria, order digynia. Warm climates. 
>'ame, from ecf^/jua, sand, in reference to 
the appearance of its seeds, which are 
used extensively as an ingredient of the- 

Ammite, from ot,fx.LLoi, sand, and Xi6o;, 
stone, sand- stone; the roe-stone or oolite 
of recent authors. AVritten also Hammite. 

Ammo'ba.tes, a Rcnus of honey-making 
bees {apiarice). They belong to the Cum 
liniB of Latreille. 

Ammochry'se, as/*^o%|««"ej. A yellow 
soft stone found in Germany. In the time 
of Pliny it was used, when ground to 
powder, to strew over ^vriting like black 
sand with us. It is probably a micaceous 

Am'modyte, the sand-eel. The amnio- 
dytes belong to the order malacopterygii 
apodes of Cuvier. The name is also com- 
mon to a small African serpent of the 
viper tribe, and to a large venomous ser- 
pent of Ceylon. 

Am'mon, the title under which Jupiter 
was worshipped in Libya. " Ammon was 
originally a Libyan deity adopted by the 
frreeks." The name seeins derived from 
mu.fjk»s, sand, and the situation of the 
celebrated temple, in an oasis surrounded 
by desert, further justifies this etymology. 

Ammon ACE A, according to the arrange- 
ment of De Blainville, a family of the 
order polythalamacea : it embraces the 
genera discerbis, scaphites, ammonites, 
and simplegas. In the Lamarckian system, 
the ammonacea is a family of the order 
polythalamous cephalopoda, embracing 
the genera of ammonites, ammonoceras, 
baculites, and turrilites. 

Ammo'nia, a chemical compound, other- 
wise called the volatile alkali, and which, 
in an uncombined state, and under ordi- 
nary atmospheric pressure, exists in the 
state of a highly pungent gas, possessing 
all the mechanical properties of air, but 
very condensable in water, with which it 
forms the water of ammonia, aqua-ammo- 
nia, or spirit of hartshorn of the shops. It 
is called ammonia from its being chiefly 
obtained from sal ammoniac ; volatile al- 
kali, from its being an alkaline gas ; harts- 
horn, from its having been originally 
obtained by distillation from the horn of 
the hart, its constituents are three vols, 
hydrogen, and one vol. of nitrogen, con- 
densed into two vols. By strong com- 
pression it becomes a liquid of sp. gr. 76. 

Ammo'kiac, gum-resin, the inspissated 
'juice of an umbelliferous plant (the do- 
rema armeniacum) which grows in Persia. 
It possesses a fetidsmell and bitterish taste. 
It is imported in large masses, composed 
of small whitish tears. It is used in me- 
dicine, and in making the substance 


called diamond cement. It is c;illed aiso 
gum-ammoniac, and is latinised ammonia- 
cum. Pliny says that it takes its name 
from its being produced in the vicinity of 
the temple of Jupiter .'onmon in Africa. 

Am'monite, snake-stone, or serpettt-stmie, 
or corntc-Am7nonis. The Ammonites con- 
stitute an extensive genus of fossil shells, 
allied to the Nautili, which inhabit cham- 
bered shells curved like a toiled snake. 
They are very abundant in the strata of 
the secondary mountains, varying from 
the size of a lentil to that of a coach- 
wheel. M. Krochant enumerates 270 spe- 
cies. They appear to have been almost 
universally distributed in the ancient 
world. They are found at an elevation 
of 16,000 feet on the Himalaya Mountitins, 
and are so plentiful in some parts of 
Germany as to be broken for mending 
roads. They belong to the cephalopodous 
order of MoUusca, and take their name 
from their resemblance to the horns on 
the statues of Jupiter Ammon. 

Ammoni'tidje, a family of Cephalopoda, 
with chambered syphoniferous shells, and 
distinguished from the other Ammonitea 
by the septa being sinuous. 

Ammo'nium. Sir H. Davy gave this name 
to what he believed to "be the metallic 
basis of ammonia. According to the hy- 
pothesis of Berzelius, ammonium consists 
of 1 vol. of nitrogen and 4 vols, of hydrogen. 

Ammo'nh:ret, a compound of ammonia 
and any substance not acid, as a metallic 

Ammonocb'ras, 1 From jlmwon, and 

Ammonoce'ratites. / xB^cts, a horn. 
Ammon's-hom, a genus of fossil shells 
resembling the Ammonites in their in- 
ternal structure; but they are simply 
curved, instead of being spirally con- 

Ammo'phila, sea-reed, marum, or mat- 
weed. A genus of the class triandria, and 
order digynia. Named from M/u,fM>t, sand, 
and (fiXos, a lover ; in allusion to its being 
generally found on sandy sea-shores ; in 
consequence of which habit, it is exten- 
sively employed in Norfolk and Holland 
for presen'ing the banks of sand which 
protect those countries from the inroads 
of the sea. 

Am'nion, Am'nios. The membrane of 
the ovum, which immediately surrounds 
the foetus: it lines the chorion, covers 
the placenta, and is reflected on the um- 
bilioal cord, which it invests as far as the 
umbilicum, where it terminates. From 
ec/jcyiov, which primarily meant a vessel 
for receiving the blood of the victims at 
sacrifices, and came afterwards to mean 
the membrane described. 

Am'nios. In botany, a thin, semitrans- 
parent, gelatinous membrane, in which 
the embryo of a seed is suspended wLtiu 





it first appears. It seems to afford nou- 
rishinent to the embrj-o in its earlier 
stages. The term is commonly derived 
from etfjuvKn, a lamb, in reference to the 
Boftness of the membrane. 

Amniotic Acid, an acid formerly sup- 
posed to be peculiar to the liquor amnii 
of the cow, but now known to belong to 
the liquor ailantois. See Allantoic. 

Amo'mlk, a genus of perennials, of 13 
.'pecies, one of which [A. Granum Fara- 
clUii), produces the Grains of Paradise or 
Great Cardamom seeds ; and the root of 
another {A. Zingiber) is the ginger of 
commerce. Class monandria, order niono- 
qyyiia. Hot climates — ^Africa and Asia. 
Kame, 0L(MifM>v, from Ar. hamaanxa, oit 
hamma, to warm, in reference to the 
pungent aromatic qualities of the plants. 

Ako'kphia, false or bastard indigo. A 
genus of American shrubaceous plants, of 
ttn species, from some of which a coarse 
kind of indigo is made. Class diadelphia, 
order decandria. Name, from », without, 
and fju^^, form, in reference to its irre- 
gular steins. 

Amor'phous, shapeless, from oiue^fes 
of et, without, and ytwg^, form. Applied 
to bodies which have no determinate 
form, or whose forms cannot easily be 

Amortiza'tion, \ Lat. ad, and mors, 

Amo'ktizemknt, ) death. The act or 
tight of alienating property to corpora- 
tions, which was formerly regarded as 
transferring them to dead hands, as such 
alienations were mostly made to religious 
houses for superstitious purposes. 

Amortise, | Lat. ad, and mors, death. 

Amortize, • To alienate in Mortmain. 
See Amortization a»»W Mortmain. 

Am'pac, an East Indian tree which af- 
fords an odoriferous resin. 

Ampeli'de^. In botany, another name 
of the natural order Vitaceae. From 
au.TO.oi, a vine. 

Am'pelite, a mineral of which there 
are two varieties, the ahiminoxts and 
'graphic. The first is the alum-slate, and 
the latter the graphic- date. The name is 
sometimes applied to the species of slaty 
coal which in England is called cannel- 
coal, and in Scotland parrot-coal. The term 
is from etfziriXot , a. vine, being anciently 
the name of a bituminous matter with 
which husbandmen anointed their vines 
to destroy worms. 

Ampelosao'ria, the wUd vine (Bryonia 
alba], from auTtkof, a vine, and otyeies. 
wild. ^ 

Amphiarthro'813, from «a^J,both, and 
a^B^tutrii, arthrosis. A mixed kind of 
articulation , which partakes of the nature 
both of diarthrosis and synarthrosis : thi- 
articular surfaces of the bones are united 

by an intermediate substance, in a manner 
which admits of a small degree of motion. 

Amphibia, from ayt^(, both, and /?/«;, 
life. In the system of Linrueus, the third 
class of animals. The lungs differ essen- 
tially from those of animals of the classes 
mammalia and a ves. Their heart has but 
one ventricle ; their blood is red and cold, 
and they can for a considerable time sus- 
pend respiration , so as to live under water . 
Their body is covered with a shell, with 
scales, or is quite naked. They have 
neither hair, mammae, feathers, nor ra- 
diated fins. They are divided into reptiles 
and serpents, and are either oviparous, 
or viviparous. In (he system of Cuvicr, the 
third tribe of caniivorous mammalia. 
Their feet are so short and so enveloped 
in the skin, that the only service they can 
render them on land is to enable them to 
crawl ; but as the inten-als of the fingers 
are occupied by membranes, they are 
excellent oars ; and, in fact, these animals 
pass the greater portion of their time in 
the water, never landing, except for the 
purpose of basking in the sun, and suck- 
ling their young. Their elongated body ; 
their very moveable spine, which is pro- 
vided with muscles that very strongly 
flex it ; their narrow pelvis, their short 
hair that adheres closely to their skin,— 
all unite to render them good swimmers, 
and all the details of their anatomy con- 
firm these indicia*. We have as yet dis- 
tinguished two genera only, phoca (the 
seal), and trichechtts (the morse). 

Amphibious, ok/ji/piZios , capable of two 
modes of life. This term is variously 
applied. 1. To animals which, at one 
periodof their existence, live entirely in 
water, breathing by means of gills, and 
at another respire air, and are frequently 

on land; e. g. frogs. 2. To animals 

which respire air, but are capable of re- 
maining under water for a length of 

time; e.g. seals. 3. To animals of 

the class (Lin.) or tribe (Cuv.) amphibia 
(q. v.). 4. To plants which grow in- 
differently on dry land or in the water ; 
e. g. Polygonum amphibium. 

Am'phibole, i^/^flAof , the name given 
by Hauy to the Hemi-prismatic Augite- 
spar of Mohs. The varieties are Horn- 
blende, Actinolite, and Tremolite. The 
name is more particularly referable to 
the first. 

Amphibolitk, a general name for all 
trap rocks, which have amphibole for 
their bases. 

Amphibra'ch, Lat. amphihrachus, trom. 
et/Mfi, both, and fi^uxod short. In poetry, 
a foot of three syllables, the middle one 
long, and the first and third short, aa la 
the word hdbiri. 

Amphico'ma, a genus of antfiobii, from 
afi , around, and xourj, hair, in refer- 




euce to the frequpnt coveiing witli wlrJch 
the species are invested. 

Ajm'hico'me, a kind of figure-stone, 
anciently used in divination, and called 
eroiylos, on account of its supposed power 
of exciting love. Name a/Mpi, both, and 
»ouij, hair. 

Amphic'tto's, council of. In history, 
ar. assembly of deputies from the different 
states of Greece, which met sometimes at 
Thermopylte but generally at Delphi ; 
•*o named because established by king 

Amphid'eon, A/u-pSiov, from aufi^ao, 
to bind round. In anatomy, a name of 
the OS uteri. 

AMPHiDEs'MA,agonns of bivalve shells 
belonging to the Tollininse of Swainson. 
■Name from «^ij/ and hiiry,M, of oitu, to 

Amphidiarthro'sis, from otfjupt, both, 
and iiot^d^outri; , diarthrosis. A name 
given to the articulation of the lower 
)a^ with the os temporis. because it par- 
takes both of the nature of ginglymus 
and arthrodia. 

Amphigamous Plants, the most imper- 
fect of all plants — having no trace what- 
ever of sexual organs: hence the name 
from et/Mft, doubtful, and yoLfjuxs, mar- 

Amphi'gene, Gr. «^; and y/voj. Tra- 
pezoidal zeolite, or leucite, called also 
Vesuvian. This mineral occurs in im- 
bedded grains or crystals in the more 
ancient lavas. 

Am'phihexahe'diial from ctfju^i and 
hexahedral. A term applied to crystals 
Vfhich have two hexahedral outlines, 
■when counted in two directions. 

Amphima'cer, from a.yu^t{jtM.K^Oi , long 
en each side. In poetry, a foot of three 
syllables, the middle one short, and the 
other two long ; e. g. glatlnsre. 

Amphi'pneusts, the name given by 
Merrem to a tribe of reptiles, compre- 
hending such as have both lungs and gills ; 
from a/ic^iStOn both sides, and irvso), to 
breathe. The tribe comprehends the true 
amphibia, or perennibranchiate amphi- 
pods; the third order of Crustacea in 
Latreille's an-angement, comprehending as have subcaudal natatory feet, 
with sessile eyes. Name from a/u^ts, 
on both sides, and :rov;, a foot. 

Amphipro'style, from oifji^i, double, 
rrfio, before, and a-ryXo;, a column. A 
temple, or house, having four columns in 
front and four behind, or two fronts ; but 
without columns at the sides. 

Amphisb^'na,! from «it^;j,both ways, 

Amphisbe'na, J and fiouvai, to go. A 
genus of opidian reptiles of South Ame- 
rica. They feed on insects, and are often 

found in ant-hills, which has given rise 
to the notion that the large ants are their 
purveyors. There are two species, both 
oviparous, and not poisonous. They have 
the power of moving with either head or 
tail foremost : hence the name. 

Amphi'scii, ) from ajMfi, on both 

Amphisciass, i sides and trxix, a 
shadow. In geography, the inhabitants 
of the torrid zone, whose shadows at one 
part of the year fall on the north, and at 
another on the south, according as the 
sun at noon is south or north of their 

Amphithe'atre, from etfjt^i, a round, 
and S-sarf«v, a theatre. 1. An elliptical 
building among the ancients, having seats 
entirely round, and an arena in the middle 
where spectacles were exhibited. Some 
amphitheatres, as the Coliseum at Rome, 
could accommodate from 50,000 to 60,000 

persons. 2. In gardening, a dispositiop. 

of shrubs, &c. in the form of an amphi- 
theatre on p. declivity, or forming such by 
placing them in the order of their growth. 

Amphitri'te, «^/Tg(T>). A genus of 
Tubicola, of the class anmdata, easily re- 
cognised by the golden-coloured setae, 
arranged like a crown. Hence named 
A/MpiT^iTYi, or the goddess of the sea. The 
A. auricoma inhabits the soutli coast of 
England; its tube is conical, and two 
inches long ; formed of grains of sand ag- 
glutinated together by a sort of mucus 
which exudes through the skin. 

Ampho'ra. The Roman amphora con- 
tained 8 congios or 48 sextarii = 7J imp. 
gallons. The Grecian etf^o^tus was 
equal to 28J gallons. The Venetian am- 
phoro contained 14 quarts. The capacity 
of the old atnbra of England is not known. 
The measure takes its name from having 
two handles; etfxjpi, on both sides, and 
^£{4», to carry, ctf^ipo^ioi, two-handled. 
2. The amphora is frequently repre- 
sented in architectural decoration. It is 
represented as a vase with two handles. 

AMPi.Ex'icAUL,Lat. amplexicattUs. Clasp- 
ing (nm/)/exus), the stem (canlisj : appUedtO 
leaves, the bases of which project on each 
side, so as to clasp the stem with their • 

Amplex'cs, Xat. for embracing, from 
amplecto, to embrace. In natural history, 
a fossil resembling a coral, found in the 
Dublin limestone. It is nearly cylindrical, 
divided into chambers by numerous trans- 
verse seipta, which embrace each other 
with reflected margins. 

Amplia'tion, Lat. ampliatio, enlarge- 
ment. In Moman law, postponement of a 
decision, to obtain further evidence. 

Am'plitude, Lat. amplitudo, to enlarge, 
largeness. In astronomy, an arc inter- 
a<>pted between the east and west points 




of the horizon, and the point of the same 
circle on which the centre of the sun or 
star appears in rising: or settinjf, on any 
particular day, is called the amplitude of 
the sun or star for that day, and so is 
either eastern or western, or teAinically, 
ortive at rising:, and occidumis or occasive at 
setting. The distances of the points of 
rising or setting from east and west, as 
shown by the compass, is called the mag- 
netic amplitude, and the difference 
between this and the true amplitude is 
the variation of the compass, or the am- 
plitude of azimuth, and is found by the 
azimuth-compass. The amplitude of the 
range of a prcgectile is the horizontal line 
subtending the path of the body, or the 
line which measures the distance it has 

AMPOL'tA, literally, a large-bellied 
bottle. 1. In cA*OTiitn/, any bellied vessel, 

as a bolt-head, receiver, cucurbit. 2. 

In anatomy, the dilated part of the mem- 
branaceous semicircular canals of the ear. 

3. In botany, a small membranaceous 

bag, attached to the roots and the im- 
mersed leaves of some aquatic plants, 
rendering them buoyant. — -—4. In patho- 
logy, the same with Bulla (q. v.). 

AxprLLACE'nA, from amptdla,a. bellied 
bottle ; the name given by M. Quoy to a 
genus of Turbidre, to which Swainson 
gives the name Thallicera. 

Ampcllaria, from ampttUa, a bellied 
bottle, a river shell of warm climates, 
called the apple-mail, from the form of 
the shell. It belongs to the trochoid fa- 
mily of Cuvier, but Swainson places it 
among the Turbidae or marine snails. 

AMPctLAKi'Na:, from ampulla a bellied 
bottle ; a sub-family of Turbidse, " most 
like the g:u-den-snails ; they are generally 
globose, the spire is very short, and the 
bo< vhorl enormous." Their typical 
genu» is the ampullaria. 

Asi'rLET, Lat. amuletum, tmta. amolior, 
to repel. A gem, stone, piece of metal, 
paper, or other substance, usually in- 
scribed with mystical characters, words, 
sentences, numbers, or other devices, 
commonly worn suspended from the neck, 
or carried about the person, from a belief 
that it had the power of averting evil, as 
■witchcraft, poverty, &c.; or of conferring 
some particular gift, as strength , courage, 
eloquence, &c. Amulets are distinct from 
prophilactics, which were supposed to 
prevent disease. 

Amtgdala, xfjUjyiat,Xn- 1- The ftT"t of 
the almond-tree {Amygdaliu eommunis). 

2. The tonsils are called amygdala, 

from their shape. 

Amtgda'lex, in botany, a tribe of the 
natural family Rosacese, of which the 
genus amygdalus is the type. The peach, 
plum, and apricot are examples. 

Amtodalo'id, from ecjMtyitcAut, an 
almond, and tt^ef, likeness. 1. As a 
name, toadstone: a volcanic or igneous 
rock, of any composition, containinjv 
nodules of other minerals embedded 
plentifully in it : " cellular volcanic rock, 
having its cells occupied with nodules of 
a dissimilar substance." 2. As an ad- 
jective, almond-shaped. 

Amyo'dalcs, the generic name of the 
almond- tree, of which there are eight 
species, mostly natives of Asia. Class 
icosandria, order monogynia. Name 
ei[Mr/haXo)i, an almond. 

Amyla'ceous, pertaining to, or possess- 
ing the properties of, starch [amyhtm). 

Amt'lic, amylaceous. Amylic acid is 
obtained from starch by distillation with 
peroxide of manganese. 

Amtli'ne, a substance between gum 
and starch, called also amidine. 

Amyraldism, the doctrine of universal 
grace, as explained by Amyraldus or 
Amyrault, of France, in the 17th cen- 

Am y'ris, the generic name of the balsam- 
tree, of which there are several species, 
all natives of the hotter climates. Class 
octatidria, order monogyriia. Named from 
ufMj^ot, odorous ointment, in the compo- 
sition of which it is much used. Gum- 
elemi is obtained from an American spe- 
cies {A. elemifera), and the balm of Oilead 
from the A. Gileadensis, which grows in 
Abyssinia and Arabia. 

Ana. 1. In medical prescriptions means 

"of each." See A. 2. As an affix to 

names of celebrated persons, ana denotes 
a collection of their memorable sayings, 
anecdotes of them, extracts from their 
works, &c. 

Anabap'tists, a sect who hold the doc- 
trine of the validitv of infant baptism, and 
the necessity of rebaptization at an adult 
age; and who maintain that baptism 
ought to be performed by immersion. 

An 'abas, the paneiri or tree-climber ; a 
peculiar acanthopterygious flsh common 
in India, which, it is asserted, not only 
leaves the water, but climbs trees on the 
banks of rivers: hence its name from 
avct^eura, to ascend. 

An'ableps, a genus of malacopterygious 
fishes which inhabit the coast of Surinam. 
They are characterized by a remarkable 
projection of the eyes, and a still more 
singular structure of the cornea and 
iris, from which there results two pupils, 
and the eyes appear to be double on each 
side. They have, however, but one cry- 
stalline lens, one vitreous humour, and one 
retina. Name from «6»»/3AiTa», to raise 
the eyes. 

Anacam'pebos, a genus of shrubaceoos 
plants of ten species, belonging to the 
Cape of Good Hope. Class dodtcandriop 


ordeT monogynia. Named from the Greek 

Ahaca'mptics, from uvat, back, and 
xufji/TTu, to bend. That branch of optics 
now called catoptrics (q. v.). 

Anacan'thes, a genus of chondroptery- 
gious fishes; from a>a, and Koivice,, a 
spine, being covered with spines. 

Anacardia'ce.e, a natural order of exo- 
genous plants, of which the cashew-nut 
{Anacardium occidentale) , is the type. The 
marking-nut, Burmaen vaniish, mastich, 
pistacio nuts, and sumach, are all pro- 
duced by species of this order. 

Anacar'dium, the cashew-nut ; a genus 
of the class enneandria, and order mono- 
gynia. There are two species, the acajou 
or acajuba (A. occidentale), the oil of the 
nut of which is a good marking ink ; and 
the Malacca bean {A. orientale). Same from 
a^a, resembling, and xa^^ia, a heart, in 
allusion to the form of the fruit. 

Anaclas'tic, refracting, from avet, 
backwards, and xXattris, a breaking. An- 
aclastic glasses are sonorous glasses, made 
chiefly in Germany. They resemble in- 
Terted funnels, with very thin convex 
bottoms. On drawing out a little air by 
applying the mouth to the orifice, the 
bottom springs into a concave form with 
a sort of crash, and again, by blowing into 
them, the bottom with a like noise springs 
into its convex form. These glasses are 
used to show the elasticity of glass. 

Anaclas'tics. See Anaclastic. The old 
name for that branch of optics which 
treats of refracted Ught, and which is now 
called dioptrics (q. v.). 

Anacolc'thon, Gr-ettoixeXtudofi some- 
thing which does not follow. A gramma- 
tical term denoting the want of sequence 
among the members of a sentence. 
Anacon'da, j a name given in Ceylon to 
Anacon'do, I a large snake, a species of 
hoa, " which is said to devour travellers." 
Its flesh is much esteemed as food. The 
name is Ceylonese, and means the great 

Anackeon'tic. The anacreontic verse 
consists of three feet and a half, usually 
spondees and iambics, but sometimes 
anapests. — An anacreontic is a i>oem in 
anacreontic verse. 

Anadiplo'sis from ecya and ii^kvo?, 
double, duplication. A rhetorical figure, 
consisting in the repetition of the last 
word or words in a line or clause of a 
sentence, as, 

"He retained his virtues amid all his 
misfortunes — misfortunes which" &c. 
2. Among physicians, the reduplication of 
a paroxysm in agues of a double type. 

Anaoal'lis, the herb pimpernel, of 
•which there are two British species ; one 
«if which is called the poor man't weather- 

66 ANA 

glass. Class petitandria, order monogynia. 
Named from uyKxyiXau, to laugh ; because, 
says Pliny, it excites pleasure ; and, ac- 
cording to Dioscorides, because it cures 
bilious disorders. 

An'aglyph, from etvxt upon, and 
yXv^cti, to engrave. An embossed or 
chased ornament, usually of metal and 
worked in relief. AVhen raised on stone, 
the anaglyph becomes a cameo: when 
sunk, an intaglio. 

Anagnos't.a, Lat. from cD/a.yvaxrxai, 
to read. A domestic servant employed by 
the wealthy Komans to read to them 
during meals. The old clergy continued 
the custom and the name. 

Anagoge, ) from oiva, upwards, and 

Anagogt, ) ayo), to lead. In theology, 
a mode of interpreting the Bible , whereby 
the text is turned from its literal sense to 
signify something of a more spiritual and 
mysterious nature . 

As'ageam, from ava and y^att^aa, 
a letter. A transposition of the letters of 
a name, by which a new word or sentence 
is formed ; e. g. Horatio Nelson becomes 
Honor est a Nilo. 

AN'AGRAPHjfromaxa.upon, andygat^ai, 
to write. A transcription, inventory, 
register, prescription, anagram, commen- 

Anagtbis, uvotyv^is, bean-trefoil. A 
genus of shrubaceous plants, natives of 
the southern parts of Europe. Class de- 
candria, order monogynia. 

Anal, Lat. analis, pertaining to the 
anus ; e. g. the anal Jin is that between 
the vent and the tail. The anal valves of 
certain of the cephalopods are intended 
for the defence of the terminal orifice of 
the intestines. 

Anal'cimb, cubic zeolite, called also 
cubizite. A stone which is found chiefly 
in the cavities of amygdaloidal rocks, re- 
gularly crystallised, in angulo-graniilar 
concretions, and massive. It is remark- 
able as having no cleavage lines: each 
crystal is composed in a singular manner 
of 24 solids, aU symmetrically arranged 
with respect to the axes of the icosatetra- 
hedron, and each of them possessing a 
separate optical structure and double re- 
fraction. It is rendered feebly electrical 
by heat, whence its name, from avetkxis, 

Analem'ma, Lat. from a,va,Xvifx.iJM., 
altitude. 1. In ^eon»e«ry, a projection of tha 
sphere on the plane of the meridian, or- 
thographically made by straight lines, 
circles, and ellipses, the eye being sup- 
posed at an infinite distance, and in the 

east or west points of the horizon. 2. 

An instrument of wood or brass, upon 
which an analemmatic projection is 
drawn, with a horizon and cursor fitted 

4X A. 



tn It, inwb'oh tbp solstitial colure, and all 
«<rc)M parallel to it. are concentric cir- 
cles ; all circles oblique to the eye are 
ellipses ; and all circles, whose planes pass 
through the eye, straijfht lines. The use 
of the instrument is to show the comnn t 
astronomical problems, which it does veiT- 

AjiA.LEi''sr, from avaXa,uJ2a¥V, to re- 
COTcr. A species of epileptic attack, of 
Budden and frequent occurrence, but not 
reckoned dangerous. 

Anal'oot, Gr. avctXeyia, of atvaXoyof, 
according to rule. A certain relation or 
agreement between things in some cir- 
cumstances or eflfects, when the things are 
otherwise entirely ditfcrent, and which in 
reasoning serve to explain or illustrate, 
but not to demonstrate. Thus, there is 
an analogy between plants and animals, 
in so far as both grow and decay. In 
matters of experience analogy is one of 
the principal bases of reasoning. 

Anjxtsis, Gr. ivaXua-is, resolution; 
B.. Xt;«, to loosen. 1. GcneraZiy, the reso- 
lution of something into its constituents : 
an examination of the dififerent parts of a 
subject separately, as the propositioiLs of 
an argument ; opposed to synthesis or com- 
position. 2. In mathematics, the name 

given to " the method of resolving pro- 
blems by means of algebraical equa- 
tions." The analytic method of resolving 
problems consists in "reasoning upon the 
•whole problem, reducing it at every step 
to simpler terms, and so coming at last to 
those considerations which must be put 
together to make a solution and to verify 
It." Analysis is divided into finite and 
itffinite, determinate and indeterminate, 
taid residual. The analysis of finite quan- 
tities constitutes algebra, and that of infi- 
nite quantities constitutes the method of 
fluxions, or differential calculus. Analysis 

of powers is evolution. 3. In chemistry, 

the resolution of a compound body to its 
eiements, which is effected by means of 
heat, mixture, electricity, &c. Qttalita- 
tive analysis consists in the determination 
of the component parts of a compound 
merely in respect to their nature, and 
■without reference to their proportions; 
by quantative analysis, on the other hand, 
it is required to determine the relative 
proportions of the component parts.'ttcs, the method of analysis. A 
name given to algebra, as being a general 
analysis of pure mathematics. 

formation. 1. In p<T.5p<T<«t'«drairinj», a pro- 
jection or representation, which, under 
ordinary points of view, appears extrava- 
gantly distorted and ridiculous, yet seen 
from a particular situation, it strikes the 
eye as one of complete symmetry. The 
anamorphosis is also something restored 

by reflection from specula, with certain 
surfaces as those of cones and cylinders, 
and by refraction through lenses. Deli- 
neations of.ttus sort depend on the simplest 
rules of mathematics and perspective. — 2. 
In tiaturcd history, an appearance unusual 
to the production. 

Ana'nas (Brazilian), the pine-apple 
plant. A species of bromclia which is a 
native of South America, but now grows 
wild in some parts of Africa and Asia, es- 
pecially the Malayan Archipelago, where 
it seems to thrive better than in its native 

Anan'dbods, from i, without, and «»rf » 
a*^^oi, a male, a stamen. Plants whose 
flowers are destitute of stamens ; thence 
called female flowers. 

Ah'apest, 1 from a»a and crouai, to beat 

A!{'4.p.EST, / time. A metrical foot in 
Greek and I^tin, having the two first 
syllables short and the last long ; e. g. 
fUta*. It is a reversed dactyle. 

Anaphrodi'sia., from «, and oup^ehrii, 
"Want of generative power. 

Anaplebo'sis (a»a^>.r,vuirii)- Restora- 
tion of parts destroyed, as in the healing 
of a wound. 

Anarrhich'as, the sea-wolf, or wolf- fish. 
A genus of acanthopterygious fish, belong- 
ing to Cuvier's family Gobiodes. Named 
from a>a, upwards, and ^vai, to drag, in 
allusion to its elimbing rocks and shoals 
by aid of its fins and tail. 

Anarrhi.v'cjj, a genus of herbaceous 
plants of the class didynamia, and order 
angiomonotpermia. Named from aya and 
|;yof , the seed vessel being recurvated. 

An'as. The anas of Cuvier is a genus of 
palmipedes, of the family Lamellirostres, 
and which comprises three subgenera; 
the cygnus (swait), the anser (goose), and 
the Anas of Meyer, the duck, properly so 
called, of which there are many species. 
Name from avao), to swim well. 

Anasar'ca, from a»», between, and 
a-oil, the flesh. A species of dropsy which 
consists in a collection of serous fluid in 
the cellular membrane, immediately under 
the skin. 

Anasto'ma, a subgenus of land-volute 
shells (luceminee), belonging to the genus 
lucerna. Name from «»«, upwards, and 
ffTOfjiot, a mouth. 

Anastomatic. See Anastomotic 

Anastomo'se, from ava and cTotut, the 
mouth. To inosculate : the term is used 
of parts, which growing in different direc- 
tions, meet and grow together, as the 
veins in leaves. 

Anastomo'sis iuveurrofjtcffn)- Inoscula- 
tion : applied to the opening of one vessel 
into another, as arteries, veins and lym- 
phatics, in the animal body. 

F 2 



Amastomo'tic, applied, 1. In anatomy, 
to those branches of vessels which anas- 
tomose with other vessels. 2. In medi- 
cine, to medicines supposed to have the 
power of opening the mouths of vessels 
and promoting circulation, e. g. cathartics. 
Anas'trous, from a, without, and 
atTT^ot, a star. Anastrous signs are the 12 
portions of the ecliptic which the sipns 
anciently jwssessed (called duodeca'.emo- 
ria), but which are now deserted by reason 
of the preoession of the equinoxes. 

Anata'se, from oi.v»Toc,<ns , extension. 
Pyramidal titanium-ore : a very ptire 
mineral oxide of titanium, called also 
octohedrite and rutile. 

Auath'ema, «»aflsjaa, a placing behind. 
A thing laid by as consecrated or devoted : 
Hence, 1. laheathenmi/thology ,sji.Qfi^'nag 
made to some deity and hung up in a 
temple. 2. In church affairs, " excom- 
munication with curses;" hence denun- 
ciation by ecclesiastical authority, accom- 
panied by excommunication. A person 
thus placed under the ban of the church 
is here said to be anathematized. 

There are properly two kinds of an- 
athemas, the judiciary and the ahjura- 
tory. The former is pronounced by a 
council, bishops, &c., the latter is the 
act of a convert, who anathematizes 
(denotmces) the religion which he ab- 

AuA'TiDiE, the duck family of birds. 
The genus anas is the type. 

Anatif'a, the barnacle. A genus of 
cuneiform multivalve shells, belonging to 
the class cirrhopoda, of Cuvier; often 
found adhering to rocks, piles, keels of 
vessels, &c. There are many species. 
Named from anas, a goose, and fero, to 
bring forth, in allusion to the absurd 
notion once entertained, that the " bar- 
nacle-goose " was bred within these shells. 
Anat'omt, from a,tciTOfx,tac of a*an/:Ata>, 
to cut up. The dissection of organised 
bodies, with a view to elucidate their 
structure and functions ; also the science 
which treats of the structure of organised 
bodies, and which is learned by dissection. 
Anatomy is distinguished into human and 
comparative, the one treating of the struc- 
ture of the human body , the other describ- 
ing and comparing the structure of other 
animals. The anatomy of the inferior ani- 
mals is also sometimes called zootomy, and 
that of vegetables pAytoiomj/. The science 
is also divided into general and descriptive. 
The first teaches the structure and phy- 
sical properties of the various tissues 
which compose the body, without refer- 
ence to the form or situation of the organs 
into whose composition they enter; while 
descriptive anatomy takes cognizance of 
the shape, position, and connexion of the 
partB. When dissectioiis are made for tbe 


ptrrposes of investigating the changes 
induced in the structure of organs by 
disease, the operations are called patho- 
logical or morbid anatomy; with a view 
to surgical operations, they constitute 
surgical anatomy; for the purpose of 
elucidating the functions of organs, 
physiological anatomy; and finally, to ex- 
hibit the plan on which the living frame 
and its organs are developed, transcenden- 
tal anatomy. The art of making models 
of wax or of other materials to illustrate 
the healthy or diseased structure of parts, 
is sometimes termed artificial anatomy. 

Anat'bopocs, from aiuT^iTsi, to invert. 
A term applied to a very common kind of 
embryo, produced by one side of the ovule 
growing upon itself, while the other re- 
mains immoveable, tUl that part originally 
next the apex is brought down to the 
hilum, as exemplified in the apple. 

Anaximan'drians, the followers of 
Anaximander, the most ancient of philo- 
sophical atheists. They admitted of no- 
thing in nature but matter. 

Ambat'kesd, the name of a celebrated 
book of the Brahmins, wherein the Indian 
philosophy and religion are contained. 
The word means literally, the cistern 
wherein is the water of life. 

An'ceps, two-edged, having two sharp 
edges : applied to the stems and leaves of 

Anchi'lops, «;)'<X*^J/, from ew|, a goat, 
and of^, the eye. Goat's-eye, a tumour 
near the inner angle of the eye. See 

ANCHOMExrs, a genus of adephagous 
coleoptera, belonging to the Patellimani 
of LatreUle. 

An'chor, Lat. anchors, from etyxv^et, 
probably from eyxv> a hook. A hooked 
iron instrument of considerable weight 
and strength, for enabling a ship to lay 
hold of the ground and fix itself in a cer- 
tain situation by means of a rope, called 
the cable. The arms which take hold of 
the ground are technically called fiukes ; 
the cross-bar of wood is called the stock ; 
the massy iron bar constituting the body 
of the anchor is called the shank ; and the 
flattened points of the flukes are called 

Anchors are of different sizes, and 
have difl^erent names, according to the 
purposes which they serve: as sheet, 
best bower, small bower, spare, stream, 
and kedge anchors. Ships of the first 
class have usually seven anchors ; and 
smaller vessels, as brigs and schooners, 
three. The weight in cwts. of the 
principal anchor, should be a twentieth 
of the nimiber of tons burden, in ordi- 
nary vessels. Thus, a vessel of 1000 tons 
will require an anchor of 50 cwts. There 
are many nautical phrases connected 



■with the anchor: as, the anchor conie* 
home, when it comes from its bed ; it is 
foul, when entangled with another ; a- 
p^aA:, when drawn in so tight as to bring 
the vessel immediately over it ; a-trip, 
or a-weigh, when just drawn out of the 
ftround in a perpendicular direction. 
To back an anchor, is to lay down a 
small anchor ahead of that by which 
the ship rides, with the cable fastened 
to the crown of the latter, to prevent 
its coming home. At anchor, to He at 
anchor, to ride at anchor, to cast anchor, 
to weigh anchor, Kre Mell-known phrases. 
2. In architecture, a carving some- 
what resembling an anchor, commonly 
placed as part of the enrichment of boul- 

tins. 3. In heraldry, anchors are em 

blems of hope. 

AN'cHOUAGt, ground suited for holding 
an anchor, that is, neither too deep, shal- 
low, nor rocky. The best anchorage is 

land-locked and out of the tide. 2. The 

duty charged to ships for the use of a 

harbour where they cast anchor 3. The 

anchor and necessary tackle for anchoring 
are also sometimes called the ship's an- 

Ak'choret, \ Gr. ci,¥etx»fKTrii , from 
An'chorite, ) oi.*etx»)^uu. to retire. A 
recluse : one who retires into a solitary 
place to devote himself to religious duties. 
Also a monk, who with the leave of the 
abbot retires to live in solitude >vith an 
allowance from the monastery. A hermit. 
Many of the early Christians became 
anchorets to escape persecution ; but this 
kind of life afterwards became fashionable 
among religious enthusiasts. 

Anchor-grocsd, ground suited for an- 
choring. See Akchorage. 

Anchovv, a small fish (clupea encrasi- 
•oZtii, I,in.) , common in the Mediterranean. 
& closely resembles the sprat, and is 
^efly used as a sauce. About 120,000 
IB. are consumed in Britain annually. — 
yhe name is Span, anchota, of uncertain 
origin. See ENoaAULis. 

AscHovT-PEAR, a large esculent fruit of 
Jamaica : also the tree which bears it, the 
grias cauliflora. 

Anchc'sa, the huglos or alknnet. The 
popular name of a genus of which there 
are two British species, class i>entandria, 
order monogynia. Named from otyx***^*^ 
a paint, in reference to the dye obtained 
from the roots of one species of it. See 

Anchtlo'sis, from «yxt;XM>, to bend. A 
stiff and bent joint. 

Ancient, Fr. ancien, old. 1. Substan- 
tively in the plural, ancients: those who 
lived in former ages, opposed to moderns. 
The term is now commonly applied to the 
Greeks and Romans. 2. In French his- 
tory, the couiicil of a-icients was one of the 

two assemblies which composed the legis- 
lative body in 1795. It consisted of 250 
members, and derived its name from each 

of them being at least 40 years of age. 

3. A flag or streamer in a ship of war, 
probaWy a corruption Of end-sheet, a flag 
at the stem. 

Ancient-domain, 1 In English law, a 

Antient-demesse. ) tenure by which 
all manors belonging to the crown were 
held in the reign of William the Con- 
queror. The numbers, names, &c., of 
these lands were all entered in the record 
called the domesday-book, as terra regis. 
The tenure resembles copyhold in some 

Anciently, in old statutes, eldership or 

Ancilla'ria, a volute shell, of an oblong 
subcylindrical form. It belongs to the 
genus buccinum of Lin., and the family 
buccinoida of Cuv. The shell is highlj 
polished. Named from ancilla, a maid. 

Ancip'ital, Lat. ancipitas. Compressed 
80 as to form two opposite angles or 
edges : applied to leaves in the same sense 
as anceps (.q.v.). 

Ancipitots, from anceps, two-edged. 
See Ancipital. 

An'con, Gr. ay«*v, the elbow. Some- 
times applied to the olecranon or pro- 
tecting part of the elbow on which we 
lean. In architecture, the ornaments or 
consoles cut on the keystones of arches, 
&c., are termed aMcrf»ies. The term is also 
applied to the comers of walls, cross- 
beams and rafters, and to other projecting 

Ancoko'se, \ Lat. anconetis, angular. 

Anco'nocs, J The anconose muscle {an- 
coneus minor of Winslow), is a small 
triangular muscle situated in the back 
part of the elbow, and which assists in, 
extending the forearm. 

An'cony, probably from ancon (q.v.). 
In iron works, a piece of half-wrought 
iron ; the middle is of the shape of a bar, 
but the ends are unwrought. 

Ancy'le. In antiquity, a shield, which 
it was pretended fell from heaven in the 
reign of Numa Pompilius, at which time 
likewise a voice was heard to declare that 
Rome should be mistress of the world, so 
long as she presened this holy buckler ; 
it was kept with great care in the Temple 
of Mars, under the protection of twelve 
priests. Among surgeons, a contraction 
or stiffness of a joint ; from ay xvkof, 
crooked, or contracted. 

Ancylome'le, a curved probe used by 
surgeons ; ayxv>i»(, crooked, and jtt»jA»i, 
a probe. 

Ancylcs, the fresh-water limpet; a 
genus of river snails. See LiifNACiAN.s. 

An'da, a Brazilian tree, the fniit of 
which is an oval-shaped nut, containing 
two seeds, which are strongly catharuc 


And^lcsite, a massive mineral, of a 
Besh-red colour, and vitreous lustre, 
wliich takes its name from Andalusia, in 
Spain, where it was first found. Its chief 
elements are alumina, silica, and potash, 
coloured by a minute portion of oxide of 
iron. It occurs in primitive rocks; chiefly 
in gneiss in Ensland, Scotland, and Ire- 
land. Mohs places it amons; the gems. 

Anda'nte, an Italian term (literally 
going) employed in music to denote a 
movement moderately slow between largo 
and allegro. 

Ande's.^, in old icritings, the swath 
made in mowin}; of hay ; as much ground 
as a man can stride over at once. 

An derso'n 1 a , the generic name of a tree 
of New Holland ; c\ass petUandria, order 
monogynia. Named in honour of Dr. O. 

Andi'ra. 1. The name of a species of 
Brazilian bat, " nearly as large as a 

pigeoh. ' 2. The generic name of the 

cabbage-tree ; a lofty tree which grows in 
the East and West Indies, and other hot 
coiintries : class diadelphia. order decan- 
dria. The bark and seed are used in 

Andrana'tomt, from avrf > a man, and 
avxrif^vu, to cut up. The dissection of 
the human body, particularly of the male. 

A>drene't.e, a tribe of hymenoptera, 
embracing all those genera of bees which 
live solitarily, and consist of two kinds of 
individuals, males and females. They 
correspond with the andrenes of Fabricius, 
and take their name from the typical 
genus andrena. 

Androc-i'cm, from aw,^, a male, and 
■ cixoi, a house. In botany all that part of 
a flower to which the male organs belong ; 
the male apparatus of a plant. 

Andko'ginal, \ Gr. atni^oyvves , from 

AsDRo'oiNE, >a»»if , a man, and jaiv»5. 

Andro'ginous, ' a woman. Having two 
sexes, or being an hermaphrodite. In 
botany, the term is applied, 1. To flowers 
■which have both male and female organs. 

2. To plants which have separate 

male and female flowers. Such plants 
constitute the Monoecious class in the 
Xinnaean system, and have frequently 

An'droid, from ayr,^, a man, and tthoi, 
likeness. In mechanics, a figure con- 
structed so as to imitate the actions or 
motions of man. See Ac tom. axon. 

Akdro'meda. 1. In astronomy, a con- 
stellation of the northern hemisphere, 
behind Pegasus, Cassiopeia, and Perseus, 
representing a woman chained. It is 
fabled to have been formed in memory of 
Andromeda, daughter of Cepheus and 
Cassiopeia, and wife of Perseus, whom 
her father chained to a rock, and left ex- 

70 ANR 

posed to a sea-monster. 2. In botany, 

the March cystus: a genus of the class 
decandria, and order monogynia, of which 
there is one British species. This beau- 
tiful tribe of plants takes its name like- 
wise from the fable of Andromeda, being 
found in dreary and nortliem wastes, 
feigned to be the abodes of hobgoblins 
and monsters. 

An'drox, in Grecian antiquity, an 
apartment for the use of men ; hence, 
among ecclesiastical writers, the southern 
side of a church, which was anciently 
appropriated to the men ; the northern 
being appointed for the women. Among 
the Greeks and Romans, the andron 
was always in thelower partof the house, 
and the gynoecea or women's apart- 
ments in the upper. 

a male, and 

Andropetalous, from 


sTEToAoK, a petal. A term used in botany 
to describe double flowers, which arc pro- 
duced by the conversion of the stamens 
into petals, as is exemplified in most 
double flowers. 

Andro'phoron, ^ from av*i?, a male, a 

Andko'phorum, ] stamen, and Ci^Uf, 
to bear. The columnar expansion in the 
centre of some flowers on which the sta- 
mens seem to grow, as in the passion- 

Andropo'gon, a genus of plants ; mart's- 
beard, from avn^, a man, and fruyoiir, 
a beard. Class polygamia, order moncecia. 
There are many species, all natives of 
warm climates ; two of them are known 
to physicians under the names of Indian 
nard and camels-hay, or sweet-rush. 

Andbo'tomy. See Andranatom-v. 

Andrcm, a kind of elephantiasis of the 
scrotum, which is epidemic in the south 
of Asia, particularly Malabar. The root 
of the word is Indian. 

AsDRT ALA. the downy sow-thistle, a 
genus of exotics. Class syngenesia, order 
polygamia tequalis. 

Anelectric, non-electric ; from a, not, 
and rjXixr^oy, electricity. 

Akem'ia, a genus of cryptogamous 
plants of the order filices. There are five 
species, all perennials, and natives of the 
"West Indies and South America. Named 
from civifjio;, the wind. 

Anemo'looy, from «,tiuot, the wind, 
and Aoysf , discourse. The doctrine of the 
winds, or a treatise on the subject of 
aerial currents. 

Anemo'meter, from ocviuos, the wind, 
and fjLiT^ov, measure. A machine or in- 
strument for measuring the force or velo- 
city of the wind : called also a wind-gag» 
(q.V.) An instrument of this sort was first 
invented by "W'olfius. 

Anemone, the icitid-Jlower , & genus of 

ANQ ! 

the class polyatuiria and order polygyuia. 
There are four British, and 24 foreign 
species, all perennials. Named from 
itytfj^, the wind, because the flower is 
said not to open till blown upon by the 
wind. From the beauty of the flower it 
is fabled that Venus changed her Adonis 
into an anemone. 

Anemo'nia, 1 an acrid crystallisable and 

Anemo'nin, i inflammable substance, 
obtained from some species of anemone. 

A'nemosco'pe, from mnfjtc(, the wind, 
and fl-«»!ri«i, to view. Properly, a machine 
for showing fh)m what point of the com- 
pass the wind blows; but the term is 
oftener used as synonymous with anemo- 
meter (q.v.) The common weathercock is 
strictly an anemoscope. 

Anepitht'mia, loss of any natural appe- 
tites, as that for food and drink : from a, 
without, and uriBvfuet, desire. 

Ane'sis, in medicine, remission or dimi- 
nution of symptoms; from a,urifu, to 

Aneth'dm, the herbs dUl and fennel ; the 
name of a genus of the class pentandria, 
and order dygynia. Xamed iv»ifloy, quiid 
eitb crescat (Pliny, 20, 18). The fennel, A. 
faeniculum, grows plentifully on the chalky 
cliffs in England; its seeds are carmi- 

An'ecbish, Gr. ettiufvirucit from etvtu- 
{uv*, to dilate. " The term signifies strictly 
a tumour arising from the dilatation of 
an artery: but it has been extended to 
several diseases and lesions of the blood- 
vessels, and to dilatations of the heart " 

ANrRACTCo'siTY (^supTo), an involution 
of parts. 

AsrKAc', a winding 
backwards and forwards. A term most 
commonly used in botany, to signify that 
the marginal parts are folded back, and 
doubled and bent until all trace of the 
normal character is lost. 

Angel, 1. literally a messenger, from 
•j^tXos, one employed to communicate 
information, (romccyyiXXai, to announce ; 
hence, in scripture, a. spiritual intelligence 

employed by God to execute his will. 

2. Tlie name of a gold coin formerly cur- 
rent in England bearing the supposed 
figure of an angel. This coin had diflferent 
values in different reigns ; e. g. 6s. Sd. in 
the reign of Edward VI. ; 7s. 6d. in 1st 
Henry \1II., and 8». in 34th Henry VIII. ; 
10». in the reigns of Mary and Elizabeth. 
The angel was first struck in commemo- 
ration of a saying of Pope Gregory, that 
the English, whom he denominated pagan 
Angli, were so beautiful, that if they were 

Christiaiis they would be angels. 3. 

The order of the Oolden Angel was an 
ancient order of knighthood, said to 
have been instituted by Cooitantine, but 

I A N G 

more probably by the imperial house of 
Comnenus of Constantinople. The order 
was revived by Charles V. It is the same 
as that known as the orders of St. George 

and of St. Constantine. 4. Angel is 

also the popular name of a genus of fishes 
{chatodon, Lin.) remarkable for their 
beautiful colours. See Chxtodon. 

Anoel'ica, a genus of aromatic plants 
of the class pentandria and order d^nia, 
named angelic, from the cordial and medi- 
cinal properties of some of its species. 

Angeliceje, the name given by Decan- 
doUe to a tribe of umbelliferous plants, of 
which the genus angelica is the type. 

Angelics, angelici, in church history, an 
ancient sect of heretics, who maintained 
that the world was created by angels , 
also a congregation of nuns founded at 
Milan, in 1534, by Louisa Torelli, Countess 
of Guastalla. Angelics is also the name of 
an order of knights instituted in 1191, by 
Angellus Flavus Comnenus, emperor of 
Constantinople, probably the same as the 
order of the golden angel. See Anqel (3). 

Angelites, in church history, a sect so 
called from Angelicum, in Alexandria, 
where they held their first meetings. 
They are also called Seierites, from Seve- 
rus, their head; and Theodosians, from 
one Theodosius, whom they made their 

Angelot. 1. A musical instrument 
somewhat resembling a flute ; so 
called from Fr. atiche, the reed of a 
hautboy or other piusical instrument.—— 
2. An ancient gold coin, struck at Paris 
while under the dominion of England ; so 
called from its being the figure of an 
angel, supporting the scutcheon of the 

arms of England and France. 3. A 

small rich sort of cheese, made in Nor- 
mandy : supposed to be so called from the 
name of the person who first made it, 
or from its resemblance to the form of 
the coin angelot. 

Angel-shot, from Fr. ange, a chain- 
shot. A sort of chain-shot having two 
halves of a cannon-ball fastened to the 
ends of a chain. 

AsQEL-wATER, a mixtuTC of rose, 
orange-flower, and myrtle water, per- 
fumed with ambergris. It is made in 

Angixa, Lat. from ango, to strangle. A 
general name for diseases called sore 
throat, and which are attended with diflS 
cult deglutition and respiration, as quinsy, 
mumps, croup. That peculiar affection of 
the chest caUed suffocative hrenst-pang is 
also named by physicians angina pectorit. 

Ajjgiocar'fous, from etyytiofya. case, and 
xetfvoi, fruit. A term applied in botany 
to seed-vessels which are enclosed in a 
covering that does not form part of then- 


•elves. The filbert in its husk, and the 
Bcorn in its capsule, are examples of an- 
giocarpous fruits. 

Angio'ur.vphy, from ayyuov, a vessel, 
and y^m0t*, to describe. A description of 
the vessels of the human body. 

ANGio'Looy, from ayyuov , a vessel, and 
Xoyes, discourse. The doctrine of the 
iblood- vessels and absorbents of the body. 
; Anoiomo'nosper'mous, from etyyiiot, a 
vessel, yttcKef , one, and ovi^fjtM, seed. Ap- 
plied to plants which produce only one 
seed in a pod. 

Angiospekmia, the name given by Lin- 
naeus to an order of plants of the class 
didynamia, which have their seeds in- 
closed in a pericarp or seed-vessel. 

Angiostoma, " a family of univalve 
shells of the order siphono-brachiata." 
Name, from ocyytiov, a vessel, and (rrofMc, 
a mouth. 

ANGioTOMy, from ecyyuov, a vessel, and 
Ttf*,¥u, to cut. The analogy of the san- 
guiferous and absorbent vessels of the 
body. The word has been confoimded 
With arteriotomy and phlebotomy. 

Angle, Lat. aiigulus, a corner, from 
tiyyvkot) a bend. In plane geometry, 



when two straight lines, not lying in the 
same direction, as AB and AD, meet in 
a point as at A , the opening between them 
is called an angle. Thus, th^ opening 
commencing at A is called the angle 
BAD, or DAB; and the lines AB and 
AD are called its sides or legs. When the 
legs of the angle intercept less than the 
fourth part of a circle drawn roimd the 
point A, the angle is said to be acute. 
When exactly a fourth of the circle is 
similarly intercepted, the angle is called 
a right angle; but when more is inter- 
cepted, the angle is obtuse. Thus, BD is 
less than the fourth ; B C exactly a fourth ; 
and BE more than a fourth: therefore, 
the angle BAD is an acute angle; the 
angle B A C is a right angle ; and the 
angle BAE is an obtuse angle. And as 
all circles are supposed to be divided into 
360°, an acute angle will contain less than 
90° ; a right angle, 90° ; and an obtuse 
angle, more than 90°. The number of 
degrees which an angle wants of 90°, or 
of being a rigfc. angle, is called its com- 
mitment; and the number of degrees which 

it wants of being equal to two right an- 
gles, or 180°, i.s called its supjAement. Thus, 
the angle C A D is the complement of the 
angle D A B, or these angles are comple- 
ments of each other ; and are also called 
contiguous or adjacent angles, because one 

leg, AD, is common to both. A solid 

angle is " formed by the meeting of two 
plane angles, which are not in the same 
plane, in one point." — Euclid. Solid an- 
gles do not, like other subjects of geome- 
trical investigation, admit of accurate 
comparison with one another, as no mul- 
tiples of them can be taken ; and therefore 
all reasoning regarding them must be con- 
fined to the angles by which they 

are bounded. A spherical angle is an 

angle made on a sphere by the intersection 
of two great circles, or by the inclination 
of the planes of these circles to each other. 

Facial angle, in zoology, signifies the 

angle formed by the intersection of a line 
drawn from the most prominent part of 
the frontal bone over the anterior margin 
of the upper jaw, with another line drawn 
from the external orifice of the ear-passage 

along the floor of the nasal cavity. The 

frontal angle, in ornithology, is the angle 
which the upper line of the beak makes 
with the forehead. 

Angle of Dracght. When a power is 
applied to drag or roll a body over a plane 
surface, it has to overcome two obstacles : 
one is the friction of the surface over 
which the body moves, and the other the 
weight of the body itself. There is, in 
every case, a certain direction of the 
drawing power which is best adapted to 
overcome these combined obstacles ; and 
the angle made by the line of direction 
with a line upon the plane over which 
the body is drawn, and perpendicular to 
that line of direction, is termed the angle 
of draught. 

Angle of Incidence. See Reflection. 

Angle ofRefkaction. See Refraction. 

Angle of Vision, the angle formed by 
two rays of light proceeding from dif- 
ferent objects, or opposite extremities of 
the same object: called also the visual 
angle and the optic angle. 

Angler, one who fishes with an angle, 
or hook attached to a line. Also the popular 
name of a singular fish, known also by the 
name of t\\e fishing -frog, from the resem- 
blance which it has to the frog in the tad- 
pole state. 

Anglican, pertaining to England or the 
English nation ; e. g. the Anglican church. 
The word is the adjective of Anglia. A 
tribe of Saxons, called Angles, who, being 
employed by the Britons against the Scots 
and Picts, ultimately turned upon and 
conquered their employers, and gave 
the name of Anglia to England. The 
Angles were the Ingcevones of Tacitus. 

Anglo-Damsh, pertaining to the An- 




glican Danes, or Danes who settled in 
England {Anglia). 

Anulo-Norman, pertaining to the Nor- 
mans who settled in England. 

Anglo-Saxon, pertaining to the Anghs, 
or tribe of Saxons that settled in England. 
See Anglican. 

An'oosj, the javelin of the ancient 
French, the iron head of which resembled 
a fleur-de-luce. 

An'gok, Lat. from ango, to strangle. In 
pathology, a feeling of anxiety, and con- 
striction in the pra?cordial region : it is an 
accompaniment of many severe diseases. 

Anou, bread made of the cassava, a 
plant of the West Indies. 

Asocina, a family of serpents having 
an osseous head, teeth, and tongue, and 
eyes furnished with three lids. They are 
all comprised in the genus anguis of Lin- 
naeus (whence their family name), and 
belong to the order ophidia of Cuvier. 

Anocis, a genus of serpents (Linnaeus) 
composing the family anguina of Cuvier, 
and now subdivided into pseudopus, ophi- 
taunu, miguis proper, and acontias. They 
are all characterised by having subcaudal 
and abdominal imbricated scales. The 
slow- worm {A. fragilis) is an example. 

Angular, relating to angles. Angular 
motion is the motion of a body about a 
fixed point, which is measured by the 
angle described at the centre by lines 
drawn from its positions at different 
points of its circular path. By Angular 
section is meant, in the old geometry, the 
division of an angle into any number of 
equal parts. The bisection only of an 
angle is possible by plane geometry ; the 
trisection of an angle requires the aid of 
solid geometry, and the general division 
of an angle into any proposed number of 
equal parts is a problem which has not as 
yet been solved. Angular sections, in 
modern mathematics, is the name used to 
denote a branch of analysis, which is 
employed in the investigation of the pro- 
perties of circular functions. 

Angulate, angled ; applied to stems, 
leaves, petioles, &c., which are of an 
angular shape. 

Angcs'tatk, Lat. angxutatm, beginning 
with a narrow base and growing broader ; 
tapered downwards, or towards the base. 

Anous'ticlave, from Lat. angustus, 
narrow, and clamts, a knob. A robe or 
timic worn by the Roman knights ; it was 
embroidered with narrow purple knobs, 
or studs, whereas the laticlave worn by 
the senators had broad studs. 

Angostifoliate, narrow-leaved; an- 
gustus, narrow, and/o/ium, a leaf. 

Angcstu'ra, baik; a medicinal bark 
(of the Bonplandia trifoliata) ; is so called 
because brought from .\jigU8tura, in South 
Aroerira. Tt is occasionally used as a 
Ionic, and In diarrhira. Spurious angru- 

tura is a poisonous bark , sometimes found 
in commerce ; it is obtained from a spe- 
cies of strychnos. 

Anhela'tion, from anhelo, to breathe 
with difficulty. Difficult respiration, with 
a sense of suffocation. See Dtspnsa. 

Anhi'ma, an aquatic fowl of Brazil, 
somewhat like a crane. It is said that 
when the male or female dies, the living 
one remains by the carcass till it also 

Anhydrite, anhydrous gypsum. A 
variety of sulphate of lime containing no 
water of crystallisation. It is also called 
prismatic gypsum. 

Anhydrous, from a. priv., and viai^, 
water. Containing no water in combina- 
tion. Anhydro is a contraction of this 
word ; e. g. anhydro-sulphuric acid. 

Anil, one of the indigo plants (indigo- 
fera). Anil is the Spanish and Portuguese 
word for indigo, perhaps from Arabic nila 
blue. The plant is a native of America. 

Anille'ros, in history, the name given 
to the moderate party during the Spanish 
revolution of 1820-23. They directed the 
Cortes, and were headed by Arguelles and 
Martinez de la Rosa. 

Animal, an organised and living body, 
endowed with sensation and the power of 
voluntary movement, in whole or in part 
Locomotion . although a general character- 
istic, is not an essential attribute of ani- 
mality. There are numerous animals as 
permanently fixed to their native rocks 
and coral reefs, as the most deep-rooted 
plants are to the soil on which they grow. 
The word animal is Latin, from anima, 
air, breath, soul. 

Animal Kingdom. The Animal King- 
dom is arranged into four divisions. Di- 
vision I. Vertebral Animals, so called from 
their possessing a vertebral column, or 
spine. — Division II. Molluscous Animals, 
such as shell-fish, which are of a soft 
structure, and without a skeleton, from 
mollis, soft. — Division III. Articulated 
Animals, such as the worm, or insect, 
which are also without a skeleton ; but 
whose skins or coverings are divided and 
jointed ; from artictilus, a small joint. — 
Division IV. Zoophytes, animals believed 
to be composed very nearly of a homo- 
geneous pulp, which is moveable and 
sensible, and resembles the form of a 
plant ; from ?4ifl», a living creature, and 
^urev, a plant. 

Division I. 

Vertebral Animals are composed of four 
classes: viz., 1. ,Vnwma/«a, animals which 
suckle their young ; from mamma, ft. teat; 
2. Aves, from avis, a bird; iJ<^)<i7i>i, ani- 
mals that crawl, from repo, to creep ; 4. 
Fisces, from piscis, a fish. 

The First Class, Mammalia, is again 
divided into orders, which are subdivide4 


into genera, and these are further divided 
into species. The following familiar ex- 
amples will illustrate the principal orders : 
1. Bimana, two-handed, from bis, double, 
and mantis a hand. Of this order man is 
the type and sole genus. — 2. Quadrumana, 
four-handed, from qiiatimr, four, and 
matiM. Apes, baboons, leniures, and the 
loris tardigradus, are of this character. — 
3. Cheiroptera, from ^£/ J , hand , and jTTJjev, 
■wing. These have their hands so modi- 
fied, as to serve the office of wings. Of 
this order the common bat may be consi- 
dered the type.— 4. Insectivora, from 
insecta, insect, and voro, I devour. Ani- 
mals which live wholly or chiefly on in- 
sects, as the hedgehog, shrew, mole, &c. 
— 5. Plantigrade, from planta, the sole of 
the foot, and gradior, I walk. These are 
generally carnivorous animals, as the 
bear, racoon, &c. — 6. Digitigrade, from 
digitxis, the finger, or toe, and gradior; so 
called from walking on the extremities of 
their digits, as the lion, wolf, dog, &c. — 
7. Amphibia, from afjUfh both, and ^/o? , 
life ; having the faculty of existing both 
in water and on land, as the walrus, seal, 
&c. — 8. Marsupialia, from marsupium, a 
pouch. The females of this order have a 
bag, or pouch, underneath the belly, in 
•which they deposit their young after par- 
turition, as the kangaroo and opossum. — 
9. Kodentia, from ro<io, 1 gnaw, so called 
from having two long incisors in each 
jaw, and no canine teeth, as the squirrel, 
rat, beaver, hare, &c. — 10. Edentata, 
from edentulus, toothless ; i. e. animals 
■without the front teeth, as the ai, unau, 
armadillo, ant-eater, &c. — 11. Pachyder- 
mata, from fraxM^' thick, and ht^f^ec, 
skin; i. e. thick-skinned, as the rhino- 
ceros, elephant, mammoth, horse, &c. — 
12. Rimiinantia, from ruminatio, chew- 
ing the cud, as the camel, deer, cow, 
goat, sheep. — 13. Cetaceae, from cetus, a 
whale. To this order belong the dolphin, 
whale, dugong, &c. 

Second — Aves, or Birds. — 1 . Ac- 
cipitres, from accipiter, a hawk; snch as 
the vulture, eagle, hawk, &c. — 2 Passeres, 
from passer, a sparrow; those which 
neither manifest the violence of birds of 
prey, nor the fixed resimen of terrestrial 
birds, but feed indiscriminately on insects, 
fruit, or grain, as the lark, thrush, swal- 
low, crow, wren, &c. — 3. Scansores, from 
scaudo, I climb ; i. e. climbing birds, which 
have the toes arranged in pairs; two 
before and two behind, as the parrot, 
woodpecker, toucan. — 4. Gallinae, from 
gallina, a hen. This order is sometimes 
called rasores, scratchers, being provided 
with strong feet, and obtuse claws for 
scratching up grains, as the peacock, 
pheasant, pigeon, hen. — 5. Grallae, from 
graila stilts • i. e. long-legged, as the 



ostrich, stork, ibis, flamingo. — 6. Palmi- 
pedes, from palma, the palm of the hand, 
and;oes, foot; i. e. swimming birds, as 
the swan, goose, pelican, gtill, &c. 

Third Class. — Reptiles. — 1. Chelonia, 
from %£Xyf, a tortoise, including terra- 
penes and turtles. — 2. Sauria, from fotu^ec, 
a lizard, an order which have their 
mouths well armed with teeth, and their 
toes generally furnished with claws, as 
the crocodile, alligator, cameleon, dragon, 
&c. The most gigantic of this species 
have been long extinct. — 3. Ophidia.from 
6(?<f, a serpent, as the boa, viper, &c. — 

4. Batrachia, from /Sarja^ef , a frog. To 
this order belong the salamander, protens, 

Fourth Cl.ass. — Fishes. — 1. Chondropte- 
rygii, from xo*^o(, gristle, and !rT£{u|,the 
ray of a fin : as the sturgeon, shark, lam- 
prey, &c. — 2. Plectognathi, from fr>^ixai, 
I join, and y^ocdos, the jaw: as the sun- 
fish, trunk-fish, &c. — 3. Lophobranchi, 
from Xs^of , a loop, and /Sjav^;*, the gills, 
as the pipe-fish, pegasus, &c.— 4. Malacop- 
terygii, from flatXaxo; , soft, and!TT£ju|: 
as the salmon, trout, cod, herring, &c. — 

5 . Acanthopterygii , from a^airJa , a thoni , 
and a-r£«j/«: as the perch, sword-fish, 
mackerel, &c. 

Division II. — Molluscous AnimaXs. 
1st Class. Cephalopoda, from ^EipaXi), the 
head, and ^oi», feet, i. e. animals which 
have their organs of motion arranged 
rotmd their heads. This class includes se- 
pia, or cuttle-fish, argonauts, the nautilus, 
ammonite, an extinct cephalopode which 
inhabited a shell resembling that of the 
nautilus, coiled like the horns of a ram, or 
of the statups of Jupiter Ammon, whence 
the name; belemnites also extinct, of 
which the shell was long, straight, and 
conical; nummulites, likewise extinct: 
whole chains of rocks are formed of its 
shells, and the pyramids of Egypt are 
built of these rocks : so called, from num^ 
mus, a coin. — 2nd Class. Pteropoda, from 
iTTi^ov, a wing, and jroSa, feet: those 
having fins resembling wings on each side 
of the mouth : the clio borealis, which 
abounds in the north seas, and is the 
principal food of the whale. — 3rd Class. 
Gasteropoda, from ycttrn^, tlie stomach, 
and ToSa : animals which move by means 
of a fleshy apparatus placed under the 
belly, as the snail, slug, limpet. — ith Class. 
Acephala. from a, without, and xt^atXr,, 
head : as molluscous animals that have no 
head, viz., the oyster, muscle. — 5fh Class. 
Brachiopoda, from ^^a^mv, arm, and 
irai» : animals which move by means of 
processes resembling arms, as the lingula. 


terebratula, &c.— 6th Class. Cirrhopoda, 
from cirrus, a tuft of hair, and !r»J«: ani- 
mals which are commonly called barna- 
cles and acorn-shells, as the balanus, 
anatifera, &c. 

Division III. — Articttlata. 

1st Class. Annclidcs or Termes, from 
3Nnri/t«,asmall rin^, and wrmis, a worm. 
Animals having a long cylindrical body 
divided into ring-like segments, as the 
leech, sea-mouse, earth-worm, and sand- 
worm ; worms which cover themselves by 
means of a slimy secretion that exudes 
from their surfaces, with a case of small 
shells and pebbles, like the caddis-worm, 
or with sand and mud. — 2nd Class. Crus- 
tacea, from crusta, a hard covering. Ani- 
mals which have a shelly crust covering 
their bodies, as crabs, shrimps, lobsters, 
&c. — 3rd Class. Arachnida, from m^atx*'^' 
a spider; as spiders, the leaping spider, 
the scorpion spider, the mite, &c. — ith 
Class. Insecta, insects. This class is 
divided into insects without wings, aptera, 
and those which have them; and these 
are again subdivided, according to the 
peculiarities of their wings. (1.) Aptera, 
from a, without, and irrifo*, wing: as 
centipedes, the louse, flea, &c. (2.) Coleop- 
tera, from KoXtoi, a sheath or scabbard, 
and ftn^tv- insects which have their 
wings protected by a cover : as the beetle, 
corn-weevil, &c. (3.) Orthoptera, from 
o^Qo; , straight : as the locust , grasshopp er. 
(4.) Hemiptera, from ii/juav, half: insects 
■which have one-half of their wings thick 
and coriaceous, and the other membran- 
ous : as the bug, tick, flre-fly. (5.) Neu- 
roptera, from jnyjov, a nerve- as the 
dragon-fly, ant-lion, ephemera. (6.) 
Hymenoptera, from vfjt.iv, a membrane: 
as the bee, wasp, ant. (7.) Lepidoptera, 
from Xi3-;f .ascale : as the moth, butterfly. 
(8.) Rhipiptera, from g<jr;f, a fan: as the 
xenos, stylops. (9.) Diptera, from its, 
double : as the house-fly, gnat. 

Division XV. — Zoophytes. 

Echinodermata, from ix'ioi, a hedge- 
hog, and ii^fx^, the skin : as the star-fish, 
sea-urchin. — Entozoa,from urof, within, 
and iaiov, an animal: as the taenia hyda- 
tia.— Acalephae, from axaXritpn, a nettle: 
as the medusa, polypi, tubipora, sertu- 
laria, ccUularia, ttustra, coralline, sponge. 
— Infusoria, from infwido, I pour in: as 
monas, vibrio, proteus. 

Animalcule, literally a little animal. 
This name is applied by naturalists to 
those minute beings which become appa- 
rent only by aid of the microscope. They 
are hence called microscopic animals by 
■ome; and as niunerous species arc de- 
veloped through the medium of infused 

7{# A .N 1 

substances , t hey a re very coir.mocj y 0*11 »d 
infusoria, and under this namri Ciifltr 
places them in his fourth great division ; 
the radiated or zoophitical animals. 

Animal-flower, an absurd name given 
to several species of animals of the genus 
actinia, but especially the urlica marina, 
or the sea-nettle and the sea-anemone. 

Animalization, endowing with proper- 
ties peculiar to animals; e. g. the process 
by which the nutritive part of the food 
is converted into the various substances 
which compose the body. Animal sub- 
stances are the products of animal bodies, 
chemically considered, which are chiefly 
characterised by the presence of nitrogen 
usually combined with carbon, hydrogen, 
and oxygen. 

An'ime (Fr.). In heraldry, a term used 
to denote that the eyes of a rapacious 
creature are borne of a different tincture 
from the creature itself. 

An'imb (Sp.). A transparent amber- 
coloured resin, exuded from the trunk of 
a large American tree, called by the 
Indians courharil — a species of Hymenxa. 
It is sometimes called gum-anim. 

Anion, from «v«, upwards, and Hfju, 
to go. A substance which in electrolysis 
passes to the anode. See Electrode. 

Anisob'ryous, from «iy/ff-ej,xmequal, and 
/3fu«ii, to grow. A term applied to mono- 
cotyledonous plants, which having only 
one cotyledon, grow at first with more 
force on one side of their axis than on the 

Anisodac'ttl^, 1 Gr. aw<r»j, unequal, 

Anisodac'ttles, i and SajfTwXof , a toe. 
The term given by Temminck to ar. order 
of birds, the toes of which are of unequal 
length, as in the nuthatch. 

Anisody'samous, from eaiKfoi, unequal, 
and ivtocuis, power. A term applied in 
botatiy in the same sense as anisobryous 
(q. v.j. 

Anisostem'onous, from ccvia-ti, unequal, 
and erm/uMv, a stamen. A term applied 
in hotatxy when the stamens in a flower 
neither correspond with the calyx nor 
corolla in number or power ; e. g. when a 
flower having five sepals has three or seven 
stamens: in such case the stamens are 
neither equal to the number of sepals nor 
to any power of their number. 

ANiso'sTOMU8,from «wtf'6;, unequal, and 
ffrofjta,, a mouth. A term sometimes used 
to denote that the divisions of a calyx or 
a corolla are unequal. 

Anisotom'id^, Gr. atia-6i, unequal, and 
Ttayiv, to cut. The name of a family of 
coleopterous insects, having moniliform 
antennae, subelongate, slender at the base, 
and gradually increasing towards the 
apex with a terminal clubshapea mol- 


ftrticulate joint. The family Includes 
«i^ht genera : tritoma, phalacrus, ephis- 
vomus, k'iodes, a^athidium, (Iambus, 
elypeaster, and serlcoderus. Many of the 
species are British. 

Annats, from aiini.s, a year. A year's 
income of a spiritual living, originally 
given to the pope on the death of an 
incumbent, and paid by the successor. 
At the Keformation the annats were 
vested in the king, but were restored by 
Queen Anne to the church, and appropri- 
ated to the augmentation of poor livings. 

2. Masses said in the Romish church 

for the course of a year. 

Anne. The order of St. Anne is a Russian 
order of knighthood, which originated in 
Holstein, and was carried by the princes 
of that counti-y into Russia. It became a 
Russian order in 1796. 

Annealing, from Sax.anoelan.toheat. 
A process by which glass is rendered less 
fi'angible ; and metals which have become 
brittle, either in consequence of fusion or 
long continued hammering, are again 
rendered malleable. The process consists 
in bringing the material to be annealed 
to a high heat, and allowing it to cool 
gradually : it is frequently called nealing 
by the workmen. 

Annelida, | the class of sea- worms 

Annemdes, j having the joints of their 
bodies, like the common earth-worm, dis- 
posed in rings, and having red blood. 
They constitute the first class of articulata 
in the system of Linnxus. Name, from an- 
ttelitu, a little ring, and uiof, like. 

Anno Domini [Lat.] In the year of our 
Lord; noting the time from Christ's in- 
carnation , as Aiino Dornini 1844, contracted 
A.D. 1844. 

Anno'na, the ciistard-apple. A genus of 
many species, mostly natives of America 
and the West Indies. Class polymidna, 
order polygynia. 

Annot'ta, ) a species of red dye, formed 

Annot'to, ) of the pulp which surrounds 
the seeds of the Bixa orellana, a plant 
common in South America. It is em- 
ployed in colouiingcheese,and, in dyeing, 
to give an orange tint to simple yellows. 

Annu'iti, from annus, a year. A peri- 
odical payment of a specified sum of 
money at particular dates agreed upon, to 
be continued either for a definite period, 
as ten, fifty, &c. years, in which case it is 
called an annnitij certain ; or for an inde- 
terminate time, dependent upon some 
contingency, as tlie death of a person, in 
■which case it is a contingent annuity ; or 
for an indefinite period, in which case the 
annuity is said to be jmpetual. A deferred 
annuity is one to commence after a certain 
number of yeai-s: if after the death of a 
person nowliving, it is a reversionary an- 
nuity. "When the annuity is limited by 
the duration of a given life, it is termed a 

76 A N O 

life annuity ; when it is to continue only 
for a term of years, provided a certain 
life or lives continue, it is a temporary life 
annuity. The present value of an annuity 
is that sum which, being improved at 
compound interest, will be sufficient to 
pay the annuity. 

Anncla'ria, a species of phala?na, of 
the geometra section. 

Anmla'ta, the first class of articulata, 
according to Cuvier, comprehending all 
red-blooded worms. The body is usually 
soft, more or less elongated, and divided 
frequently into a considerable number of 
segments, whence the name annulata, 
from annulatus. They nearly all inhabit 
the water, the lumbrici or earth-worm* 
excepted. Several penetrate into holes 
at the bottom; othere construct tubes 
with the ooze or other matter. 

An'nulate, Lat. (i«nt(/n<i«. Formed or 
divided into rings, or marked with dis- 
tinct annulations, or surrounded with 

An'nclet, from Lat. n«»u(hi.s, a rmg. Id 
nrchitecture, 1. A small square member 
in the Doric capital, under the quarter- 
round. 2. A narrow flat moulding 

which is common to many places, as the 
bases and capitals; called also a fillet, a 
lisiil, a cincture, or a list, timea, eye-brow, 
or square-rabbet. In /»«>nMry, a little circle 
borne as a charge in coats of arms ; for- 
merly regarded as a mark of nobility and 
jurisdiction, it being the custom of pre- 
lates to receive their investiture perbacu- 
lum et a;in»(7i(i)», by staff and ring. It is 
also an emblem of strength and eternity. 

Annulo'sa, from Lat. annulus, a ring, 
segment. A division of the animal king- 
dom in some systems, containing the five 
classes crustacca, myriojjoda, arachnida, 
insecta, and vertnes. In the arrangement 
adopted by Maclcay, the annulosa com- 
prehend only the classes insecta, arachnida, 
and Crustacea. 

An Nu LOSE, furnished with, or composed 
of, rings {annuti). 

An'nulus, a Lat. word for ring, used 
chiefly in botany in that sense, but with 
considerable latitude. 

Annun'ciation, order of the Annun- 
ciada, Annunciata, Annuntiada. An 
order of knighthood in Savoy, instituted 
by Amadeus III., in 1335, but named an- 
nunciada by Amadeus VIII. 

Annun'ciation. 1. " The tidings 
brought by the angel Gabriel to the vir- 
gin Mary, of the incarnation of Christ. 

2. A festival kept by the church of 

Rome on the 2.5th of March, in commemo- 
ration of those tidings ; called also Lady- 
day. 3. The Jews give the name to a 

part of the ceremony of the passover. 

Ano'bilm, a sub-genus of ptini (see 
Ptinus). Name, from avafiiov, resusci- 
tated, the species being characterised, in 



common with most of their congeners, by 
their frequent simulation of death, and 
their reassumption of activity as soon as 
the threatened danger is over. Several 
species inhabit the interior of houses, 
•where they attack the timbers, furniture, 
books, &c., and pierce little round holes, 
resembling those made by a very small 
gimlet. When much pierced the article is 
popularly said to be uottn-eaten. The 
sexes frequently summon each other by 
reiterated and rapid strokes of their man- 
dibles against the wood they inhabit, and 
mutually answer the signal. These sig- 
nals constitute that noise resembling the 
accelerated tick of a watch, so often su- 
perstitiously listened to as " the death- 

An'ode, fVom ivi, up, and eioi, a way. 
The way which the sun rises ; the surface 
at which electricity passes into a body, 
supposing the current to move in the op- 
posite direction of the sun : opposed to 

An'odok, \ the fresh-tcatertnuscle. A 

Anodon't.v, >.genusofmolluscabelong- 

Anodon'te.v, ' ing to Cuvier's second 
family of testaceous acephala, mytilacea, 
or muscles. Character, doubly-winged, 
no lamellar or other teeth, whence the 
name, a, without, and ehovret, teeth, 

eoous a tooth. 2. The name has also 

been applied to a genus of serpents which 
have the teeth very minute : the A. typtis, 
a South African species, answers to the 
colttber scaber of Linnaeus. 

Ajjo'li, the vernacular name in the An- 
tilles of a species of lizard, to which the 
generic name anolis (q.v.) is applied. 

Ano'lis, the name of an inguanoid 
genus of lizards, all the species of which 
are natives of the warmer parts of Ame- 
rica, and are remarkable for agility, 
beauty, and brilliancy of their colours, 
and their power of inflating the skin of 
the throat. The typical species is the atioli 
of the Antilles. 

Anom'aliped, any fowl whose middle 
toe is united to the exterior by three pha- 
langes, and to the interior by one only ; 
from flc'viyuaXes, anomalous, and irovs, 

Anomaus'tic, \ from ecti/MiXia, ine- 

Anomaus'tical, j quality, irregular. In 
astronomy, the anomalistic year is the time 
in which the earth passes through her 
orbit, otherwise called the periodical year. 
It is longer than the tropical year by 25 
minutes, on account of the precession of 
the equinoxes. Se* Apsides. 

Anom'aly, oiiufAttXta., irregularity, de- 
viation from law. In astronomy, an irre- 
irularity in the motion of the planets, 
whereby they deviate from their peri- 
helion, which is owing to their unequal 
Telocity. There are three anomalies ; the 

true, the mean, and the eccentric. 2. 

In grammar, an exception to a genera, 
rule. 3. In mtisic, a false scale or in- 
ANOMfEANS, ) the name by which the 
Ano'means, j pure Arians were called 
in the fourth century, in contradistinction 
to the Semi-Arians : from ttiifMto?, dif- 
ferent, because they maintained that the 
Son was in no respects like the Father. 
Anomorhombo'id, \ from eitofMiot, ir- 
Anomorhomboida, > regular, and oeu.- 

AN0M0RHOMBOIDI.A, j ^^j^3.vj^ rhOmW 

dal. A genus of pellucid, crystalline spars 
of no determinate external figure, but 
always fracturing into regularly rhom- 
boidal masses. There are five known 
species, all white, and possessing in some 
degree the double refraction of Iceland 

of evergreen, exogenous plants, trees, and 
shrubs, whose fruit is sometimes edible ; 
as the annona, the type of the order. 

Anoplo'there, \ from Stio^Xof, un- 

ANOPLoTHE'RinM, ] armcd, and Qn^'iot, 
a wild beast. The name given by Cuvier 
to a genus of fossil quadrupeds, which pre- 
sents many affinities with the various 
tribes of the pachydermata, and approxi- 
mates in some respects to the order of the 
ruminantia. The bones of this extinct 
genus have hitherto been only found in 
the gypsum quanics near Paris. Five 
species are ascertained ; the largest ap 
pears to have been of the size of a dwarf 
ass, with a thick tail, equal in length to 
its body, probably to assist the animal in 

Anor'mal, commonly written abnormal, 
irregular; from a6 and Hon»ia, law. Op- 
posed to normal. 

Anor'thite, a variety of felspar, distin 
guished by the absence of right angles in 
its fracture : whence its name. 

Anos'toma, from av«, upwards, and 
ffT0fjui„3i mouth. A genus of air-breathing 
gastropods, named from the peculiarity 
of the adult shell, that the last whorl 
turns upwards towards the spire of the 

Anotj'ra, 1 from «, without, and ow^oe, 

Anoc'rans, ) tail. The name of a tribe 
of Batrachian reptiles which lose the tail 
on arriving at maturity. The toad and 
frog are well-known examples. 

An's^:, plural of ansa, a handle. In 
astronomy, the parts of Saturn's ring pro- 
jecting beyond the disc of the planet, like 
handles to the body of the planet. 

An'seres, the third order of aves, in the 
system of Linnneus : the anser, or goose, if 
the type. See Natatores. 

Ant, contracted from Sax. SCmetT, an 
emmet A tribe of insects, celebrated 

ANT : 

from time immemorial for their provident 
habits, and, in some countries, for their 
depredations. The species are numerous, 
and constitute a family of aculeate hy- 
menoptera, to which Cuvier gives the 
name of Heterogyiia, the most celebrated 
genus of which is the Formica of Linnaeus. 
Gould describes five species of English 
aats: viz. — (1.) Formica rvfa, Lin., the 
hill ant; (2.) JV)rt»ttcrt/M%inos<i, Latr.,the 
jet ant; (3.) Myrmica rubra, JjOX., Formica, 
l,in., the red ant ; (4.) Formica flava, Latr., 
the common yellow ant ; and, (5.) Formica 
fit sea, Lin., the common yellow ant. The 
larvae and nymphs are vulgarly called 

Anta (plural Ant^S/, Lat. from ante, 
before. In architecture, a pilaster or 
square projection attached to a wall. 
"When detached from the wall, antae are 
termed parastatae by Vitru\-ius. 

Anta'ciu, from «»«, against, and acid. 
Applied to medicines which neutralise 
acidity of the stomach. 

Ant-be\r, IThis name is common to 

Ant-e/.ter. ) the Myrmecophaga and 
Manis of Linnajus. The first, which is pre- 
eminently the ant-eater , is a hairy animal, 
■with a long muzzle, terminated by a 
smooth toothless mouth, from which is 
protruded a filiform tongue, which the 
animal insinuates into ant-hills and the 
nests of termites, whence these insects are 
drawn by being entangled in the viscid 
saliva that covers it. The manis, called 
also the pangolin, or scaly ant-eater, is 
also destitute of teeth, has a very extensile 
tongue, and, like the true ant-eater, lives 
on ants and termites ; but the body is co- 
vered with large trenchant scales, ar- 
ranged like tiles. The name of ant-bear 
is confined to the Myrmecophaga; all the 
species of which belong to the Western 
Continent ; while all the species of Manis 
belong to the Eastern Continent. Hoth 
belong to Cuvier's order of E/identata, or 
quadrupeds without front teeth. 

Ant-catcher, the Myothera of Illiger, 
a bird very much resembling the thrush. 
The species live on insects, and chiefly on 
ants. They are found on both continents. 
Antag'on 1ST, etvTi , against, and uyuvi^ai, 
to contend. An opponent. In anatomy, 
a muscle whose action is opposed to that 
of another muscle ; e. g. the flexors and 
extensors of a limb are antagonists, and 
also the adductors and abductors. 

Antanacla'sis. u)iTa.)iot,x\a,<rii, a rheto- 
rical figure, which repeats the same word 
in a diflferent sense, as, " Dum vivimus, 
vivamus " (whilst we live, let us live). The 
return to the former train of thought after 
the interruption of a parenthesis, is also 
called antanaclasis. 

Antaphbodi'siac, 1 from avri, against, 

AKiAPHaoBi'Tic, i and Aiffohrt}, Ve- 

5 ANT 

nus. Applied: (1.) to medicines which 
diminish venereal desire; (2.) to medi- 
cines against venereal syphilis. 

ANT.4.RCTIC, from ocvri, opposite, and 
ocexres, a bear. Opposite the arctic or 
northern pole : relating to the southern 
pole, especially to a lesser circle, distant 
23° 28' from the south pole. See Arctic 

Antares, a star of the first magnitude, 
popularly known as the Scorpion's Heart. 

Ant.vtro'ph'ic, from avrt-ar^oifia., 
against wasting. Counteracting atrophy. 

Ante, a Latin preposition signifying 
before. 1. In heraldry, ante denotes that 
the pieces are let into one another, as by 
dovcrtails, rounds, swallow-tails, &c. — '- 
2. In architecture, see Anta. 

Antecedence, from ante, before, and 
ocde/w, going. Precedence. In astronomy , 
an apparent motion of a planet towards 
the west, or contrary to the order of the 

Antecedent, from ante, before, and 
cedens, going. In graminar, the word or 
words to which a relative refers. Inlogic, 
the first of two members of a hypothetical 
proposition; the second member is the 
consequent. In mathematics, the first of 
two terms of a ratio, or that which is com- 
pared with the other. See Ratio. 

Anteces'sor, Lat., one who antecedes, 
or goes before ; a leader, a principal ; for- 
merly given as a title to one who excelled 
in any science. In the vmiversities of 
France, the teachers of law take the title 
antecessors in all their theses. 

Ante'cians, Lat. antceci, from ettri, 
opposite, and etxitt, to dwell. Those 
people who live under the same meridian 
but on diflferent sides of the equator, and 
equally distant from it. They have the 
same hours of day and night, but diflferent 
seasons, it being winter to the one, while 
it is summer with the other. 

Antecur'sors, Lat. anteairsores, fore- 
runners. In the Koman armies, the ante- 
cursores were a body of light horse de- 
tached to obtain intelligence, provisions, 
&c. They were also called antecessores 
and by the Greeks a-^sS^a^;. 

Antejuramen'tcm, by our ancestors 
called juramentum calumnia, an oath 
which anciently both accuser and accused 
were to take before any trial by purga- 
tion. The accuser swore that he would 
prosecute the criminal, and the accused 
that he was innocent of the crime charged 
against him. 

An'telope. See Antilope. 

Antelu'can, before light; ante, before, 
and Itix, light: applied to assemblies of 
Christians in ancient times, held before 
light in the morning. 

Antemu'rale, ante, before, and mtirtu, 
a wall. In/oc<t/Jcnt«on,au out-work. 

Antska'ti, from ante, before, aaditatua. 


bom. In history, the subjects of Scotland, 
born before the accession of James I. to 
the Eniflish throne, and alive after it; 
opposed to postnati. 

Anteni'cene, anterior to the council of 
Nice ; ante, before, and JV'ice. A term in 
ecclesiastical history. 

ANTEN-'.N^.Lat. plural of on^ejuia, a yard- 
arm. In zoology, the horns, or feelers of 
Insects. These are peculiar to this order 
of beings, and seem to constitute very 
delicate organs of touch. Their form and 
size vary greatly in different genera and 
species, and even in the two sexes of the 
same species. When the antennae have 
but one joint, they are said to be exarti- 
cxdate ; when they have two joints, biar- 
ticulate ; when furnished with three, tri- 
articulate; wliile those whose joints are 
numerous are said to be tnttUiarticulate. 
The antennse rarely exceed two in number, 
but some apterous insects have as many 
as six. 

Antbk'nul.s, Lat. dim. of antenna (q. v.) 
A term applied to the small articulate 
filaments attached to the lower-lip of 
some mandibulate insects, and which 
seem to be endowed with great sensibility. 

ANTENN-trLA'ttiA, a subgcnus of Tubu- 
laria of Linnaeus, in which the cells form 
horizontal rings round the stem ; whence 
the name. 

Antepag'ments, Lat. antepagmenta. In 
architecture, the mouldings, or architraves 
round doors ; also the jambs of a doorway. 

Antepec'tus, Lat. from ante, opposite 
to, and pectus, the breast. In entomology, 
a term used to signify under the breast- 
plate of the manitrunk, and the bed of the 
first pair of extremities. 

Anteposi'tion , from ante and position, 
from pono, to place. In grammar, the 
placing of a word before another, which, 
by the ordinary rules, shoiild follow it. 

Antepredic'ament, from ante, before, 
and predicament. In logic, a preliminary 
question to illustrate the doctrine of pre- 
dicaments and categories. 

Ante'rior, ante, before, in time, or 
place. Thus historians use the word in 
the first sense, and anatomists in the 
latter. In descriptions of shells, the an- 
terior of bivalves is the side opposite to 
the hinge; of a spiral univalve, that part 
of the aperture most distant from the 
apex; of a symmetrical conical univalve, 
that part where the head of the animal 

An'tes, a range of pilasters attached to 
the front of a building. See Anta. 

Antesionani, a class of picked soldiers 
in the Roman armies, who were drawn 
up before {ante) the standards [signa), 
whence the name. 

Antesta'tvrk, from ante and ttatura, 
stature. In fortification, a. small retrench- 
vi(;atmadeofpalisadoes.sacksofearth,<&c. I 

'9 ANT 

Anthe'la, Gr. from aevftjA/w, a littis 
flower. A name given by Meyer to ine 
inflorescence of the rush tribe of plants. 

Axthe'lix, » from utri, opposite, and 

Antihe'lix, i iXil^, the helix, or margin 
of the external ear. The inward protu- 
berance of the external ear, being a semi- 
circle within, and almost parallel to the 

As'them, from ocvti, opposite, and 
ufjtvoi, a hymn. A hymn performed in 
cathedral service by choristers, who sing 
alternately : first introduced into church 
service, it is said, in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth ; but, according to^ Pliny, the 
early Christians sang their hymn to Christ 
in parts by turn {seciim invicem). 

An'themis, the generic name of the 
camomile, or chamomile ; a genus of the 
class sytigenesia, and order poly, sxiperflua. 
Named from avdifAot, a flower, in allusion 
to the profusion of its blossoms. There 
are five indigenous species, the flowers of 
one of which (the A. twbilis), is much 
used as a stomachic. 

An'ther, from uv6oi, a flower. In 
botatiy, the part of the stamen which is 
situated on the top of the stem, or fila- 
ment, and which contains the pollen, or 
farina; this, when mature, it emits for 
the impregnation of the stigma. See 
Stamen. Different terms are applied to 
the anthers, to designate their form ; as 
oblong, globose, semilunar, angular, 
linear, &c. ; and others to designate their 
position, as erect, incumbent, versatile, 
lateral, sessile, free, cuneate, &c. 

Antherif'erocs, bearing anthers. 
Anthera, an anther, and/e»o, to bear 
Forming a support to an anther. 

Anthero'oenocjs, anthera, an anther, 
and ytivoucu, I am produced. A term ap- 
plied in botany, when in double flowers the 
anthers are converted into horn-like petals. 

Anthespho'ria, from ecvdot, a flower, 
and (ft^u, to carry. A Sicilian festival in 
honour of Proserpine. 

Anthest'eria, an Athenian festival in 
honour of Bacchus — from ci>8o{, flowers 
being offered to Bacchus. 

Antheste'rion, the sixth month of the 
Athenian year. It answered to a part of 
November and December. 

Antho'bii, a tribe of pentamerous cole- 
optera, which take their common name 
from tiiBoi, a flower, and /S/sf, life; be- 
cause they live among flowers, and the 
varied foliage of shrubs and trees. 

ANTH0DiuM,Gr.a»fla(5t)f, full of flowers, 
from ivBoi, a flower. A species of calyx 
which contains many flowers, being com- 
mon to them all, as the head of a thistle 
or daisy. 

Antho'loqt, from £t9«(, a flower, and 

ANT 80 

A«vef, a discourse. A collection of flowers, 
or beautiful passages from authors. In 
the Greek church, a collection of devotional 

Antho'ltsis, from oivBoi, a flower, and 
Xvffis, a loosening. The expanding of a 
flower-bud ; also the changing of flowers 
from their usual state to some other state, 
as leaves, branches, &c. 

Anthomy'ca, a genus of diptera of the 
Muscide family. Name from £v6os, a 
flower, and fMiat, a fly. There are up- 
wards of 100 British species of this insect. 

Antho'phila, a family of aculeate or 
stinging hymenoptera. Name from xtBos, 
a flower, and (ptXos, a lover. The insects 
of this family all collect the poUen of 
flowers or honey. Latreille divides them 
into two sections, the aiidrenaiee and the 
apiarice, to which the honey-bee properly 
so called belongs. 

Anthopho'rum . from oivQo?, a flower, and 
^t(U», to bear. In botany, the name given 
to a columnar process arising from the 
bottom of the calyx, and having the petals, 
stamens, and pistil, at its apex. 

Anthophy'llite, from oiv6os, a flower, 
and fvAXev, a leaf. A mineral nsually 
massive, but sometimes found crystal- 
aised, of a yellowish-grey, inclined to 
brown ; pearly lustre. It is found in In- 
verness-shire, and in the cobalt mines of 
Modum in Norway. Its constituents are 
silica, alumina, lime, with oxide of iron 
and manganese. 

Ajjtho'rism, from ivr;, against, and 
igitrfMs, definition. In rhetoric, a defini- 
tion or description opposite to what is 
given by the adverse party. 

Anthoxan'thcm, the sweet " vernaX- 
prass." A genus of perennials, of which 
there are two British species : class diati- 
dria, order digynia. Name from ot^Qoi, 
a flower, and ^ocyBos, yellow, " from the 
yellowish hue of the spikes, especially in 
age." Hay is supposed to derive its "fra- 
grance from the presence of this dwarf 
grass, which is found plentifully in pas- 

Anihoza'sia, from £v9oi, a flower, and 
loA), to flourish. A term used by botanists 
to signify that the leaves of a plant as- 
sume the appearance of petals. 

An'theacite, a species of coal found in 
the transition-rock formation, and often 
called stone-coal. Its colour is iron-black, 
lustre imperfect metallic, fracture con- 
choidal; Sp. gr. from 13 to IB. It con- 
tains about 97 per cent, of carbon, with 
minute proportions of iron, alumina, and 
silica. It is difficult to kindle, but bums 
without smell or smoke, and with intense 
heat- whence its name from ciy6^»^, 


charcoal. It is called also glance-coal and 

Anthracothe'ricm, a name given to a 
fossil and extinct mammiferous animal 
of the tertiary strata, supposed to belong 
to the pachydermata. Seven species are 
known, some approximating to the size 
and appearance of the hog, others resem- 
bling the hippopotamus. Name from 
tlvd^Mxius, carbonaceous, and 6?5j<o», wild 
beast; the bones being found chiefly in 
the tertiary coal or lignite of Cadibona, 
in Liguria. 

Anthrax, Gr. «v5ja|, a burning coal. 
A carbuncle, which is the name of a gem, 
and also of a disease nearly allied to a boil, 
but more aggravated in its symptoms. 
The name is also given to a genus of dip- 
terous insects belonging to the tanystoma 
of Cuvier, and placed among the bomby- 
liers by Latreille. The genus is now raised 
to the rank of a family, and named an- 

Anthre'ncs, the name of a linnaean 
genus of pentamerous coleoptera, from 
av9^tY*i- An ancient name of an insect, 
probably allied to this genus, in the habit 
of living among flowers. 

An'thribvs, the name of a Fabrieian 
genus of tetramerous coleoptera, trmm. 
i'yflej, a flower, and Tf/£a, to destroy. The 
genus is formed of a section of the curcu- 
liones of Lin., which has the lip and jaw 
bifid and short, also the proboscis short. 

Anthris'cus, the beaked-parsley. A 
genus of which there are three British 
species, one of which is well known as a 
salad and pot-herb, under the name of 
garden chervil : class pentandria, order 
digynia. Name given by Pliny to a plant 
analogous to this genus. 

Anthrop'oglote, t from avB^uroi, 

Ai«THaop'oGi,oTTE, i man,andyA.a«T«, 
tongue. A name given to animals, in 
which the tongue resembles the human 
tongue ; e. g. the various species of parrot, 

Akthtrop'olite, from ctvO^eoiref , man, 
and X/Soff, a stone. A petrifaction of the 
human body; a fossil human skeleton, of 
which several have been found in the 
West Indies. 

Asthropomor'phite, from ayS^aifros, 
man, and fjco^^, form. One who believes 
a human form in the Supreme Being. An 
ancient sect of heretics were called an- 
thropomorphites, because they took literally 
the passage, " God made man after his own 
image." Their doctrine was called an- 

Anthropop'atht, from etyB^arret, man, 
and froiBos, passion. A rhetorical figure, 
by which some passion is ascribed to the 
Supreme Being that belongs only to man. 

Anthropoph'agi. from a*6£uirof,vasLa, 


and fttytn, I eat; cannibals. The practice 
is called anthropophagy. 

AsTHHopos'coPT, from av6(ei>tT0f, man, 
and e-»etnai, 1 view. The art of judging 
or discovering man's character, disposi- 
sition, passons, and inclinations, from 
the lineaments of his body; in which 
sense physiognomy is a branch of anthro- 

Asthtl'lis, the kidney-retch • a genus 
of 20 species, mostly natives of Europe. 
Diadelphia — Deeandria- Name from oitBtf, 
a flower, and lovXos, a beard, or down, 
from the downy calyces. The A. vulnerat-ia 
is sometimes provincially called Lady's- 
fingersy from the form of the flower heads. 

A>-thypoco.s'driac, from ayft-UTOxo^- 
ifiaxoi, not -hypochondriac. Applied to 
medicines used against hypochondriasis. 

Axthypoph'ora, from ettiri, and hypo- 
phora iq^.Y.). A rhetorical flgtire, which 
consists in refuting an objection by the 
opposition of a contrary sentence. 

Anthtster'ic, from «»«, against, and 
uvn^et, the womb. Coimteracting hys- 

• Antibac'chus, Lat. from otvri and /3ix«- 
xiios, a foot of one short and two long 
syllables. In poetry, a foot of three syl- 
lables, first two long, and the last short, 
e. g. amhgrt. 

An'tic, old; usually written antiqtie. In 
architecture, antics are fancies having no 
foundation in nature, as sphinxes, cen- 
taurs, syrens ; representation of different 
sorts of flowers growing on the same 
stem ; grotesque ornaments of all kinds, 
as lions and pards with acanthus tails, or 
other tails than their own proper ones ; 
human forms with similar ridiculous ap- 

Axticachxc'tic, from (»»rJ, against, and 
xoixi»rixoi, of a bad habit of body. Sub- 
stantively, applied to medicines used to 
ctire a bad habit of the constitution. 

AsTiCAa'DicM,Lat. from avri, opposite, 
and xa.(bKX„ the heart. The pit of the 
stomach, or scrobiculus cordis. 

A>-ticacsot'ic, from icvrl, against, and 
zetvffot, burning fever. Applied to anti- 
febrile medicines. 

A>-'tichrist, from avrJ, against, and 
Christ. Among eecle$iastic», a great ad- 
versaiT of Christianity, who is to appear 
upon the earth towards the end of the 
•world. Some place his capital at Con- 
stantinople ; others at Jerusalem ; others 
at Moscow; a few at London; and the 
generality at Rome. 

AsTicH'RONisM.from «iitJ, against, and 
Xi^yot, time. Delation from the right 
order, or account of time. 

Aj»ticipx'tion. In mxtsic, the ■)bstruc- 

81 ANT 

tion of a chord upon a syncopated noie^ 
to which it forms a discord. 

Axticli'ma\, from «»tJ, against, and 
xXiuoi, gradation. A sentence in which 
the ideas become less important towards 
the close ; opposed to climax, as — 
" Next comes Dalhousie.the great god of war, 

Lieutenant-Col'nel to the Earl of Mar." 

Anticlinal, Gr. {rom^yrt, against, and 
xXiyuii. to incline. If a range of hills, or 
a valley, be composed of strata, which on 
the two sides dip in opposite directions, 
the imaginary line that lies between them, 
towards which the strata on each rise, is 
called the anticlinal axis. In a row of 
houses, with steep roofs, facing the south, 
the slates represent inclined strata dip- 
ping north and south, and the ridsre is an 
cnst and west anticlinal axis. The term 
anticlinal is opposed to synclinal. 

Asticosmet'ic, Gr. from ^cvn, against, 
and xoa-uos, order, beauty. Destructive 
or injurious to beauty. Substantively, 
any preparation which injures beauty. 

Antides'ma, the Chinese-laurel: a genus 
of East Indian shrubaceous plants. Diae- 
cia — Petitandria. Name oiyrt, against, and 
iitriMx,, a bandage; the leaves being re- 
garded as an antidote to the bite of ser- 

A.ntidota'ricm, the old name, 1. for a 

dispensatory. 2. For a book containing 

directions for preparing medicines, or 

Astiexneahe'dral, from oLvt), oppo- 
site, ivnu, nine, and tJja, side. A term 
used in crystallosraphy, to denote that 
the crystal has nine faces on two opposite 

Antigcg'glxr, ) from anti and gugglt. 

AxTioroLER, j A small metallic si- 
phon, which is inserted into the mouths 
of casks, or large bottles, called carboys, 
for drawing off the liquor without dis- 
turbing the sediment, or making any 
guggling noise. 

Axtilog'arithm, from anti, against, 
and logarithm. The complement of the 
logarithm of a sine, tangent, or secant; 
or" the difference of that logarithm from 
the logarithm of 90 degrees. 

An'tilope, a numerous genus of rumi- 
nant mammalia, usually divided accord- 
ing to the form of the horns, the nucleus 
of which is bony, without pores or si- 
nuses, like the antlers of the stag. The 
most remarkable species are the gazelle, 
springboc, plunging -antelope, rock-springer, 
al^azel, chamois, gnu, and nylgau. The 
name is corrupted from antholops, from 
«»6«, a flower, and»ri/,aneye. Flowery- 
eyed or beautiful-eyed ; the beauty of the 
eye in the animal of this genus being pro- 
verbial, especially in oriental couatrie*. 



Antimonic acid, the sesquioxide of an- 
timony (Sb» + 0»). It combines with 
alkalies in definite proportions, and forms 
salts, which are called antimoniates. 

Ajjtimosiocs acid, the deutoxide of 
antimony (Sb J- 0*), which combines in 
definite proportions with alkalies, and 
forms salts, called antimoniUs. 

AjiTiMONT, a metal but rarely found 
native. It is usually combined with sul- 
phur in the state of a sesquisulphuret, 
vsually called cn^rfe antimony, while the 
^netal itself is called regulus of antimony. 
The metal is of a hluish-white colour, 
crystalline texture, and brittle. Sp. gr. 
67 ; fuses at 810°. At a high heat it ox- 
idates rapidly, forming the white crystals 
called argentine floicers of antimony. With 
tartaric acid it forms tartar-emetic. Among 
oriental ladies, the powdered sulphuret 
(properly sesquisxdphxiret, which is the 
common ore of the metal), is used as a 
paint for the eyelashes and eyebrows. 
See ALCOHOL. It is extensively used as 
an alloy, e. g. in type-metal, bell-metal, 
Britannia-metal, specula-metal, &c. Even 
its fumes render gold brittle, which, with 
other things, led the alchemists to assign 
it a royal lineage, and call it by the tiUe 
of regulus, or the little king. 

The Latin name of antimony is sti- 
bium; hence the chemical symbol Sb., 
but the etymology of the modern name 
is uncertain. The term antimonium is 
low Latin, which some writers suppose 
to have been formed from anti, and Fr. 
moine, a monk, from the ludicrous story 
related by Furetiere of Basil Valentine, 
who appears to have been the dis- 
coverer of the metal about 1620. He 
was a monk, and practised as a physi- 
cian. By way of experiment, he gave 
some hogs a dose of some preparation 
of the metal, and observed that after 
they were well purged, they imme- 
diately fattened. Imagining that the 
effect on his brother-monks woxild be 
the same, he administered to them a 
similar dose. L'nlike the hogs, the 
monks, however, did not get fat — they 
died of the experiment. The substance 
thenceforth obtained the name of anti- 
moine, which is still the French name, 
and may be translated antimonk. 
Antin'omians, a sect who maintain 
that virtue and good works are unneces- 
sary under the gospel dispensation — that 
faith is sufficient for salvation. Name 
from «»t;, against, and fMvo;, law, the 
law being of no use or obligation. 

Antix'ocs, a figure inserted into the 
consellation aquila, from Antinoxis, the 
favourite youth of Adrian. 

Anti'ochiax. The Antiochian sect or 
academy was founded by Antiochxis a 
philosopher, contemporary with Cicero. 
He attempted to reconcile the doctrines 

82 ANT 

of the different schools . but was really a 
Stoic. — Antiochian epoch, a method of 
computing time from the proclamation of 
liberty granted to the city of Antioch, 
about the time of the battle of Pharsalia. 

Antipar'allel, from anti and jmrallel, 
opposite. Applied to lines which make 
equal angles with other lines, but in a 
contrary order ; also to lines running in 
the opposite direction.^ 

Antip'athy, from eivr), against, and 
!r«6of, an affection. In pathology , Axigxnx 
and horror at the presence of particular 
otyects, with great restlessness or faint- 
ing ; e. g. the aversion of some persons to 
cats, toads, vipers, &c. ; to the smell of 
roses, the sound of music ; to the sight of 
a drawn sword, as in James I., or the 
rattling of a carriage along a bridge, as 
in Peter the Great, all of which depend 
on some peculiar idiosyncrasy; but in 
what such idiosyncrasy consists is not 
yet explained. — In ethics, hatred (against 
persons), aversion (against things), re- 
pungnancy tagainst actions). — In physia, 
a contrariety in the properties of matter, 
e. g. oil and water. 

Axtiperistal'tic, from anti and peris- 
taltic. Applied to an inverted action of 
the intestines, by which their contents 
are urged upwards: opposed to p<>>-ts^rt/<ic. 

Antiphlogis'tic, from anti and phlogis- 
tic (q. v.), counteracting heat. A term ap- 
plied to those means, whether medicinal 
or regiminal, which tend to reduce inflam- 

Antiph'onart, a service book in Cath- 
olic churches, containing whatever is said 
or sung in the choir, except the lessons : 
called also a responsary. 

Antiph'ont, from eivri, opposite, and 
<^tuv/i, sotind. The answer made by one 
choir to another, when the psalm or an- 
them is sung between two. It sometimes 
also denotes that species of psalmody 
wherein the congregation, being divided 
into two parts, repeat the psalm, verse 
for verse, alternately ; in contradistinc- 
tion to symphony, where the whole con- 
gregation sing together. In a more mo- 
dem sense, antiphony denotes a kind of 
composition made of several verses ex- 
tracted out of different psalms, adapted 
to express the mystery solemnized on the 

AxTiPRAx'iA, avT/rrfa|(a, antipraxy. A 
contrariety of action or affection in simi- 
lar things, as spasm of the muscles of oue 
leg and paralysis of those of the other. 

Aktipto'sis, a.vTiirTU(riS- In grammar, 
the putting of one case for another. 

Ax'TiorART, from antiquarius, from an- 
tiquus, oldest {quisi ah ante et ovumj. A 
person who studies and searches after 
monuments and remains of antiquity, 
as old medals, books, statues, sculptHres. 

ANT 83 

and inscriptions, and in general whatever 
may afford any lisfht into antiquity. The 
title has also been given to keepersof cabi- 
nets of antiquities ; e. g. Heury VIII. gave 
John Leland the title of his Antiquary. 
The monks who were employed in making 
new copies of old books, before the art of 
printing, were also called Antiquarii. 
Under the reign of George II., the Royal 
Society of Antiquaries, in London, was 

An TiQrATXD, grown old. In conchology, 
" longitudinally furrowed, but interrupted 
by transverse furrows, as if the shell had 
acquired new growth at each furrow." 

An'tique, from oHtiqurts, first. Gene- 
rally, something that is very old ; but the 
term is chiefly used by sculptors, painters, 
and architects, to denote such pieces of 
their different arts as were made by the 
ancient Greeks and llomans ; e. g. antique 
busts, antique vases, &c. Works of art 
ilated after the sixth century are ancient, 
but not antique. 

A>Ti«'ciTr, ancient times: Lat. a»i*»- 
quitas (v. supra,,, from the root ante, 
before. The term is generally used in 
the plural — antiquities, comprehending all 
that remains of ancient times, e. g. monu- 
ments, coins, inscriptions, edifices. Litera- 
ture, oflBces, habiliments, weapons, man- 
ners, ceremonies. Scholars, however, 
distinguish between antiquities and archee- 
ology : the former relating to the middle 
ages, the latter to ancient Greece and 

ANTiRRHi'NE.a;, a small division of 
plants in the natural system. Type, the 
Antirrhinum (snapdragon) of Linnseus. 


Antirrhi'num, the generic name of the 
olant snapdragon, or c(i/r«;s'-SM0M2, of which 
fluellen, or female speedwell, and toad- 
flax, are species. IHdynamia — Angiosper- 
mia. Isame, etvTi^^mo*, from dyri and 
fi», the nose, in allusion to the resem- 
blance of the flower to the nose of a calf. 


the observance of the Christian Sabbath : 
hence the name, from anii and Sabbath. 

Antis'cians, Lat. Antiscii, from i^rJ, 
opposite, and trKiet, a shadow. Those in- 
habitants of the earth, who, living on 
opposite sides of the equator, their sha- 
dows at noon are thrown in contrary 
directions; and from this circumstance 
the epithet is applied. 

Antisep'tic, from ei*ri, against, and 
err.voi, putrid. A term applied to such 
substances as have the power of prevent- 
ing animal and vegetable substances from 
passing into a state of putrefaction, and 
of obviating putrefaction when already 
begun; as culinary salt, nitre, spices, and 
■ugar. The term is also applied by phy- 
■icians to medicines \ised to correct thf 


tendency to putrescency, which is sup- 
posed to exist in the fluids of the bodv. in 
certain malignant diseases. Thus, ciu 
chona, alcohol, camphor, and some other 
substances, are named antiseptics. 

AKTisPitsis, from ci»Tt, against, and 
ffirctu, to draw. In pathology, a revul- 
sion of the htunours from one part of the 
body to another. 

As'xisPAsjio'Dicfrom «»tJ, against, and 
ff^aa-fjtoi, a spasm. An antispasmodic 
medicine properly means one which has 
the power of allaying spasms of the mus- 
cles ; the term, however, is usually ex- 
tended to those medicines which allay 
severe pain, from any cause xmconnected 
with inflammation ; and hence it is not 
easy to draw the line between anti- 
spasmodics and narcotics. 

ANTis'Tisis, otyricrTeKTii. The defence 
of an action, founded on the consideration 
that, if It had been omitted, worse would 
have ensued : called by Latin writers 
comparatiitim argumentum, 

AuTisTo'cBEON, ottTio'Tvi^iior- In 
grammar, the using of one letter instead 
of another, as olli for illi. 

AsTisTRAGUs, in anatomy, the process 
of the external ear opposite {anti) the 
tragxis (.q.v.), and behind the meatus au- 
ditorius, or ear-passage. 

Aktistro'phe, I from dyr), opposite, 

Antistro'pht, j and ffT^i(fu, to ttirn. 
Reciprocal conversion. In grammar, a 
figtire by which two things, mutually de- 
pending upon each other, are reciprocally 
converted ; e. g. the master of the servant, 
the servant of the master. In lyric poetry , 
that part of a song and dance, in use 
among the ancients, which was perfoimed 
before the altar, in turning from east to 
west ; in opposition to strophe. See Ode. 

Anti'thesis, eivTiQia-is, of clvri and 
B-itri; . In rhetoric, an opposition of words, 
or sentiments, as, — 

" Liberty mth laws, and government with- 
out oppression." 

A>tit'ra.gcs, Lat. from anti and trofivs. 
An eminence on the outer ear, opposite 
the tragus. 

Aj('TiTBisiTA.'RiAM,from anf« and trini- 
tarian. One who denies the existence of 
three persons in the Godhead ; opposed to 
trinitarian. The antitrinitarians of mo- 
dem times are understood to be the Soci- 
nians, otherwise called Unitarians. 

An'tittpb, from «vtJ and tiwaj, type, 
or pattern. A figure corresponding to 
some other fleure, type, or pattern. The 
term is chiefly used by theologians ; but 
it may be understood to mean generally 
anjnhing formed according to a model, ot 
pattern. In the Greek liturgy, the sucra- 
mental broad and wine arc callea a>iii- 
G 2 

A NX 5 

types, meaning thereby similitudes, in a 
theological sense. 

Antit'ropal, Gr. from xyrh against, 
and TettTiiv, to turn. A term in botany, 
used when in a seed the radicle of the 
embryo is turned to the end farthest away 
from the hilum, which, indeed, is the 
normal position, if the development of an 
OTule be rightly understood. 

Astiztm'ic, from dyri and ^vueen, to 
ferment. Applied to whatever prevents 

An'tha, an ancient machine, supposed 
to be the same with our pump ; called by 
the Greeks oIvtXIo*, from itirku, to draw 
water. In astrojiomy, the Antlia jmewna- 
tica, or pneumatic pump, is a new asterism 
formed byDe la Caille, out of a few stars, 
between Hydra and Argo Xavis. In 
entomology, the oral instrument of Lepi- 
dopterous insects, in which the ordinary 
trophi.oT instruments of manducation are 
replaced by a spiral, bipartite, tubular 
apparatus, and appendages for suction. 

Antosian'drians, a sect of rigid Luther- 
ans are so denominated, because they 
opposed the doctrines of Osiander. 

As'trt^m, Lat. a cave, from etvT^of. 
This term is applied by anatomists to 
many cavities, but especially the maxil- 
lary sinus, situated above the molar teeth 
of the upper jaw. The term was formerly 
used by botanists to denote such hollow 
fruits as the apple. 

ANTRrs'TioNs. In history, a class of 
people among the Franks, who were the 
personal vassals of the kings and counts. 
The word seems to be formed from the 
same root as our word trust. 

Anu'bis, a symbolical deity of the 
Egyptians, regarded as a faithful compa- 
nion of Osiris and Isis. He had temples 
and priests consecrated to him, but was 
only an ugly dog after all. 

X'svs, Lat. the termination of the 
rectum. In conchology, a depression of the 
posterior side near the hinge of bivalves. 
In botany, the posterior opening of a mo- 
nopetalous flower. In entojnology ,the last 
two segments of the abdomen. 

An'vil, a mass of iron, having a smooth 
and nearly flat top surface of steel, upon 
which blacksmiths, and various other 
artificers, forge metals with the hammer. 
Blacksmiths place their anvils upon a 
wooden block ; but cutlers and file-makers 
fasten theirs to a large block of stone. 
The old English name is amelt, from on 
ani' build (Belg.) to shape; hence, on- 
build, anbeeld, anvelt. anvilt, anvil, that on 
which things are shaped. 

Anxiety, anxieias. In medical language, 
this term is applied to a painful restless- 
ness and inquietude, usually accompanied 
with a sense of weight in the precordial 


Ao'Ni AS , pertaining to Aonia, in Bopotia. 
The Aonian font was Aganippe, at the 
bottom of Moimt Helicon, near Thebes, 
and sacred to the Muses, which were 
therefore called Aonides. 

A'oRisT, from ctconrrof, indefinite. In 
grammar, a tense peculiar to the Greek 
lansuage. expressing action in an inde- 
terminate manner, without regard to past, 
present or future. 

Aor'ta, from aoerr,, an ark, or chest. 
The principal trunk of the arterial system, 
called also the magna arteria. It proceeds 
from the left ventricle of the heart, and 
gives, either mediately or immediately, 
to all the other arteries, except the pul- 
monary. In mammalia and in birds, it is 
single ; in most reptiles, and in cephalo- 
pods, double ; and triple in crustaceous. 

Aoc'ta, the paper-mulberry tree [brous- 
sonetia papyri/era). It is found in Japan 
and Otaheite. 

Apag'ogx, \ from uTO, from, and oiyai, 

ArAG'oGY, -' to drive. 1. In logic, a kind 
of argument wherein the greater extreme 
is evidently contained in the medium, but 
the medium not so evidently in the lesser 
extreme, as not to require further proof. 
^—2. In mathematics, a passage from one 
proportion to another, when the first, 
having been demonstrated, is employed 

in proving others. 3. In the Athenian 

law, the carrying of a criminal taken in 
the act, to a magistrate ; or when this was 
impracticable, taking the magistrate to 
the criminal. 

Apagog'ical {See Apogoge). An apo- 
gogical demonstration is an indirect proof, 
which consists in showing the absui-dity 
of the contrary, 

APAG'TNors, Gr. from SttK^, once, an.i 
yvvvi, a female. A term applied to plants 
that fructify only once, and perish imme- 
diately after they flower. 

Ap'ALrs, a Liimaean genus of coleop- 
terous insects. 

Ap'anage, an allowance to younger 
branches of a sovereign family out of the 
revenues of the country, in ordinary 
cases, it descends to the children of the 
prince who enjoys it. 

APA>-'THROPy,from£fc,neg,anda»fl*a;^ef . 
man. A species of melancholy character- 
ised by a dislike of society. 

Aparith'mesis {a.frei^i6fx.v;Fii)' In rhe- 
toric, an answer to a protesis. 

Ap'atht, from «, neg, and tradet, affec- 
tion. In the Stmc philosophy, an utter 
privation of passion, and an insensibility 
to pain, which was regarded as the highest 
wisdom. In medicine, a morbid suspen- 
sion of the natural passions and feelings. 

Ap'atite, a native phosphate of lime, 
constituting a genus of brittle minerals ; 
green, blue, red, brown, and yeUow 

APH 85 

colours, occurring both crystallised and 
massive. Finest specimens found in Devon 
and Cornwall. 

Apatd'ha, a genus of butterflies {Ifpi- 
doptera diuma), of which the " purple 
emperor " is a species. 

Apatu'ria, an Athenian festival which 
took place in October, and continued three 
days. On this occasion children accom- 
panied their fathers, that their names 
might be entered on the public register. 

Apb, a popular name extended to all the 
tribe of monkeys and baboons [qtiadru- 
viania, Cuv., which comprehends the 
timift and lemurs of Lin.', but more C4pe- 
cially to those species which have no tail ; 
those having tails being called baboons : 
the gibbons are examples of the tirst, and 
the patras of the latter. 

Apeak, in nautical language^ perpendi- 
cular. See Anchor. 

Aperient, Lat. aperieiu, opening. 
Mildly laxative or deobstruent. 

Apek'tor, Lat. from apeno, to open. 
The muscle which raises the upper eyelid 
is sometimes called apertor octtli, the eye- 

Ap'erture, from apertus, open. An 
opening. In geometry, the space between 
two right lines which meet in a point and 
form an angle. In optics, a round hole in 
a turned bit of wood, or plate of tin, 
placed within a telescope or microscope, 
near the object-glass, by which more rays 
are admitted, and a more distinct appear- 
ance of the object is obtained. 

Apet'aious, from a, viithout, and 
TtraAey, a petal. Applied to flowers that 
want the corolla. 

Apet'alose, I Lat. apeialus, without pe- 

Apet'alous, j tal. Applied to flowers 
which have no corolla. 

Aph.£'resis. See Apheresis. 

APHi:'RErs,from cl^ou^ii>,to takeaway. 
The removal of a vowel from the begin- 
ning of a word, as 'tis, for it is, 'bide, for 
abide. See also Apheresis. 

Aphasip'tera, from eiooc.vr,o', obscure, 
and iTTi^o*, wing. An order of apterous 
haustellate insects, having perfect rudi- 
mental wings, and undergoing a meta- 
morphosis like that of the tipalidee, or 

Aph'amte, a mineral included among 
the rocks, which the older mineralogists 
failed corneinnes, or lapis coriieus trape- 
zius. The predominant principle is am- 
phibole. Kame et, not, and ^xtm, to 
appear, in allusion to the homogenous 
appearance of the rock. 

Aphelexis, a genus of superb flowering 
shrubs, natives of the Cape of Good Hope, 
class gyngenesia, order po/. mperflua. 

Aphe'lion , ) et!*r;>uoi of «s-e, and r,Xjct, 

APHE'LirM.i the sun. That point in 


the orbit of a planet at which It is at tBe 
farthest distance from the sun that it can 
be : opposed to perihelion. 

Aphelxia, from a,^iXxv, to abstract. 
Revery: a genua of diseases of which 
there are three species. A. socors, absence 
of mind, A. intenta, abstraction of mind, 
and A. otiosa, brown study. 

Aphe'resis, \ from ccto, and i,if»i, to 

Aphx'resis, t take. In grammar, the 
taking of a letter or syllable from the be- 
ginning of a word ; e. g. to write mittere 
for otnittere. In surgery, amputation. 

Aph'ides, \ the second family of homop- 

Aphid'ii, ) terous hemiptera. in the 
system of Cuvier ; typical genus, apKis of 

Aphidiph'agi, a family of irimerous 
coleoptera. Name, from the cirumstance 
of their feeding on aphides {aphidii and 
^xyn, to eut}. The cow-bug and lady- 
bug belong to this family, and ate vreli 
known to gardeners. 

A'PHis, the puceron,vine-fretter, or plant- 
lotise. A genus of homopterous hemlp- 
teia, and the type of the family aphidii or 
aphides, which is simply the plural o( 

Aphloois'tic, flameless, from et, not, 
and ^Xey;e-TOf, inflammable. An aphlo- 
gistic lamp is one in which a coil of pla- 
tinua wire is kept in a state of ignition 
by vapour of alcohol or ether, without 

ArHo'NiA,at^4;»<», speechless. Aphony; 
a suppression or total loss of voice. 

Aphrodi'sia, in arch<tology, festivals 
kept in honour of Venus (a'^joS/r'^). 

Aphrodi'ta, \ the sea-mouse, a genus of 

Aphrodi'tz, i articulata, of the order 
dorsihranchiata (Cuv.) Name, a'i5jeS<r>, , 
Venus, in allusion to the splendid colour- 
ing of some of the species, e. g. the 
aphrodita acttleata of Lin. 

Aph'tha, ct<p9at, the thrush. A disease 
which shows itself in small white ulcers 
upon the tongue, gums, inside of the lips, 
and palate , resembling particles of curdled 

Aphtl'lose, ) Lat. aphyUus,o{ a^PiXev. 
APHit'LOLs, ) leafless. Applied to parts 
of plants when altogether void of leaves, 
as an aphylous stem. Plants which are 
devoid of leaves are jiaturally arranged 
imder one head, aphylla plantce. 

ApiA'cEJE.Lat. opium, parsley. A name 
recently proposed to replace that of «im 

Apia'rix, a tribe of honey-making hy- 
menoptera, of which the apis, or gardec- 
bee is the type. 

Apias'ter, the bird otherwise called th« 
bee-eater; a species of raerops, Lin. 1\ 
resembles the swallow. Name, from apis 
a bee 




Apsc'ct-ATSD. froin apex, a sharp point. 
Leaves, &c. terminnting suddenly in a 
point are so callc<i. 

Apioc'kinite, the pear-encrinite [apio- 
crinites rotutidM), the pear-like remains 
of which are plentifully found near Bath. 
"When lirin^, the "roots of the npw- 
crinites rotwidut -were confluent, and 
formed a thin pavement at this place 
over the bottom of the sea, from which 
their stems and branches rose into a 
thick submarine forest, composed of 
these beautiful zoophytes. 
A'pioK, a jrcnujs of tetramerous coleop- 
tera, of the attclabide tribe. Xame, from 
i^<(jjr. a pear, which the insects some- 
what resemble in form. 

A'pis. 1. The honey-bee ; a genus of 
aculeate hymenoptera, of the family an- 
thophiia. This extensive genus is divided 
into two tribes, the andreneta and apia- 
riee ; the honey-bee, par exceUtmce, or apis 
of LatreiUe, belongs to the latter. Xame, 
from «, without, and rauj, a foot, " qubd 
sine pedibus nascantur" — plural, apidce. 

2. In mythology, a bull, worshipped 

by the Egyptians, especially at Memphis. 
H"e was required to be black, and was 
changed every twenty-five years. 

Apis TEs, Gr. from aW/o-Tsj, treacherous. 
A gp.nus of spiny-flnned fishes, remarkable 
for a strong suborbital spine, with which 
they are apt to inflict severe wounds 
when incautiously handled. 

A'pim, the herb celery: a genus, peii- 
tandrin: digynia. Name, Celtic, open. 
•water, in reference to the places where it 
naturally grows. The A. grareoletis, or 
smallage, is the origin of our garden ce- 
lery. Among the older botanists, npium 
was the generic name of the herb parsley. 


Aplan'tic, from «, not, and ^Xavaa), 
to wander, free from error. Applied to 
those optical instruments in which the 
spherical aberration is completely cor- 
rected : distinct from achromatic. 

Apio'me, a mineral of a deep orange 
colour, found in Siberia and Xe w Holland. 
It is usually regarded as a variety of gar- 
net ; but the primitive form of the crystal 
is a cube, and not a dodecahedron. Name, 
from is-Xoof, simple, in allusion to its 
crystalline structure. 

Aplts'ia, the sea-hare : a genus of mol- 
lusca, of the order Tectibranchiata. Name, 
from «, not, and rXvvtu, to make clean, in 
allusion to the power possessed by some 
of the species of throwing out an acrid 
and deep purple htimour when in danger. 
The English name is taken from the form 
of the tentacula, which are four in number, 
being folded so as to resemble the ears 
of a hare. 

APOCA.LTPSE, from ajro^aXwTTisi), I Tcveal. 

Revelation : the name of one of the books 
of the New Testament, written according 
to Irenaeus, a .d 96, in the island of Patmos, 
whither St. John had been banished by 
the emperor Domitian. Anciently there 
were numerous books published under 
the same name. 

Apocar'pous, Gr. from etro, from, and 
xa^TOS, fruit. The term is employed 
when the carpels of a flower either do 
not adhere at all, or when they adhere 
only by the ovaries. 

Apockisart, from cc-roxeia'n, answer. 
Anciently a resident in an imperial city, 
in the name of a foreign church, or 
bishop answering to the modem nuncio. 

Apoc'rypha, from are and x^vrrrai, 
I hide. The apocrypha, or apocryphal 
books, are those writings not admitted 
into the canon of Scripture, being either 
not acknowledsred as divine, or regarded 
as spurious. When the Jews published 
their sacred books, they gave the appella- 
tions of canonical and divine only to those 
which were then made public ; while such 
as still remained in their archives were 
denominated apocryphal, for no other 
reason than that they were not pub- 

Apootn'ace.e. a family of plants of 
which the genus aporynum is the type. 

ApocTNrM,the plant dog's-bane : a genus 
pentandria; digynia. Name, otTo and 
xvuiv, a dog ; it was anciently believed to 
be poisonous to dogs. 

Ap'oda, the second order of the Echino- 
dermata, comprising but a small number 
of animals, closely related to the Holo- 
thariae ; but which want the vesicular 
feet of that order. The body is invested 
with a coriaceous unai-med skin. From 
a, without, and irov;, a foot. 

Ap'ode, an animal without feet fa and 
frovi). The apodes of older travellers were 
birds without feet, which supported them- 
selves on trees by means of their hooked 

ApoDTTE'Ririi, Gr. from aiToivtrSxi, to 
strip one's self. That part in the palaps- 
tra, or bath, in ancient architecture, for 
undressing before bathing, or engaging 
in gymnastic exercises. 

Ap'ogee, from diro and y?,, the earth. 
That point of the moon's orbit in which 
she is at the greatest distance from the 
earth : opposed to perigee. 

When the earth was regarded as the 
centre of the system, the terms apogee 
and perigee were applicable to the 
places of all the planets, and also of 
the sun, with respect to their variiible 
distances from the earth ; but now these 
terms are referrible to the moon only. 
What was formerly the sun's apogee is 
therefore, in strictness, the earth's apK$- 

A P O 

A P () 

lion, and the perigee of the fonncr has 
become the perihelion of the latter. 
Apollixa'rians, a Christian sect deri%-- 
in^ their name from Apollinaris, bishop 
of l.aodicea, in the fourth century, who 
maintained that the body of Christ was 
endowed with a sensitive, but not with a 
rational soul ; and that the divine nature 
supplied the place of the intellectual 
principle in man. 

Apollo. In mythology, the god of medi- 
cine, music, and the fine arts, of the 
Greeks and Romans. Cicero mentions 
four deities of this name; three of Grecian, 
and one of Egyptian origin ; the last the 
Great Apollo. The Apollo Belvidere is 
reckoned in the first class of ancient sta- 
tues, and takes its name from having been 
placed in the Belvidere of the Vatican, 
at Rome, by Pope Jtilius II. The artist 
is unknown. 

Ap'oL<)GUE,from «6Te, and /aye;, speech. 
A relation of fictitious events, differing 
from a parable in this; the parable is 
dra^vll from events among men, and is 
therefore supposed probable ; the apologue 
may relate the supposed actions of brutes 
or inanimate things ; and therefore does 
not require to be supported by probability ; 
e.g. iKsop's fables are in general apo- 

Ap'oseuro'sis, from uto, and irsvjov, 
a tendon. A tendinous expansion. 
Apcph'vge, I from a-ro and <^vyvi> flight. 
Apoph'vgy, ) In anhitecture, a concave 
quadrantal moulding joining the shaft of 
a column to the base, and connecting the 
top of the shaft to the fillet under the 
astragal ; the small facia, or bend, at the 
top and base of the shaft of columns. 

Apophyl'lite, a mineral Ciilled also 
Ichthyophthalmite, or flsh-eya - stone. 
Its constituents are silica and lime, with 
a small proportion of potash. It occurs 
both massive and crystallised in the 
secondary trap rocks of "the Hebrides and 
Iceland. Xanie otiro and (fvWov, a leaf, 
in reference to its tendency to exfoliate. 

ApoPH'tsis, iTe^wtf-ff, a process. 1. In 
anatomy, a process, projection, or protu- 
berance of a bone, or other part, other- 
wise called appendix, and differing from 
epiphysis. 2. In botany, a fleshy tuber- 
cle under the basis of the pericarp of some 

Ap'oplext, teom icrorXx^ix, a stroke. 
A sudden deprivation of all the powers of 
sense and voluntary motion, the action 
of the heart continuing, as well as the 
respiration, which Is often accompanied 
with a stertorous sound. 
Ap'okobrah'chixns, I Gr. from »^efiai, 
Ap'orobraj»chiVt.4, t Iwant,and^ja>'- 
^tv, gills. A name applied by Latrellle 
to an order of Arachnida, which are 

destitute of stigmata on the surface of tha 

Ap'orox, d^eeev, a problem difficult to 
resolve, and which has never been re- 
solved, though not in itself impossible; 
e. g. the squaring of the circle. Among 
the ancients, when a question was pro- 
posed which the person to whom it was 
put could not solve, the answer was 
»TO*iaiy I cannot see through It. The 
tenn aporon has also been used generally 
for whatever was Inexplicable. 

ArosE'PEDiN, oitTO, fvoni, and (rr,Tiiii», 
product of putrefaction. A peculiar crys- 
tallised substance obtained from putrid 

Ap'osiope'sis, a rhetorical figure, after- 
wards called reticrnry and stippression,tmi 
which consists in the person really speak- 
ing of a thing at the time that he make« 
a show as If he would say nothing of It. 
From »TO0'tx'r»ai, to be silent. 

A-posterio'ri, posteriori, after. Argu- 
ments a-posteriori are drawn from effects, 
consequences, or facts, ; in distinction to 
arguments a-prtor», which are from causes 
previously known. 

Apos'tle, x^oirroXo;, a messenger 
used to denote one of the disciples com 
missioned by Jesus Christ to preach the 
gospel. According to Theodoret, " those 
who are now bishops were called rt/>os</es '" 
in the primitive ages. In the Greek liturgy, 
the term apostle means the Epistles of St- 
Paul, printed In the order in which they 
are to be read in the churches through 
the course of the year 

Apostles' Creed. A confession of faith, 
formerly supposed to have been drawn up 
by the Apostles themselves. 

Apostol'ic, In the priviitiie diurch, was 
an appellation given to all such churches 
as were founded by the Apostles, and even 
to the bishops of those chuivhes, as the 
reputed successors of the Apostles. These 
were Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, and 

Apostol'ics, certain sects of Christiana 
who pretended to imitate the practices of 
the Apostles, abstaining from marriage, 
wine, flesh, pecuniary reward, &c. 

Aposu'ra, a tribe of nocturnal lepido- 
ptera, characterised by the absence of 
feet on the anal segment of the body of 
the larvae ; whence the name, x, neg. , and 
reus, a foot. 

Apothe'ca, »^e6r,xr, a repository. In 
ancietit architecture, a stoiehouse for oil, 
wine, &c. 

Apothecxrt, from aroOrxr,, a reposi- 
tory. On the Continent, and formerly 
in this country, the functions of tte 
apothecary consisted in compounding at4 
dispensing the prescriptions of the pbj 
I sician and surgeon ; but now the tens 


Is applied to practitioners in medicine 
who deal aJso in drugs. The apothecaries 
of old times were allied with the grocers ; 
but having separated from them, they 
were incorporated by a charter from 
James I. 

Apothe'osis. In archenology , a ceremony 
•whereby emperors and great men were 
ranked among the gods, which was fol- 
lowed by the erection of temples and the 
institution of sacrifices to the new deity. 
Vtovo. otcra and Sios, God. 

Apot'ome, from etcTonuvai , to cut off. 
1. In mathematics, the difference between 
two incommensurable quantities, or an 
irrational remainder, as AB; Mhcn from 

A B C 

a rational line, AC, is cut off a rational 
part, B C, only commensurable in power 

with the whole line A C. 2. In music, 

the difference between a greater and lesser 
semitone, expressed by the ratio 128 : 125. 
Appanage, lands appropriated by the 
sovereign to the younger sons of the fa- 
mily as their patrimony, the reversion 
being reserved to the crown on failure 
of male heirs. The term is derived from 
the panage , paiuujium of the middle ages, 
from paiiis, bread, provision. 

Appara'tus, Lat. from apparo, to pre- 
pare. Things provided as a means to an 
nd, as the tools of an artisan ; but in a 
Tictly technical sense, the instruments 
r Utensils for performing an operation. 
—2. In surgery, certain methods of per- 
orming operations ; as A. major and A. 
»)iinor,"which are particular methods of 
operating for the stone. 3. In physio- 
logy, a catenation of organs all ministering 
to the same function; as the respiratory 
apparatus, the digestive apparatus. 

AppA'RENT,froma(i andpaveo, to appear. 
Visible ; appearing to the eye. 1. In ma- 
thematics and astronomy, this term is ap- 
plied to things as they appear to us, in 
contradistinction to real or trtie ; as the 
apparent diameter, distance, and motion 
of the sun. Conjunctions are said to be 
apparent when the bodies appear to be 
placed in the same right line with the 
eye ; e.g. M'hen a right line, supposed to 
be drawn through the centres of two 
planets, passes through the eye of the 
spectator, the conjunction is only ap- 
parent; but if the same right line pass, 
not through the eye, but through the 
centre of the earth, the conjunction is 
then real. — The apparent diameter or 7nag- 
nitude of an object is the angle which it 
eubtcnds at the bottom of the eye ; and 
fhis iiminishcs as the distance increases, 
-^ -ha*- a small object at a small distance 
may have the same apparent diameter as 
» larger object at a greater distance : the i 

5 APP 

condition to be . xlfilled is, that they sub- 
tend equal angles at the eye. — The ap- 
parent Jigure of an object is the form under 
which it appears when viewed at a dis- 
tance; thus, the apparent figure of a 
straight line may be a point ; of a surface, 
a line; and of a solid, a surface. — An 
object may have apparent motion when 
it is really at rest (at least, relatively 
speaking) ; as In the case of an observer 
moving in one direction, any remote 
object at rest will appear to move in 
a parallel line in the contrarj' way. 
The apparent motions of distant objects 
are also very different from the real 
motions, these being only perceptible 
from the mutation of the angle at the 
eye. — The apjmrent place of an object 
differs from the true place in proportion 
to its distance and the refracting power 
of the medium through which it is ob- 
served. See Time and Horizon. 2 In 

laic, an apparent heir is one whose right 
is indefeasible, provided he outlives his 
ancestor, as the eldest son or his issue : 
in distinction to an heir jyresumptive, 
whose right of inheritance may be de- 
feated by the contingency of some nearer 
heir being bom. 

Appari'tion, from apparitio, an appear- 
ance. In astronomy, the becoming visible 
of a star, &c., which before was hid: op- 
posed to occidtation. 

Appa'ritor, Lat. from appareo, to at- 
tend. Among the Romans, any officer 
who attended the magistrates and judges 
to execute their orders. — In England, an 
officer who serves the process of a civil 
court; also a beadle in the universities 
who carries^ the mace. 

Appau'mee, in heraldry, denotes that 
the hand is extended with the full palm 
appearing, and the thumb and fingers at 
full length. 

Appe'al, from Lat. appello, to drive or 
send. In late, to call or remove a cause 
from an inferior to a superior court ; also 
to institute a criminal prosecution for 
some heinous offence ; e. g. to appeal a 
person of felony. Substantively, the re- 
moval of a cause or suit from an inferior 
to a superior tribunal; also a process in- 
stituted by a private pei-son against an- 
othei person for some heinous crime by 
which he has been injured, as for murder, 
larceny, mayhem. The process was an- 
ciently given to private persons to recover 
the u-aregild, or private pecuniary satisfac- 
tion for an injury received in the murder 
of relations, or other personal affront. 

Appear'ance, from appear of Lat. ad 
anipareo. 1. In perspeciit«, the represen- 
tation or projection of a figure upon the 

perspective plane. 2. In optics, the 

view of an object by direct rays, without 
either reflection or" refraction, is termed 
direct appearance. H. In astrotu my, &c.j 

A t k- i 

appearances are usually termed pheno- 
mena and phases. 

Ajpel'last, in church hi$iory, one who 
appeals from the constitution of Unigeni- 
tus to a general council. — Milton. 

Appell4.'tion, the name by which any- 
thing is distinguished when'spoken of. 
Appellations are frequently vulgar 
corruptions. For instance, at the in- 
stitution of yeomen of the guards, they 
Tised to wait at table on great occa- 
sions, and were ranged near the buffets, 
which procured them the name of 
bufetiers, now jocularly beef -eaters. The 
designation of a sheriffs officer was 
originally a bond or bound bayliffe, now 
both TiTitten and pronounced bum bay- 
life. The proclamation called " O yes," 
was originally a proclamation com- 
manding silence, being the French 
word oyez, listen. Blackness is the cor- 
ruption of blanc ties, or the white-head- 
land. Bull and mouth, vulgarised from 
Boulogne mouth, means the port or har- 
bour of Boulogne, which was taken by 
Henry VIII., and became a popular 
subject for signs. The bull and gate has 
a similar origin, being the representa- 
tion of the principal gate of Boulogne, 
which Henry VIII., Samson-like, car- 
I 'wl away with him when he took the 

Appel'lative, a common name in dis- 
tinction to a proper name Appellatives 
ftand for whole ranks of beings ; e. g. 
man is the name of the whole human 
r&ce, fowl of all winged animals. 

Appes D.t.GE, something added to a 
principal, but not essential to it ; from ad 
and yendeo, to hang. In botany, the tenn 
is applied to additional organs of plants 
iThi.'.h are not universal cr essential ; 
u.'f iitt iii ono plunt furnished w'th them 
aU, rt. g. iitir:ii«)a, flcrj^ ip^ves, iho'Tu. 
prickles, teudiilB, giriuds, anl utln 

Appen'dant, from Lat. appendo. Hwij- 
ing to something else, but not forming an 
integrant part of it. In law, common 
appendant is a right belonging to the 
owners or occupiers of lands to put com- 
monable beasts upon the waste lands of 
the manor. So also a common of fishing 
may be appendant to a freehold. — An ad- 
vowson appendant is the right of patron- 
age annexed to the possession of a manor. 
APPENDic'cLATE, Lst. appciidictdatus, 
ippondioled or appended. Applied to 
parts of plants which are fujnished with 
iidditioiiHl organs for some particular 
purposes ; e. g. to flowers furnished with 
3ome addition distinct from the tube; to 
fiatioles with leafy lilms at the base ; to 
socd furnished with hooks, scales, &c. 

AppEx'srs, Lat. appendo, 1 hang up. 
■»Vhen an ovale is attached to the placenta 
by some point intermediate between the 
apex and the middle. 

> APP 

Ai'PETESCE, \ Lat. appetentia, desire, 

Ai'PETE.vcT, j appetite. The disposition 

or power of organised bodies to select 

and imbibe such portions of matter as 

serve to support and nourish them. 

Ap'pian-wa.t, the most famous of the 
highways leading from Rome, and con- 
structed by the Censor, Appius Claudius, 
A.c.c. 442. 

AppLii'sE, Lat. applausti*, approbation, 
expressed by the hands, in distinction to 
acclamation (q. v.) 

In the ancient theatres, persons were 
appointed for the purpose of applaud- 
ing, and masters, were appointed to teach 
them the art. There were three species, 
viz. botnbus, a confused din ; imbrices 
and testee, by beating on a sort of sono- 
rous vessels, placed in the theatres for 
the purpose. The plausores or applauders 
let themselves out on hire to the vain- 
glorious among the poets and actors. 
Ap'ple. In former times this woi-d sig- 
nified fruits in general, especially those of 
a roundish form ; but now it is restricted 
to that of the Pyrus mains, or cultivated 
crab-apple of our hedges. The apple of 
love or love-apple, is the tomato or lyco- 
persicum, a species of solanum. The 
apple of the eye is the pupil. An apple- 
graft is a scion of an apple-tree en- 

Ap'plicate, from Lat. applicatua, ap- 
plied. In geometry, an applicate, or ordi- 
nate applicate, is a right line drawn at 
right angles across the axis of a curve, 
and terminating at both ends in the curve, 
called now more commonly a dmtble ordi- 

Applica'tion, in Lat, <i/>p/;ci'!(w. Is the 
laying of two things together. 1. In geo- 
metry, a division for applying one qimu 
tiiy to another : lae :<jea.s bt ;ng the name 
and the figures dilf-^rent, or tht ir.ini 
f^r'ii),^ of a given li'.e into a circle cr 
o'.ke.i iigure ; so that '.ti end* shall be the 

perimeter of the fii;ure. 2. In sermons, 

that part of the discouj^e in which the 
principles, before laid down and illus- 
trated, are practically applied. 

Appoogia'to, in vmsic (particularly in 
song}, a blended and not abrupt utterance 
of the tones, so that they insensibly 
glide and melt into each other, without 
any perceptible break. The term is Ital. 
from appoggiare, to lean on. 

Afpogoiatc'ha., in music, a small addi- 
tional note of embellishment, 
preceding the note to which it . 
is attached, and taking away [* * 
from the principal note a por- I j 
tion of its time. Ital. from ap- ' 

poggiato (q. v.) 

Appoa' law, the dinding of 
a rent, &c. among the parties who lay 
claim to it. 
Appbe.v'tice, from Fr. apjirefUi, of ap- 


prendre, to karn. One who is bound by 
indenture to serve a tradesman or arti- 
ficer, or company of such, a certftin time, 
upon condition that the master instructs, 
or causes him to be instructed, in his art, 
business, or profession. The tenn for 
which the apprentice is bound is called 
his apprenticeship, and varies in different 
businesses from three to seven years. In 
old law books, barristers are called apprcn- 
ticii ad legem, and their technical appren- 
ticeship lasted sixteen years, after which 
they might take the name of seijeants, 
servientes ad legem, 

Appres'sed, I Lat. appresmis. In botany, 

Appres't, ) applied to leaves pressed 
to the stem ; also to peduncles. 

Approa'ch, from nrf and Fr. p>-of/i«,near. 
1. In military /(jh(7m<i?c, both the advances 
of an army, and the works thrown up by 
besiegers "to protect themselves in their 

advances, are called approaches. 2. In 

gardeiiing, when a scion of one tree is 
grafted into another without cutting it 
from its parent stock, it is said to be in- 

graftedby approach. See Ixor.vfting. 

3. In geometry, the curve of approach is 
defined by this property — that a heavy 
body descending along it by the force 
of gravitj-, makes equal approaches to 
the horizon in equal times. 

Appropria'tiox, from Lat. rtd and pro- 
prius, private. In Zaic, the sequestering of 
a benefice to the perpetual use of a spiri- 
tual corporation sole or aggregate. 

Appro've, from ad and prove, proof. 
In late, when a person indicted of felony 
or treason, and arraigned, confesses 
the fact before the plea is pleaded, and 
appeals 'aeaises) his accomplices of the 
same crime to obtain his pardon, this con- 
fession and accusation are called approve- 
ment, and the person an approver, because 
he must approve (adduce sufBcient proof) 
tcr what he alleges in his appeal. 

Approx'imate, in zoology, when the 
teeth are so arranged in the jaws that 
there is no intervening vacancy. 

AprRoxiMA'Tio.Vjfrom Lat. ad and pror- 
imtis, next. In mathematics, a continual 
approach to a quantity required, where 
no process is known for arriving at it ex- 
actly : this is the case in all rules for find- 
ing the square or cube root of a number 
which is not an exact square or cube. 

Ap'pci,in theTOn«*^«,the stay upon the 
horseman's hand, or the reciprocal sense 
between the horse's mouth and the bri- 
dle hand ; or the sensibility of the horse 
to the action of the bridle. 

Appc'lse, Lat. apprdsus. The act of 
striking against. In astronomy, the ap- 
proach of a planet to a conjunction with 
the SUP. or a star. 

ArpL'R'TENAScE, an appendage or ad- 
junct. Fr. appartettance. Appropriately, 
•uch buildings, rights, and imprcvemen'ts 

9'J A P S 

as belong to land are called apimrtenancet. 
Common ajrpiirtenant is that which is an- 
nexed to laud, and can be claimed only by 
prescription or immemorial usage, on a 
legal presumption of a special grant. 

Ap'ricot, the fruit of the Prunus Arme- 
niaca, which grows wild in many parts oi 
Annenia, and was introduced into Eng- 
land about the middle of the 16th century. 
Apricot- trees are chiefly raised against 
walls, and are propagated by grafting 
upon plum-tree stocksf Old orthography, 
apricock, Fr. ahrixt. 

A'pRiL, the fourth month of the year. 
Lat. Aprilis, from apeiio, to open, in allu- 
sion to the season, which is truly the 
spring and opening of the year. 

A-PRioRi, the opposite of a-posieriori. 
To judge or prove a thing a-priori, is to 
do it upon grounds or reasons preceding 
actual knowledge, or independently of it. 

A'PRON, from a or ag, and Celt, bron, 
the breast. 1. A cloth or piece of leather 
worn to defend the clothes. 2. In gun- 
nery, a flat piece of lead as a cover for the 

touch-hole of a cannon. 3. In ships, a 

piece of curv'ed timber fixed behind the 
lower part of the stem, and immediately 
above the foremost end of the keel: it 
connects the stem and keel. 4. A plat- 
form at the entrance of a dock, on which 

the dock-gates are shut. 5. A piece of 

leather or wax-cloth spread before a 
person riding' in a gig, to defend him from 
rain, &c. 

Ap'sides, plural of apsis, a circle (q. v.). 
Those two points in the orbit of a planet 
or comet, one of which is the farthest 
from, and the other the nearest to, the 
sun. The nearest point is called the lower 
apsis or perihelion (q. v.), and the farthest 
point is the higher apsis or aphelion (q. v.). 
In the orbits of the satellites, the corres- 
ponding terms are perigee and apogee. 
The (imaginary) straight line which joins 
the apsides, that is, the transverse axis of 
the orbit .which is an ellipse), is called 
the line of the apsides. This line moreover 
has a slow progressive motion, which 
may be represented by supposing a planet 
to move in an ellipse, while the ellipse 
itself is slowly revolving about the sun in 
the same plane: this is called the motion 
of the apsides, and the time which the 
earth takes, setting out from either apsis, 
to return to the same point, is called the 
anomalisiieal year. This, in consequence 
of the motion of the apsides, is longer than 
the tropical year. The motion of the 
apsides is however so slow, that more 
than 109,830 years are required for the 
major axis of "the earth's orbit to accom- 
plish one sidereal revolution. See Equi- 

Aps'is, Lat. of d-^t( of iTT», to con- 
nect. 1. In astronomy, either of the tiro 



A Q D 

poir.'s of a planet's orbit, otherwise called 
the perihelion and aphelion. See Apsides. 

J. In the old churches, an inner part 

n-here the altar was placed, and where 
the clergy sat, answering to the choir: 
used in opposition to nave, where the 
concregation were seated, and synony- 
mous with coticha, camera, prcshyteriwn. 

3. In (ircAiY^f^ire, the bowed orarehed 

roof of a house, room or oven ; the canopy 
of a throne ; and anciently, the throne of 
a bishop; at present called n/Jiii-pcnWflta, 
from being raised a few steps abore the 
seats of the priests. 

ApTEN-ony'TES, the scientific name of 
the pengtiins, a tribe of palmipedes, or 
web-footed birds of the family of brachy- 
ptene (Cuv.) : they are found onlv in the 
Antarctic seas. Name from ctrrrrivii, 
wingless, and iCrr,i, a diver, in allusion 
to " their little wings, covered with mere 
vestiges of feathers, which at first sight 
resemble scales, and their habits in the 
water:" they are totally incapable of 
flying, and when they do go on shore, 
they push themselves along on their bel- 
lies as in swimming. The great penguin 
{A. patagomca), of about the size of a 
goose : the flesh is black, but eatable. 

Ap'ters, \ the name of a class of insects, 

Ap'tera, I in the system of Linnoeus. 
Named « , without , and trn^tf , a wing, be - 
ing characterised by the absence of wings. 

Ap'rERors, belonging to the class of 
apters : destitute of wings and scutellum. 

Ap'tertx, Gr. from <», without, and 
vri'vl- A New Zealand genus of very 
rare birds, in which the wings are re- 
duced to a single defensive spur. 

Ap'thaxe, a title anciently given to the 
higher degrees of nobility in Scotland. 

Ap'thocs, KitTiif, to inflame. A dis- 
ease 'ermed the thrush. 

Aptcni SroNi, in nittsic, sounds distant 
one or more octaves, and which yet 
accord. — Apycnos is said of the diatonic 
genus, on account of its having spacious 
intervals in comparison with the chro- 
matic and enharmonic. 

.\pv'RETic,froma,not,and T"|,flre. A 
medical term applied: 1. To those days on 
which the intermission happens in agues. 

2. To local affections not attended 

with febrile excitement of the system. 

A'qcafortis, strong icatcr. Nitric acid 
was so named by the alchemists, on ac- 
count of its strong solvent and corrosive 
action upon numerous mineral, vegetable 
and animal substances ; and the name is 
still used to denote the weak and impure 
nitric acid used in the arts. This is dis- 
tinguished according to Its strength, 
(U>nble and single, the single being only 
half the strength cf the other. 

Aur\ M.^Ri'Ni, sea-water. .V name 
given by jewellers to the heryl on account 
of its colour. 

AQr\ Ke'oia. 1 Koyal water. The 

Aur\ Keoa.' I name given by th« 
alchemists to that mixture of nitric .and 
muriatic acids which was best fitted to 
dissolve gold, styled by them the king of 
the metals. It is now called nitro-murintie 
acid ; or, adopting the more recent nair.6 
for the muriatic acid, its synonym is nitro- 
hydrochloric acid. 

AQr.4. Toffa'nia, 1 Water of Toffana. 

Aqu.v BELLA Tor.v. I A poisonous liquid, 
prepared by a woman at Naples, named 
Toffana, or' Tofania. It was as limpid as 
rock water ; and from four to six drops 
were a fatal dose. It was contained in 
small glass vials, bearing the inscription 
Manna of St. yicholas of Bari, and orna- 
mented with an image of the saint. Tof- 
fana distributed this poison to women 
who were anxious to get rid of their hus- 
b:inds ; and when put to the rack, in 1709, 
she confessed that she had destroyed up- 
wards of 600 persons by means of it. The 
mode of preparing it is now happily lost. 

AarA Vi't.b, water of life. A name fa- 
miliarly applied to native distilled spirits : 
equivalent to the eau de vie, or brandy, of 
the French ; the ichishj, of the Scotch and 
Irish ; and the Genera, of the Dutch. It 
has been the aqtut moi-tis of myriads of 
the human race. 

AauA'Riws. Christians, in the primi- 
tive church, who consecrated water (aqua) 
instead of wine for the celebration of the 

AQfA'RirM. A place in gardens, in 
which only aquatic plants are grown. 

AQi:.\.'nirs, the water-can-ier. The name 
of the eleventh sign of the Zodiack, em- 
blematic of the rainy season. It is marked 
thus ^ , and answers to the Egyptian 

AarATiN-'TA, from aqita and tinta, dyed. 
The art of engraving on coppei after" the 
manner of Indian ink, by which happy 
imitations are made of pencil drawings in 
Indian ink, bistre, sepia, &c. 

A'arEDccT, from aqua and ductus, a 
conduit. A structure made for conveying 
water from one place to another, either 
under ground or above it, without em- 
ploying any other mechanical principle 
than that water will descend along an 
inclined plane. A structure continuing 
the line of a canal across a river, road, or 
valley, is called also an aqueduct, and, 
perhaps more correctly, iinn^u^rfMcffcrirfj/i-. 

A'QtEo, from aqua. When prefixed to 
a word, aqueo denotes that water enters 
into the composition of the substance 
named, as aqueo-sulphuric acid : opposed 
to (T«Aydro-sulphuric acid. 

A'auiroLiA'cE.E, L«t. aqiiifolium, the 
holly. A natural order of robust Exokoii« 




Ti» hlch Conner t themonopetalous and poly- 
peta)ou$ subclas.«cs. Ilex. Prinos, and 
Cassia arr the most common genera. 

A'qv I LA , the eagle. The name of a tribe 
of diurnal birds, of the order accipitrei, 
embracing the most powerful of all the 
birds of prer. 

The eagles are now divided into the 
Aquila proper (to which belongs the 
Ring-tailed Eagle}, the Halieeetus of 
Savigny, or Fisher Eagles of Cuvier (the 
Pygargus and Bald Eaglej, Pandion 
(the Osprey),Circaetus, Harpyia (where 
we find the " Great Harpy of America," 
that possesses such strength of beak as 
to be able to cleave a man's skull), and 
Morphnus, differing in certain peculiar- 
ities of the tarsi, claws, and wings. 

2. In aii<rono»iy, a constellation of the 

northern hemisphere, usually joined with 
Antindus, or of which the asterism Anti- 
ndus is an integral part. 

A«uila.r:a'ce.e, from aqvilaria, eagle- 
wood, one of the genera. A very small 
order of Indian plants, whose species is 
but little known. The aquilaria agallo- 
chutn produces the eagle or aggul wood, 
which, in all probability, was the aloes 
wood of scripture. 

Aqcile'glv, the herb Columbine. A 
genus. Pohjandria — Pentagynia. Named 
from aquila, an eagle, whose claws the 
nectaries resemble. About 12 species, of 
which one is indigenous. Perennial. 

A.R. stand for^nwHo regni, the year of 
the reign ; e. g. A.R. V. R. 4. in thefourth 
year ot the reign of Queen Victoria. 

Ar.v, an altar. The name given to an 
asterism south of the Scorpion's Tail. It 
is also called Ara Thuribuli, the Altar of 
Ar'aeesque (Ft.), ) Something done af- 
Ar'abesk. (Eng.). j ter the manner of 
the Arabs: applied to sculptural and 
paintedornaments consisting of imaginary 
foliage, plants, stalks, &c., but in which 
no human or animal figures appear, re- 
presentations of these being forbidden by 
the Koran. The term is synonymous with 
vioresqne (q. v.), but not necessarily with 
grotesque (q. v.). 

Ak'abis, the herb tcall or rock cress. A 
genus. Tetradynamin — Siliquosa. Named 
so " because originally an Arabian genus," 
or more probably from the Greek A^a.^jj, 
a species of nasturtium used in pickles. 
Walls and rocks throughout Europe. 

Ar'abo-tedes'co, Ital. arabo, and tedes- 
cho, German. In painting and sculpture, 
a style of art composed of Moorish , Roman, 
and German-Gothic. 

Aracats'cha, a South -American plant, 
jaid to be more nourishing and prolific 
than the potato (solanum tuberosum), and 
wliich may be cultivated with advantage 
ji most parts of Europe. Scientific name, 
Eeracleum tuberosum ilolinee. 

What is most peculiar regarding thi« 
plant is, that it is also found growing in 
the country of Sus on the south side of 
the Atlas, and is called by the Arabians 
aracatscha, which means the dry root. 
Now the question is, how does the plant 
come to bear among the natives of Santa 
F6 de Bogota an Arabian name ? Did 
the Arabs, in old antiquity, trade with 
South America ? Or, shall we believe 
that a continent — a real Atlantis — form- 
ed a connection between Africa and 
South America ? 

Ara'ce.e, or AROIDE.E, arum, one of the 
genera . Acrid endogens, with the flowers 
arranged upon a spadix, inclosed in a 

Arach'xida, the name given by Lin- 
naeus to the spider-tribe of articulated 
animals, from ct^a^yr,, a spider, and ui*s, 
likeness. They compose the two fami- 
lies of spiders and scorpions. 

Arach'xides, the spiders composing the 
second class of articulated animals in the 
system of Cuvier. They are provided 
with moveable feet, are destitute of 
wings, do not experience any metamor 
phosis, and generally feed on insects, 
though many are parasitical, and some 
are only found among flour, on cheese, 
and various plants. They are divided into 
two orders, pulmonaria and trachearia. 

Arach'noid, cobweb-like, from a^ecx**., 
a spider, or spider's web, and uhos, like- 
ness. In anatomy, (1). A cobweb-like 
membrane forming one of the tunics or 
coats of the brain. (2). One of the tunics 

or coats of the eye. In natural history, 

a species of fossil madrepore. 

ARA'cK,the native name of a spirituous 
liquor prepared in India from rice, the 
juice of the sugar-cane and of the cocoa- 
nut, by distillation. It is the aqua vita 
of India. 

Ah^ox'eter, from a^ecio;, rare, thin, 
and /u,trfov, measure. An instrument to 
measure the density or gravity of fluids. 
See Hydrometer. 

Ar-e'csttle, from 


rare (thin 

set), and a-TvXof, a column. In architec- 
ture, one of the five proportions by which 
the ancients regulated the intervals called 
intercolumniations, between the column* 
of porticoes and colonnades. In modem 
practice the word denotes the interco- 
lumnar space of 4 diameters, and is re- 
stricted to apertures decorated with the 
Tuscan order. 

A*jeosts'tti,e, from a^auo; and systyle 
(qv.) In architecture, a method of pro- 
portioning the intervals between columns 
ranged in pairs. The disposition is com- 
posed of two systyle intercolumniations, 
as exemplified in the west front of St. 




Araion'e'e, Fr. a spider. In military 
affairs, a branch, return, or gallery of a 

ArVlia, a genus of American plants, 
chiefly arborescent, of which the ange- 
lica-tree is a species. Fentandria — Penta- 
gynin. The berries of the angelica-tree 
(A.ipinosa), are said to be useful in tooth- 
ache and colic, whence called tooth-ache 
tree. It is also called prickly -ash. 

ARAiiA'cEa:, a natural family of plants, 
of which the genus aralia is the type. 

Ara.'ne.\^, a spider ; a genus of arach- 
nides, of the order pulmonariae. The spe- 
cies are exceedingly numerous, some so 
small as to be nearly microscopic, and 
others so large as to kill small birds, and 
80 poisoning that their bites have proved 
fatal to man. The domestic spider is a 
species of this genus ; it is harmless from 
its want of power to pierce the skin. 

A'sAR, the tree whose wood is chiefly 
nsed by the Mahometans for the con- 
struction of their mosques, and whose 
resin is the sandarach of commerce. 

ARArci'RiA, a genus of trees somewhat 
resembling the pine tribe. Diaecia — Mo- 
nodelphia. Named from Araucania in 
South America, where one of the species 
(Sir Joseph Banks' pine) grows plenti- 
fully, and being the first discovered gave 
name to the genus. 

Arbalest, ^ a cross-bow, from amu, a 

Ar'balist, ) bow, and halista fq. v.). 
This instrument consisted of a steel bow 
set in a shaft or stock of wood, furnished 
with a spring and trigger. The arrows 
shot from it were called quarrels. 

Arbitra'tios, the hearing and de- 
termining between parties in contro- 
versy, by arbiters either chosen by the 
parties or appointed by a magistrate. It 
is usual for each party to choose an arbiter, 
and these to nominate a third party called 
an umpire. The final determination is 
called an award ; and this is binding upon 
the parties. 

Arbitra'tor. Properly, a person to 
■whom the presiding judge proposes ques- 
tions depending on scientific or technical 
knowledge, which aflfects the matter in 

Ar'bor, the Latin word for tree, as dis- 
tinguished from shruh. 1. In gardening, 
a bower, usually formed of lattice- work 

covered with parasitical plants, as ivy. 

2. In mechanics, the same with shaft (q. v.). 

3. In chemistry : If mercury be thrown 

into a dilute solution of nitrate of silver, 
the silver is gradually precipitated in a 
beautiful arborescent form, constituting 
what is usually called the Arbor Diana 

(the tree of DJanai , or Arbor philosophorium 
the phil030phi<;sJ[ tree). 4. In anatomy : 

■^NTiea thn ccrebellnia is cut vertically, 
the medullary substance appears ramified 
lo as to represent a tree : this dendriform 

arrangement is called the Arbor viitK ftree 
of life). 5. In botany: A beautiful ever- 
green tree — the Thtya occidentalis — islikc- 
wise called the Arbor titce. It is a native 
of Siberia, Canada, Japan, and China. 

ARBo'REOrs, Lat. arborens, tree-like. 
Having a permanent woody stem. This 
term is sometimes used to distinguish 
such fimgi or mosses as grow upon tree* 
from those which grow upon the ground. 
Arbores'cence, from arboresco, to grow 
like a tree. The resemblance of a tree 
frequently observed in crystallizations 
and in mineral productions. 

Arbores'cent, Lat. arborescens, grow- 
ing like a tree {arbor). Becoming woodv ; 
dendriform. A species of Asterias, calJpd 
sometimes Caput Medtisee (Medusa's head), 
is popularly called the arborescent star- 
fish, in allusion to its appearance. 

ARBOR'ETrM, a place in parks, pleasure 
grounds, gardens, or nurseries, in which 
a collection of different species of trees is 

AR'BORicriTURE, Lat. from arbor, a 
tree, and colere, to cultivate. The art of 
cultivating trees and shrubs grown for 
timber, or for ornamental purposes. The 
practice includes propagation by seeds, 
by cuttings, layers, grafting, raising in 
beds and rows, transplanting, pruning, 
thinning, and, finally, felling, and the 
succession of kinds. 

Ar'sctus, the strawberry-tree. A genus. 
Decandria — Monogynia. The A. unedo, 
or true strawberry-tree, is a beautiful 
evergreen, which, from its frequency and 
elegant foliage, adds greatly to the lake 
scenery in Killamey in Ireland. The A. 
alpina, called popiilarly the bear-berry, 
bear's whortleberry, bear's bilberry, wild 
cranberry, &€., is a trailing shrub found 
plentifully among the Highland hills of 
Scotland ; as is also the A. uia vrsi, or red 
bear-berry, which affords excellent food 
for moor-fowl. This derives the name 
from Celtic ar, rough or austere, and 
boise, a bush, which is characteristic of 
the Scottish species. 

Arc, Lat. arais, a bow, vault, or arch. 
In geometry, any part of a curved line 
which does not consist of contrary curva- 
tures. It is by means of circular arcs 
that all angles are measured, the arc 
being described from the angular point 
as a centre. See Angle. 

Arca'de, Fr. from Sp. arcarfd, from Lat. 
area. In architecture, a series of recesses 
with arched ceilings or soffets. 

The use of this word is very vague 
Some use it for a single arched aperture 
or inclosure, instead of vault, or for the 
space covered by a continued tault or 
arch, supported on piers or columns, 
instead of gallery or corridor ; and by 
others for the space inclosed by two or 
more arcades, or a wall and an arcade, 




iobtead of a piazza or ambulatoiT-. — 

Ar'ca.dx, a family of marine bivalve 
shells, of which the genus area is the type. 
Arca'di.vns, a society of Italian poets 
In Rome, established in the latter half of 
the 17th century, for the improvement of 
taste, and the cultivation of Italian poetry. 
It took the title of The Academy of Arca- 
dians; in conformity -with which they 
pretend to imitate the pastoral life of 
the Arcadians (inhabitants of Arcadia, 
the Greek Switzerland). 

Arc-bo L-TA.:<T, Fr, from arc and boiitcr, 
to abut. An arched buttress formed of a 
Hat arch, abutting against the feet or 
sides of anotlier arch or vault to support 
them and prevent their giving way in 
that direction : called also allying buttress. 
Arch, probably from ot^x*'" l^eginning, 
origin; Fr. arc, arch. 1. In geometry, 
part of a circle, not more than a half. 
Among modem mathematical writers 
this form of the M'ord is disused, being 
replaced by arc (q. v.), except as re- 
stricted to" its signification among ar- 
chitects and mechanics. 
——2. In architecture, a mechanical ar- 
rangement of separate inelastic bodies in 
the line of a curve, wliich preserve a 
given form when resisting pret^sure. A 
concave structure of stone or brick raised 
upon a mould in the form of an arc of a 
curve, and serving as the inward support 
of some superstructure. The arch may 
be supported by the form of its own curve, 
The stones acting against each other, and 
resisting with the force by which they 
would otherwise fall ; or it may be con- 
structed of wood or iron, and supported 
by the mechanism of the work. 

The lateral supports of an arch are 
alutmeitts or hutments, and the internal 
supports are piers. The first or under- 
most stones at A and B of the arch are 

termed springers, and the line A B on 
which they are placed is called the 
springing line or reins of the arch. The 
upper end of the pier on which the 
arch rests is the impost or platband. 
The stones ranged in the curvature of 
the arch are archstottes or votissoirs. The 
whole interior curved sui-face of the 
axch A I> C, is called the intrados by 

geometers, and soffet by architects, or 
popularly the arch. The extrados is 
the convex surface A' D' B'. The «;>on, 
called by geometers the chord of the arch, 
is measured from the lines where the 
Intrados rises from the impost. The 
rise of the arch, or, geometrically, the 
versed sine, is the distance CD of the 
liighest point of the intrados above the 
chord line A B C. The highest point 
D of the intrados, is by geometers called 
the crown or vertex, but by the work- 
men the underside of the crown , the crown 
with them being the upper end of the 
key-stone, or stone -which connects the 
two semi-arches A D and C D at D. 
These semi-arches are called haunches, ■ 
or hances, or flanks, and the spaces 
above these, being the outer wall«, 
forming the elevation of the arch, i& 
the spandrels, or, collectively, the spajt' 
drel-wall. Sometimes small circular 
arches are constructed through the 
spandrel and haunch walls, mostly 
over piers in stone bridges: these are 
called ox-eyes by the workmen. 
Arch, chief, from a'X' '■ ^^^^ ^^ ^ sylla- 
bic prefix to words, to denote the highest 
degree of their kind, whether good or 

Archsol'ogy, from ag^a/ey, ancient, 
and Aoyes, a discourse. The science or 
subject of antiquities, especially of Greece 
and Rome. 

Ah'chaism, Gr. from aj;^;cw«ff, ancient. 
A term used by ancient chemists and 
physicians, to imply the occult cause of 
certain phenomena. 

Archbish'op, from arch and bishop. The 
name of a church dignitary of the first 

The title was introduced about a.d. 
340. England has two archbishops, 
that of Canterbury and that of York, 
who are called primates and metropoli- 
tans. The archbishop of Canterbury 
had anciently jurisdiction over Ireland, 
and was styled a patriarch, and is still 
accounted the first peer of England, 
and next to the royal family. He has 
the precedence of the dukes and all the 
officers of the crown. 
Abchbc'tler, one of the great officers 
of the German empire, wlio presents the 
cup to the king on solemn occasions. The 
office belongs to the king oi Bohemia. 

Archcham'berlain, an officer of the 
German empire, much the same as the 
great chamberlain in England. 

Arcecban'cellor, a high officer who 
in ancient times presided over the secre- 
taries of the court. 

Arch'count, a title formerly given to 
the earl of Flanders, on account of his 
great power and riches. 
ARCH'uEACos.from orcft and (feaeoj*. An 




ecclesiastical dijfuitary next to a bisiiop: 
his jurisdiction may extend over the 
whole diocese, or only a part of it. There 
are sixty archdeacons in England, and as 
many arcfuieaconries over which they hare 
authority. — Archdeacon's court is an in- 
ferior church court held in the absence of 
the archdeacon, and from which appeal 
lies to the bishops court. The judge in 
this court is called the archdeacon's official. 
Arcb'duke, from arch and duke. A 
title given to the princes of the house of 
Austria, all the sons being archdukes and 
daughters archduchesses. 

AacHEi'oN, the most retired and secret 
place of the Grecian temples, used as a 

AacH'ES-CorRT, an ecclesiastical cotxrt 
of appeal belonsring to the archbishop of 
each province, the judge of which is called 
the Dean of Arches. The court takes its 
name from the church of St. Mary-/e-Bo«7 
{de arcubus), whose top is raised of stone 
pillars built archwise, where it was an- 
ciently held. 

AacH'ETTPE, from ec^^iTv^re*, a first 
pattern. Among minters, the standard 
weight to which the others are adjusted. 
Ar'chiaco'lyth, from aex"'' chief, and 
»z,okou8o;, minister. In the ancient ca- 
thedral churches, the ministers were 
divided into foxir orders, viz. priests, 
deacons, subdeacons, and acolyths (or 
Lat. acolythi) , each of which had its chiefs : 
that of the acolythi was called the archi- 
acolyth or archiacolythus. 

Arce'iateb, from u^x^> chief, and 
letT^of, physician. An old title for the 
chief physician to a prince who retained 

AR'cHiDi.p'irzR, {rom arch and dapi/er, 
sewer. In Germany, a great officer of the 
empire : the ofSce belongs to the elector 
of Bavaria. 
Aa'cHiL, I A violet, red, or purple 
AacHiL'LA. j paste. obtained froma spe- 
cies of whitish moss (lichen rocccUus) which 
grows upon rocks in the Canary and Cape 
de Verd Islands. It is used in dyeing for 
modifying other colours. It is analogous 
to the substance called cudhi-ar in Scot- 
land. Litmus is obtained from the same 
lichen, by a modified process practised in 
Holland. A sort of archil is also obtained 
from the lichen parelliu, which grows on 
the basaltic rocks of Auvergne. 

Abchilo'ch IAN , "appertaining to .^jchilo- 
chus, a Greek poet, who flourished about 
700 BkC. The Archilochiam terse, which is 
called from him, is — 

Ahchimjlk'drite. In the Greek church 
the abbots were called fnandr<t, and thcii 
cidet archimandrite, the prcllx archi mean- 
ing chief. See A&ca. 

Ajichime'des' Screw, a machine fo» 
raising water, said to have been invente<J 
by Archimedes, the most celebrated among 
the ancient geometricians (287 bc). The 
machine consists of a tube rolled In a 
spiral form about a cylinder, as in the 
figure. The handle, A, being turned, the 

water enters the spiral tube at B : the 
orifice being brought to C, the water will 
fall to E ; anotlwr revolution brings it to G ; 
and so on, till it is finally discharged at D. 
AacHiPiL'AGo is a corruption of JEgeo- 
pelago, the modem Greek pronunciation 
of AtyotiM TliXef/oi, the .SEgean Sea. 
The term is applied to any sea interspersed 
■n-ith many isles, and to "the isles situated 

Aa'cHiTBCTCRE, the art of contrivinc 
and erecting buildings. According to the 
objects to which it is applied, architecture 
is divided into civil, naval, and military 
The word is from the Lat. architectura, o 
the verb architector, from etP^inxTa:* f 
a constructor, an architect. 

The Egyptian style of building takes 
its origin in the cacem and moutid ; the 
Chinese architecture is modelled from 
the tent; the Grecian is derived from 
the icoodeti cabin ; and the Gothic from 
the botcer of trees. 

Akch'itrave, from a,fx^> Chief, and 
<ra6s, abeam. In architecture , that pait 
of the entablature which rests imme 
diately upon the columns. It probably 
repsesents the beam which in ancient 
buildings extended from column to co- 
lumn, to support the roof. In Gothic 
architecture there is no arcliitrave. 

Ar'chives, a collection of written docu 
ments containing the rights, pri\-ileges, 
claims, treatises, constitutions, <fcc. of a 
family, corporation, commuaity, city, or 
kingdom ; also the place where such do- 
cuments are kept. The term is Fr., from 
Ital. archivio; Low Lat. archivium or ar 

chimm, from 


Ah'chivoi.t. In architectuie, the Innei 
contour of an arch or band, adorned with 
mouldings, nmning over the facings ot 
the archstones and bearing upon the iic- 
posts. It differs in different orders. Ttt 
term is from the Fr. archiiolt*, and tie 
same as the Lat. arcus tu/utia. 


Aecb'lute, ) Ital. arcileiito. A large 
ARCH'itCTE, j lute, a theorbo: the base 
strings are doubled with an octave, and 
the higher strings with a unison. 

Arch'marshal, the grand marshal of 
the German empire. The dignity belongs 
to the elector of Saxony. 

Arch'on, from ece^aiv, a prince. The 
highest magistrates of Athens were called 
Archons. There were nine : the first was 
properly the archon ; the second, king ; 
the third was the polemarch, or general of 
the forces ; and the other six Were thesmo- 
theta, or legislators. 

Archos'tics, a branch of the Talen- 
tinians, who held that the world was 
made by archontes or angels. 

Akc'tic, an epithet given to the north 
pole in reference to the constellation of 
the Little Bear, called by the Greeks 
eifXTOi, the last star in the tail of which 
points out the north pole. The arctic 
circle is a lesser circle of the sphere, pa- 
rallel to the equator, and 23' 28' distant 
from the north pole, fromwhi.^h it takes 
its name. This, and its opposite, the 
antarctic (q.v.), are called the two polar 
circles, and within these lie the frigid 

ARc'TirM, the plant burdock or clitbur. 
A genus. Syngeyiesia — Foly. tsqiialis. 
Name, et^xro;, a bear, in allusion to the 
coarse texture of the involucres. Waste 
places, as way- sides. 

Arc'tomts, the marmot. A genus of 
mammalia, of the order rodentia. The 
marmots live in societies and are easily 
tamed. There are many species, the most 
interesting of which are the Alpine 31., 
which inhabits high mountains, and the 
lohac of Poland and Kamschatka, both 
about the size of a hare, and burrow in 
the hardest soils. The American species 
are smaller. Name, oi^xros, a bear, and 
jMi;, a rat ; the bear-rat. 

and <fvXci^, a keeper. The Greek name of 
the constellation BoOtes, or Charles's 

ARCTr'Rcs, Lat. from oI^xto;, a bear, 
and o'j^ae., a tail. A star of the first mag- 
nitude in the constellation Arctophylax, or 

Arc'tcs, m^htos- The name given by 
the Greeks to two constellations, called by 
the Latins Vrsa major and Ursa minor, 
and by us the Great Bear and the Zittle 

ARCiTA'Tio^.Xat.arcuaJio, a bending. In 
gardening, a method of raising by layers 
such trees as cannot be raised from seed. 
It consists in bending to the ground the 
branches which spring from the offsets or 
Btools, and covering them with earth 
three inches deep upon the joints. When 

96 A Jl E 

they have taken root, they are re- 

Ar'dea, the heron. A genus of birds of 
the order grallatorim, and family cultri- 
rostres. There a-re several species, 
including the crabeaters and bitterns.' 
Named by the Latins from «*£?« Sii<», 
ab alto volatu. 

Are, from area. A superficial square 
measure in Prance, substituted for the 
former square rod. It contains 107614 
square feet, English. 

A-RE, in the Guidonian scale of music, 
denotes the lowest note but one. 
A'rea, a Latin word signifying — 1. 

A threshing-floor. 2. A vacant space 

bounded on all sides, or before a public 
building. In geometry, the superficial con- 
tent of any figure ; the surface included 
by any given lines. The extent is ascer- 
tained by finding how many times the 
surface contains another smaller surface, 
of which we have an accurate idea ; as a 
square inch, a square foot, &c., which we 
use as superficial measures. Among phy- 
sicians, the term area has been used 
vaguely to denote certain cutaneous dis- 
eases producing baldness. 

Are'ca, the cabbage-tree, a genus of 
palms, one species of which, called the 
cabbage-palm {A. o^erncf a), grows abun- 
dantly in South America, and is cul- 
tivated in both the Indies. The pith 
forms an inferior sago, the young buds 
are eaten as cabbage, and the fruit 
yields oil. The fruit (nut) of another East 
Indian species (A. catecfiii), yields two 
kinds of catechu, called cuttacamboo and 
cashcutti by the Indians. Mcmcecia — Mo- 
nodelphia. Called also fausel-nut (nut 
resembles the nutmeg), and drunken- 

Ahe'na, sand. In the Roman amphi- 
theatres, a plain space in the middle, 
covered with sand, on which the gladia- 
tors, &c. fought. Hence, also, the com- 
batants were called arenarii. 

Arexa'ria, the plant sanrftf^ori. A genus, 
of which there are eleven indigenous spe- 
cies. Decandria — Trigynia. Named from 
arena, sand, the greater ntunber of species 
growing in sandy soils. 

Arenda'tor. In Russia, one who con- 
tracts with the government for the rents 
of the farms is called an arendator, from 
arenda, a farm. And he who rents an es- 
tate of the crown is called a crown-aren- 
dator. The estate and rent paid for it are 
indifferently denoted by araide. 

AREN'GA,"a genus of palms peculiar to 
the Moluccas. The pith affosds a kind of 
sago, and the sap sugar by evaporation, 
and a pleasant liquor by fermenta- 
tion.'ic, pertaining to sanlstoae, 
arena and >u6t( ; consisting ot sai.*- 




Areo'da, a very brilliant penu* of penta- 
merous coleoptera, belonging to Brazil, 
closely allied to the cockchafer. 

ARE'otA.Lat. dim. of area. In anatomy, 
the small interstices of cellular tissues. 
In Surgery, an inflamed ring around pus- 
tules, &c. The coloured circle which sur- 
rounds the nipple of the breast. 

Are'ol^, the smaller spaces into which 
the wings of insects are divided by the 

Are'olate. 1. In entomology, divided 
into small spaces. 2. In Ao<any, in com- 
posite plants, when the florets are placed 
on the surface of the receptacle, and drop- 
ping oflf leave pentagonal spaces. 

Areola'tiox. Any small space, bounded 
by something different in colour, tex- 
ture, &c. 

Areom'eter. See AR.aEOMETER and Ht- 


Areom'etrt, the art of measuring the 
density or gravity of fluids by means of a 
hydrometer (generally an areometer). 

AREOPA'ors, the name of the oldest of 
the Athenian courts of justice, and also 
tlie most respectable. The title is derived 
from AfTf , Mars, and -rayoj , hill. Mars' 
Hill, a hill in the city on which its first 
meetings were held. The judges were 
called areopagites. 

Aretol'ogt, a name sometimes given 
to that part of moral philosophy which 
tre.ats of virtue, its nature, and the means 
of attaining it ; from K^trri, virtue, and 
>.»ycf, discourse. 

Akoal, crude tartar, called also argol. 

Aroan'd. "When a strong light is re- 
quired from oil or gas, it is common to 
make a circular burner, with a hole per- 
forated through the middle for the ad- 
mission of air into the interior of the 
flame, and a series of small perforations 
around the circumference for the egi-ess 
of gas, or one continuous opening into 
which the wick is put when it is required 
to bum oil. Such burners are called ar- 
gands or argatid burners, from the inven- 
tor's name. 

Aroe'mons, a genus of Mexican plants. 
Polyandria — ifonogynia. Name from ar- 
gema, an ulcer of the eye, which the first 
known species was said to cure. 

Argent, from argentum, silver. The 
white colour in coats of arms, intended to 
signify in a woman, chastity ; in a maid, 
virginity; in judges, justice, &c. , the rich, 

Aroe.n'tate. Fulminating silver is 
sometimes called argentale of ammonia. 

ARoENTir'ERocs, pToduciug silver, ar- 
gentum and fero. 

Ar'gentike, resembling silver, argen- 
tum. Also a name of slate-ipar, which is 
a nearly pure sub species of carbonate of 
lime, of a slaty structure. The ontimo- 

nious acid is popularly termed argentine 
flotcers of antimony. 

.■\ji]Gii., I Lat.arf^tWo of i*y/XAaf, white 
Ar'oill, j earth, i^yis, white. Gene- 
rally potters earth, but strictly the earth 
of clay called in chemistry alumina (q. v.). 
Argilla'ceocs, of the nature of argil, 
containing argil. A. earth, alumina, A. 
schist, clay-slate: an indurated clay com- 
mon to the fossiliferous and metamorphic 

Aroil'lite, argillaceous-schist or clay- 
slate used in roofing houses. 

Ar'ool, crude tartar, called also argal, 
which when purified is called cream of 

ARGONAr'TA, the paper nautilus or 
sailor, a sub-genus of sepia or cuttle-fish ; 
there are several species closely resem- 
bling each other in animal and shell. 

These moUnsca are always fotmd in a 
very thin shell, symmetrically fluted 
and spirally convoluted, the last whorl 
so large that it bears some resem- 
blance to a galley, of which the spine is 
the poop. The animal makes a con- 
stant use of it, and in calm weather 
whole fleets of them may be observed 
na>-igating the surface of the ocean, 
employing six of their tentacula as oars 
and elevating the two membraneous 
ones by way of a sail. If the sea be- 
comes "rough, or they perceive any dan- 
ger, the argonaut withdraws all its 
arms, concentrates itself in its shell, 
takes in water, and descends to the 
bottom. There is, however, consider- 
able doubts whether the animal found 
within this shell be really the con- 
structor of it, or a parasitical intruder 
into a shell formed by some other 
animal not yet discovered. The animal 
has no other connection with the shell 
than that it is found within it, and oc- 
cupies the last or large whorl only. 
The others being entirely empty. — The 
name is derived from A^yai, the name 
of the ship in which Jason sailed to 
Colchis in search of the golden fleece, 
and vavTOf, a sailor. 
Ar'oo-Na'vis, the ship Argo (Jo«on'9 
ship). The name of a constellation in the 
southern hemisphere, and type of the 
ship in which Jason sailed to Colchis. 

Ar'gcment. 'Lat. argumenttim. In a«- 
tronomy, a quantity upon which another 
quantity or equation depends, or some 
circumstance relative to the motion of a 
planet or satellite ; or it is an arc whereby 
we endeavour to find another imknown 
arc proportional to the first ; hence arg^i- 
ment of inclinatton, called also the argu- 
n^enl of latitude, the portion of a planet's 
orbit intercepted between the ascending 
node and the place of the planet from the 
sun, counted according to tlio succesgioa 




of lie signs. ArgMncnt of the rwACx'i 
npog'.c, called also the annual argun.efit, 
the distance of the moon's apogee from the 
Bun's place, that is, the arc of the eclip- 
tic comprised between these two points. 
Argument of parallax, denotes the effect 
produced by parallax on an ob.serration, 
&nd which is the argument for deter- 
mining the quantitj- of horizontal pa- 

Arocmentcm ad noMi.vEjj, an argu- 
ment which presses with consequences 
drawn from one's owe principles and con- 

Abocs-shell, a species of porcelain 
shell, beautifully Tariecated with spots, 
in some measure like the peacock's tail. 

Ap.o\n'nis, a geniis of butterflies, re 
markable for the silvery spots on the 
under part of the body. 

Ar'oyritis, an old tivn'C f>f litharge, 
from aeyvgof, silver, hcausc s'»p:vr!itedLn 
the process of extracting sibtr from the 
lead ores. 

Argy'.i'ocome, a sub-genus of cud-weed 
(ffnaphalium). From a^yv^i;; silver, and 
Koi*Y,, b.air, becau>K the liowers are sil- 
Yery white. 

A'au, in music, Ital. for air ^q. v.) 

A'aiAns, the adherents of the Alexan- 
drian bishop. Arius, who held Christ to be 
a created being, inferior to God in nature 
and dignity. Their doctrine is Arianism. 

A'«i«s, Latin for sam. In astronotny, a. 
constellatioa forming the first of the 
tweWe signs of tie ?odiac. Symbol, Cft 
In the ancient diiiiary art, ariea means 
a battering ram. 

AaiET'Ti, in tntnie, Italian for dim. of 
aria (q. v.). 

A'bsi., Lat. arillus. A tunic investing 
the seed of eome plants completely or 
partially. It is fixed at the base of the 
Beed, and mere or less clojiely envelopes 
the other parts. Mace it tbe aril of the 

Abix'axm, ) The e\ll principle la the 

Ahri'man. i Persian theoiogy, which 
perpetually counteracts ibe de«iKtiBof the 
good principle, Ormuza or Horminda. 

Ario'so, ItsJian for light, livr-ly. Ap- 
p'.ied in music lo » kind of melody t>or- 
dcring on the majestic style of a capital 

Aki'stjl, the awn. A sharp bristle-like 
appendage which j)rocec(ls from the huik 
or glume of gr.asst*. 

Aai'sTATE, L&'.. iiruintus, awned. Ap- 
plied to leave*. &c. lemiinating in a l-mg 
rigid spine, which docs not appear as a 

Abistolo'cbia, the plant birthwort. 
Genus. Oynandria — Jlcrajuiria. Name, 
mfifrtf, and ).»^ua, for its supposed rac- 
dicinai virtues. One indigenous species. 

iuiticLocHi'BA, a natural family of 

plants, of which the genus Anntolochia ii 
the type. 

Aristote'lia., the generic name of a 
South American tree. Vodecandria — Mu- 
iwffpnia. Named in honour of Aristotle, 
the ancient philosopher. 

ARirn'METic, from ecsiBiMr.rixfj, the art 
of numbering, afi6jtwf, number. Abranch 
of mathematics which has for its object 
the combination of numbers according to 
certain rules, in order to obtain results 
which satisfy given conditions. These 
rules, methodically arranged, constitute 
the science to which is given the name 
arithmetic. .Vrithmetic is called theoreti- 
cal when It ireau of the properties and 
relations o.' n-jui'oers considered abstract- 
edly : and [.Tuctical, when it treats simply 
of the art of computing. Integral arith- 
metic treats of whole numbers ; fractional 
arithmetic of fractional numbers ; decimci 
arithmetic of decimal numbers. Logatith- 
mic arithmetic is that which is perfcnaed 
by tables of logarithms. Political ariih- 
metic is the calculation of revenue, deter- 
mination of taxes, adjustment of expendi- 
ture, &c. Specious and universal arithmetic 
are names given to algebra. All arith- 
metical operations are performed bv 
means of addition, subtraction, mul*;.'pli- 

cation, and division. Arithmetical c:» -- 

plement of a number is what it wants of 
the next higher decimal denomini*i-ii. 
Thus 4 is the arithmetical complement of 

6, as it is what 6 wants of 10. Arith- 
metical mean between two numbers is a 
number, such that its excess over the first 
is equal to its defect from the second. 
Thus 6 is an arithmetical mean between 
3 and 7. Arithmetical progression, a se- 
ries of numbers, such that each differs 
from the quantity that precedes and fol- 
lows it by the same number. Thus, 3, 5, 

7, 9, form an arithmetical progression, 
when the common difference of the terms 

is 2. Arithmetical proportion of four 

numbers coiLsists in the difference of the 
lir?t and second being equal to that of the 
ihii-i and fourih. Thus, 2, 5, 8, 11. 

AniTBifHTici-i. RA.TI0. The difference 
of fcr.j twf of an arithmetical progression. tli« nwne jfiTcn,in our translation 
c^" the Kiblt;, t"> the floating edifice in 
whicn Noah refilled during the deluge. 
From Sax. C|lC or Cftk, a chest. Lat. 
area. Dut. aW.«. The chest in which the 
tables of the law were preserved was 
called the ark of the covenant. This coffer 
was 3 feet 9 inches long, by 2 feet 3 
inches in breadth, and the same in depth. 
It was made of shiitim-wood, and covered 
with the merer scat, or propitiatory 
(/Xae-jKj/ev i^Sr,ua), of pure gold, 
and having at each comer a cherub with 
expanded wings. 

ARM < 

Arm, Sax. atlm or eanm. That part 
of the upper extremity of the human 
body which extends from the shoulder to 
tlie wrist: divided into the brachium and 
antibrachium by anatomists. 

Ab'ma, Lat. for arms, applied in botany 
to Tarious pointed appendages of plants, 
as spina. 

ARM.\^DrL'Lo, a mammiferous genus of 
quadruped peculiar to America ; the da- 
sypus of Linnajus, and belonging to his 
order bradypoda, but placed by CuTier 
in the order edentata. The armadillos 
take their name from the peculiar scaly 
and hard shell, formed of compartments 
rrsembling little paving stones, which 
covers their head and body, and frequently 
their tail. They dig burrows and live 
partly on vegetables, and partly t)n in- 
fects and dead bodies. There are several 
species or rather «ub-geuera. 

Ar'm ATURE, Lat. umatura, armour, that 
which defends, but sometimes used of 
o.fensive weapons. A piece of soft iron 
Hpplied to a loadstone, or connecting the 
poles of a horse-shoe magnet, is called 
its armature; when the armature is ap- 
plied the magnet is said to be armed. 

Armed. In htraldry the term is used 
•with respect to beasts and birds of prey 
when their teeth, horns, feet, beak, talons 
or tusks are of a different colour from the 
rest of the body ; e.g. "He bears a falcon 
&rmed, or." 

Arme'nian rtons, 9 blue mineral or 
earth variously 8pf/it<.2, and not unlike 
the lapis lazuli; foui\J. nrst inAi-mcniaor 

Ar'mioeb, litcmlly a bearer of arms, 
arma and g^o i ari old title of dignity 
next in degree to a knight, now replaced 
by esquire. 

Ar'sillart, from armilla, a bracelet. 
Cor.3i3ling of riugj or circles, chiefly ap- 
piicd to an arti'ioial sphere composed of 
\arlo\i8 circles put together in the proper 
order of the imaginary circles which sur- 
round the earth, for the purpose of illus- 
trating the motions of the celestial bodies. 

Ar'mings, in nautical language the 
traist-chiihes hung about a ship's upper 

Armin'ians, a religious sect which has 
K» name from Arminius (the Latin name 
of James Hermann), who maintained, in 
opposition to Calvin, that the merits of 
Ci^rist extended to all mankind ; and that 
the grace ncces.sary to salvation isattain- 
jible by every one. The Arminians Mill 
remain a distinct sect in Holland, utiinr 
the name of remomtrants (q. v.), and have 
been the predominant party in the church 
of England since the time of Laud. 

Ar'mob, ) a defensive habit composed 

Ar'mocr, J of the casque or helmet, 
forget, cuirass, gauntlet, tafc?, brasecl.". 

> ARR 

cuisses and covers for the legs, to whicli 
the spurs were fastened. This fumiturs 
was denominated harness or armour, cap- 
ipii, i.e., from head to foot, and wu 
used by cavaliers and men-at-anns. lu 
statutes, armour is used for the whole ap- 
paratus of war. Cbat-amiour signifies 
the escutcheon of any person or famiJT, 
with its several charges and other furni- 
ture, as wanclisg, crest, supporters, 
motto, &c. 

Aasi.s, Lat. arvut. In hotany, see Arma^ 
In heraldry, tie ensigns armorial of a 
family, and consisting of figures and co- 
lours borne in shields, banners, &c., as 
marks of distinction and dignity. Charged 
arms are such as retain tV.eir ancient in- 
tegrity, and acquire some new honourable 
charge or bearing. Voccl crms are such 
that the figures bear some allusion to the 
name of the bearer. 

Ar'sica, the plant leopard's bane, a 
genus of perennials; Syrigenesia — Poly- 
gamia sxtperflua ; a European species, is 
used medicinally. Name anciently given 
to a different plant. 

ARN0I0E.S:, a natural family of plants of 
which the genus arum is the type. 

Ar'soldists. The partisans of Arnold 
of Brescia, who, in the twelfth century, 
was the first to raise his voice against the 
abuses and vices of the clergy. 

Ar'oba, ) in Sp. arroha, and in the dia- 

Ab'obe, ] lect of Peru arrow. I. A 
weight used in Spain, Portugal, Goa,and 

Brazil ; that of Madrid is 251bs. avoir. 

2. A measure of capacity, that of Malaga 
contains 794 cub. ins. 

Aro'ma., Lat. of o^atfMi. The odorife- 
rous principle of aromatic plants, or such 
as have a warm and agreeable odour, as 
the cardamom. 

Arod'ra. 1. A Grecian measure of .50 

feet. 2. An Egyptian measuie of 100 

square feet. 

Arpeg'oio, \ Ital. arpeggiare, to play 

Arpegoi.^'to, ) on the harp. In music, 
the striking or bowing of notes on a vio- 
lin or similar instnunents in quick suc- 
cession, in imitation of the harp. 

Ab'pest, the French acre, corrupted 
from arvipendiutn or aripennium, which 
denotes the measuring of land with a cord. 
The arpent is about i acre English. 

Aruuebcs'ade, from arquebuss, a hand- 
gun. An aromatic spirituous lotion ap- 
plied to strains, &c., originally applied to 
wounds from an arquebuss. 

Ahrac'ach*.. The South American 
naji;e for an umbelliferous plant, theArra- 
cacia esctdenta of botanists. Its roots, 
which are of a large size, and fieshy and 
sweet, are cultivated in Columbia and 

ARRAi'of, arraignment. To arraign ia 
to set In order or fit for trial : as to mr- 

H 2 




raign a writ of novel disseisin ; to call a 
prisoner to the bar of the court to answer 
to the matter charped in the indictment, 
and the calling of the prisoner to the bar 
is denominated an arraignment. The term 
from Norm, aresner, to answer. Black- 
stone says from Lat. ad rationem ponere; 
in Yt. ad reson or abbreviated a rem. 

Ar'ras, a kind of tapestry, said to take 
Its name from Arras, the capital of the 
department Pas de Calais, where the ar- 
ticle was first manufactured. 

Arrent.v'tion, from Sp. arrtrvrlir, to 
»nt. In the forest laws of England theli- 
tensing of an o^vner of land in a forest to 
inclose it in consideration of a yearly rent. 1 

Aa'REOYs, the name given to a class of | 
Individuals in Otaheite and the neigh- 
bouring islands, who destroy their own 
offspring at the moment of their birth. 

Arrest, from French arrlter, for arres- 
ter, to stop. To arrest judgment, is to stop 
judgment after verdict, for causes as- 
signed. The motion for this purpose is 
called a motion in arrest of judgment. 

Arrest'mest. In Scotch laic, \. The de- 
tention of a criminal till he finds bail. 

2. An order of a judge, by which a debtor 
to the arrester's debtor is prohibited to 
make payment till the debt due to the 
arrester is paid or secured. 

Arres'ts, in farrie>-y, mangy tumours 
tjpon a horse's hind legs. 

Arriere, the rear of an army. The 
arriire-ban of the old French kings was a 
proclamation (6an) by which their vassals 
were summoned to take th" field for war 
'arriire, the last). Arriire-fief or fee, a 
fee or fief held of a feudatory. Arriire- 
vassal, the vassal of a va.ssal. 

Ar'ris, probably from risega, Ital., at 
the projection. The intersecting line of 
two planes cutting one another, and pre- 
senting a salient angle. 

Arronde'e. In htraldry, the curved 
cross, the arms of which terminate in the 

Arrow-root, » kind of starch, manu- 
factured from the roots of the ilaranta 
arundinacea, a native of South America, 
cultivated both in the East and "West In- 
dies ; also the popular name of the genus 
Maranta (q. v.) ; supposed to be an antidote 
to the poisonous arrows of the Indians. 

Ars'chin. 1. A Russian measure of 

length ^ 2§ feet English. 2. A Chinese 

measure of length = 302 Paris lines. 
Written also arskin. 

Arsen'i\te, a salt formed by the com- 
bination of the arsenic acid with a baso. 

Ar'sexic, at js-iw«o». Properly, tho name 
of a metal of a bluish- white or steel-gray 
colour ; brittle , of considerable brilliancy , 
and sp. gr. 6"6 ; but more frequently used 
to designate the white oxide of the metal, 
called by chemists arsenious acid, and in 
common white <tntn%c. Arsenic is met 

with abundantly in nature ; sometimes in 
its metallic state, occasionally in the state 
of an oxide, but more frequently united 
with sulphur, forming the native realgar, 
or native orpiment of mineralogists : with 
iron and sulpjhur forming arsenical pyrites, 
and along with cobalt and sulphur form- 
ing the mineral called cobalt pyrites, in 
which the arsenic predominates, and from 
the roasting of which the arsenioxis acid 
of commerce is obtained. 

The term oi^nvtxov, from which we 
derive the term arsenic, was an epithet 
applied anciently to those natural sub- 
stances which possessed strong and 
acrimonious qualities, as the poisonous 
quality of arsenic was found to be re- 
markably powerful ; the name wa» 
given especiiilly to the yellow sulphuret 
now called orpiment. 
Arsen'ii; Acid. 1 The only kno'wn 
Ahse'n-iocs Acid. ) compounds of ar- 
senic and oxygen are two, and they both 
possess acid properties. That which has 
the least oxygen is called arsenioiis add, 
and is the well-known and virulent poisoa 
called white arsenic, or simply arsenic, in 
commerce ; and the othf r, containing a 
larger quantity of oxygen, is called ar- 
senic acid. 

Amexite, a salt formed by the tinion 
of the arsenious acid with a base. 

Arsis, a.^cis, of eti^o), to raise. The 
raising of the voice in pronunciation; 
opposed to thesis. In the ancient music, 
arsis and thesis were applied to the lifting 
and falling of the hand in beating time. 

Ar'son, from Lat. ar deo, arsuin, to hum. 
In law, the act of -wilfully setting fire to 
a house or other property belonging to 
another person, which by the law of Eng- 
land is felony, and punishable with death. 
Art, Lat. ars, artis, the primary sense 
of which is strength and skill. The ap- 
plication of knowledge to practice ; hence 
we have useful or mechanical arts ; liberal, 
polite, or Jitie arts : the former requiring 
manual labour principally, the latter re- 
quiring the exercise of the mind more 
than of the body. 

The old division of the liberal arts 
(artes liberales) was— grammar, dialec- 
tics, rhetoric, music, arithmetic, geo- 
metry, and astronomy. 
Arteme'sia, wormwood, mngwort: 
southernwood. An extensive genus of 
plants. Syngenesia — Poly, superflua. Much 
used in medicine. Named from Queen 
Artemesia ; according to others, from Ar- 
temis, the Grecian Diana. 

ARTERioT'oMT,from oi^rx^iot,, an artery, 
and nuvet, to cut. The opening of an ar- 
tery for the purpose of abstracting blood ; 
only practised by modem surgeons on the 
temporal artery. 
Aa'TERY, from ««}{, air, and tk^w, to 




hold (the ancients supposed that theartc- 
ties ccntained air only). The arteriesare 
strong elastic canals, which convey the 
blood from the heart to the different 
parts of the body, and are during life dis- 
tinguiahed from the veins by pulsation. 
Tlw original arterial trunks are only two 
in number, the aorta (q. v.) and ihu pul- 
mmiary artery, which arises from the 
right ventricle of the heart. 

Arte'sian Wells, springs of water ob- 
tained by boring through strata destitute 
of water into other strata which contain 
it. Thus named from the operation hav- 
iiig been first practised in ArtoLs, the an- 
cient Artesium of France. 

AaxHKi'Tis, from a^fljoii, a joint. Any 
<Ji»ease that affects the joints, but gout 

Arturu'cace, from a^B»o¥, a joint, and 
i.itx%, vice. A collection of matter 
within the cavity of a bone. 

Arthro'dic, a connection of bones in 
^•hich the head of one is received into the 
lollow of another so as to admit motion 
Oi all directions. 
Arturudi'e.£, Gr., from u^Opo* , a joint, 
name given to those alga; which have 
an articulated structure. 

ARTnRoDV'Nic, Gr., from o^fljan, a joint, 
iJid eSocjj, pain — rheumatic and other 
painful affections of the joints. 

Ar'tichoke, the popular name of tbe 
Ct/nara scoli/mus which is extensively cul- 
tivated for culinary purposes. Th»; Jeru- 
saUm Artichoke is a species of heiianthus 
or sun-flower. 

The popular etymology of this word 
is, that any one unfortunate enough to 
get the artichoke into his throat would 
certainly be choked ! The word occurs, 
with little A'ariation of orthography, in 
most modem European languages. The 
Italians write carciofala, probably from 
lAt. carduus. 

Ar'ticle, from Lat. articului, a little 
joint. In law, to article is, 1. To acquire 
or charge by an exhibition of articles (e.g.) 
" He shall be articled against in the High 

Court of Admiralty," 33 Geo. III. 2. In 

tear, the code of military law embodied 
in the Mutiny Act, which is passed each 
year. 3. In theology, a point of Chris- 
tian doctrine established by the church 
(e.g.), the 39 Articles of the Church of 
England, which are founded upon certain 
nrticUs compiled and published in the 
reign of Edward VI. 

AuTic'uLAa, jointed, Lat. articulari*, 
appertaining to the joints. 

Articdla'ta, one of the great divisions 
of the animal kingdom. A primary di- 
vision of the animal kingdom, character- 
ised by an external skeleton consisting of 
a series of rings, uriiculated and sur- 
rounding J he body. The ihL-d in the 

arrangement of Cuvicr, embracing four 
classes : annulaia, Crustacea, arachuoides, 
and insecta. 

Artic'llate, Lat. artictdatut, jointed. 
Applied, 1. In grammar, to the sound.* 
made by opening and shutting the organi 
of speech ; thejunctlon of the organs form- 
ing a j oint or artic ulaflon. 2. In botany , 

to roots, stems, and other parts which are 
so united as if one piece grew out ol 

Artic'ci.atbd, Lat. artictdus, a joini. 
Connected by moveable joints, and in 
plants applied to parts so slightly con • 
nected, as finally to fall asimder, as la 
the case of a withered leaf. 

Artic'clating, fitting by means of 

Articulation, Lat. articulatio, of nrti- 
culus. The junction of bones, of which 
there are three kinds: synthrosis, diar- 
throsis, and amphi- arthrosis. In botany, 
the connection of the parts of a plant by 
joints, also the nodes or joints. In gram- 
mar, the distinct utterance of syllablci 
and words by the human voice. 

Articulation, the connections of the 
bones of a skeleton by joints. 

Artic'clus, a joint, Lat. dim. of artxu. 
In botany, a part lying between two knots 
in an articulated stem. The knots are 
also called articuli. 

Arti'ficer, Lat. ars, art, and /wmo, 1 
make. One who requires Intellectual re- 
finement in the exorcise of his profession, 
in distinction from an artisan, who may 
practise either the fine or useful arts 
without knowing more than the general 
rules of his art. 

Artiticial, contrived by art (an and 
facia). Artificial lines on a sector or scale 
are lines so contrived as to represent the 
logarithmic sines and tangents. Artifi- 
cial numbers are the same with logarithms. 

Artillery, from Fr. artilUrie, archery 
(primitively). Artillery denotes all can- 
non, mortars, howii/ers, petards, &c., to- 
gether with all apparatus thereto be- 
longing ; as also the art or science of 
managing the same, (more commonly 
called gimnery.) The same name is also 
given to the troops by whom these arms 
are served, being subsidiary to the in- 
strxmients. The artillery park is the place 
appointed for the encampment of the ar- 
tillery apparatus and troops for its ser- 
vice and defence. Flying artillery con- 
sists of light pieces, and is thus distin- 
guished from^Wd artillery. 

ARToCA,'RrE«, a tribe of dicotyledonous 
plants, of which the genus Artocarpu* is 
the type. 

Artoc.».r'pc8, the bread-frait tree: a 
genus of several species, of which the A. 
incifa, which grows to about the size of 
a small oak. Is the most celebrated. It is 
a native of the South Sea Islands, but it 

ASA 1 

now cultivated in other parts of the 
■world. The fruit, which is contained in 
a round catkin, is often as large as a 
man's head ; it is baked in an oven, and 
the rind being removed, the internal 
p.-vrts resemble the crumb of bread. It 
funns a substitute for bread in the coun- 
tries where it grows. 3Ioncecia — Monan- 
dria. Name, cce-n;, bread, and xagiros, 

Autot'^rites, a sect of the second cen- 
tury, in Galatia, which used bread and 
cheese in the eucharist ; hence the name, 
mfres, bread, and Tvpost cheese. 

Arts, plural of Art (q.T.) 

A'rum, an extensive genus of peren- 
nials, of which the only British type is the 
cackow-pint or wake-robin {A. macula- 
ium). Common in hedges. Moncecia — 
Polyandria. Xame, Af6», supposed to be 
an Egyptian word by which one of the 
tribe was known. 

Arunde'lian Marbi-xs, a scries of an- 
cient sculptured marbles, procured from 
the ruins of Greece, by AVilliam Petty, at 
the expense of the Earl of Arundel (1627), 
from whom they take their appellation. 
Their authenticity has been questioned. 

Ajiund!na.'ce.e, a natural tribe of 
plants, of which the genus Arundo is the 

Artjn'do, a Latin word meaning gene- 
rally a reed, but applied permanently by 
botanists to denote the reed-grass, an ex- 
tensive !genus of perennials of the class 
triandria, and order digynia. 

AxrspiCEs, plural of anigpex. The Ro- 
man priests, whose business it was to 
piedict events by examination of the en- 
trails of sacrificed animals. 

Arvi'cola, Lat. arvtim, a field, and 
eolere, to inhabit. A genus of rodent or 
gnawing animals, of the family of the rat 
and mouse. 

ARVTiB'NoiD, from Ic^vTKtva, a funnel, 
and i75o;, likeness. Funnel-shaped. Ap- 
plied to two cartilages of the larynx, and 
to the muscles and glands connected with 
these cartilages. 

As, a word used by the Romans to de- 
note, 1. .'Vny unit coivsidercd as divisible. 

2. The unit of wei;fht, or their pound 

(libra) divided into twelve ounces. 3. 

Their most ancient coin, originally a 
pound, but reduced linaUy to half-an- 

A'sAFCETiDA, from asa and fcetidus, fetid. 
A strongly fetid resinous gum, procured 
from the root of a large Umbelliferous 
plant (Fentla asiafcrtida) , which grows 
in some parts of Persia. It is much 
used in medicine 

Ajsarabac'ca, a popular name of the 
Atarum (q. v.) ; but more especially of the 
A Enrop<tutn, the root aind leaves of 
whicli are had from the shops under this 

2 ASC 

name. The powdered leaves fcrm the 
basis of most cephalic snuffs. Name, ata- 
rutn, and bacca, berries. 

As'arine, the name given by GOtz to 
the emetic principle of the asar'abacca. 

As'arvm, the asarabacca. A genus of 
perennials. Dodecatidria — Monogynia. 
Name, oc, not, and irat^ai, to adorn, being 
rejected from the ancient coronal -nTeaths. 
Asanim is also the pharmacopceial name 
of the asarabacca or Asanim Europeevm. 

Asbes'tos, \ a mineral of which there 

Asbes'tus, ) are several varieties, all 
marked by their fibrous and flexible qua- 
lities. The most celebrated are the ami- 
a/Uhus (q.x.), the mountain-cork, rock- 
wood, and mountain-u-ood. Asbestos is it- 
self a Tariety of hornblende. Named 
from oca-^ia-ro;, of a, not, and «-/3t»»y», 
to perish, in allusion to its incombusti • 

Ascal'aphus, a Fabrician genus of 
insects, characterised by having nearly 
equal palpi, distinct from the ant-lions o. 

As'cARis, the thread- worm, a genus of 
intestinal worms, foimd in all animals. 
The ascaridcs (plural of ascaris), are 
placed by Cuvicr in the order Nematoridae, 
and class Entozoa. Name, eurxccei^ei, 
to leap. 

AscEND' ns?>-o?o(7j(, the degree of 
the ecliptic above the horizon at one's 
birth. In Iciic, ascendants are opposed to 
the descendants in succession; e.g. when a 
father succeeds his son, an uncle his ne- 
phew, Ac, the inheritance is said to 
ascend, or go to ascendants. 

Ascend'ing, Lat. ascendens, rising. Ap- 
plied, 1. In botany, to leaves, stalks, &c. 

2. In astronomy, to such stars as are 

rising above the horizon in any parallel 
of the equator. Ascending latitude, the 
latitude of a planet when moving towards 
the north pole. Ascending node, that 
point of a planet's orbit wherein it passes 
the ecliptic to proceed northward ; other- 
wise called the northern node. The sym- 
bol is ^ . 

Ascen'sion, Jjat. ascensio, a rising. la 
astronomy, the right ascension of a star, 
&c. is that degree of the equator, reck- 
oned from the beginning of Aries, which 
comes to the meridian with the star in a 
right sphere. Oblique ascetision is an arc 
of the equator, intercepted between the 
first point of Aries, and of the point of the 
equator which rises with a star in an ob- 
lique sphere. The ascensional difference is 
the difference between the light and ob- 
lique ascension. 

Ascet'ics, a name given in old times to 
persons who devoted themselves to severe 
exercises of piety and penance. The term 
is taken from iLr*t)a-ts, exercise, u»rd by 




the Greeks to sismify the meapre diet of 
the aih!et4P, whu. to prepare themselves 
for the combat, abstained from many of 
the ordinary indnljrences. Hence, also, 
roany writinjrs on the spiritual exercise 
of piety are called ascetic writings. 

As'cT, Gr. from itf-«cf, a bottle. Small 
membranous bladders, in which are in- 
closed the seed-like, reproductive particles 
of lichens, fungi, &c. 

A3'ciA.s8, Lat. ascii, from a, without, 
and rx4», shadow. The inhabitants of 
the torrid zone, who at Meridian have no 

As'ciDi, ) a genus of naked acephalous 

AsciD'iA, i moUusca, found adhering to 
rocks, and other bodies in the oceanl 
Name, da-xof, a bottle, which the anima. 
m some degree resembles. 

Ascid'h.m, Lat. of ete-»ihot, a bottle. 
X'sed in hotamj to cypress a hollow ap- 
penda{ce resembling a small bottle, which 
occurs on the stem, leaves, &c. of some 

AscLEriADi'AN vBESE, SO Called from its 
Inventor Asclepias, consists of four feet 
and a half, of this kind, and in this order, 
viz. a spondee, a dactyl, a long syllable, 
then two dactyls, as : — 

11 2 li I 3 I 4 

Ascle'pias, the stcallotc-tcort, or tanie- 
pf)ison. A genus of plants — Pentandria — 
Diin/nia. Named after Ascltpias or ^sai- 
lapius. Several species are used in medi- 

Ai»H, AsH-TRFE, the frcuimts erceUior of 
botanists. A forest tree of which there 
are many varieties. The mountain-ash is 
the vyrus aucttparia of the botanist. 

Abhes, the residuum of any substance 
after it has been burnt ; but in commerce 
the term i'^ used to denote the ashes of 
vegetable '.ubstances, from which are ex- 
tracted the alkaline matters called pot- 
ash, peail-ash, barilla, kelp, &c. The 
term is Sax. afca, trora Goth. azga. and 
has no singular number. 

Ash'lar. 1. Free stones as they are 

brought from the quarry. 2. The facing 

of squared stones on the front of a build- 
ing. This facing when smooth is called 
pUme ashlar ; when wrought so as to ex- 
hibit parallel flutes, it is termed tooled 
afhlar; when the surfaces of the stones 
are cut with a broad tool, without regu- 
larity, it is said to be randcm-tcoled ; when 
wrought with a narrow tool, chiselled or 
hoasted, or if the tool be very narrow, the 
facing is said to be pointed ; and when the 
atones project from the joints, the ashlar 
is said to be rusticated. 

Ash'lerino, in carpentry, the fixing 
of short upright quartcrlngs in garret*, 
between the raftpj^ and the floor, in 

order to cut off the acute angles a; tVi< 

Asil'ici, a family of dipterous insects, 
of which the genus asilus is the type. 

As'iLrs, the homet-fty. A genus of dlp- 
tera, of which there are about 60 European 
species, many of which are known in 
Britain from their voracious habits. 
Name given by the ancients to the horse-ft^, 

AsLAN, I a name given to the Dutch 

Asla'ni, I dollar in some parts of ths 
Levant: it is worth from 115 to 12«J aspers. 
The word is of Turkish origin, signifying 
a lion, the figure stamped upon the com. 
Written a.\soasselani. 

AsMoDAi, the destroying angel of the 
Hebrew mythology, wriiiea Atxtddon. 

Asp, \ a species of viper foimd in 

Aspic, ) Egypt resembling the cobra da 
capello, or spectacle serpent of the East 
Indies: it is the coluber hqje of Lin., and 
vipera haje of Geoff. When the cervicai 
spine is compressed between the flnijer 
and the thumb, the animal becomes siifl 
and motionless : the trick is practised by 
the jugglers, and is called changing the 
serpent into a rod. 

Aspal'athcs, the African broom. A 
genus of shrubby plants which are native* 
of tropical countries. Diadelphia — Decan- 
dria. Name «<r3-aX«9«f, a thorny shrub, 
mentioned by the Greek and lloman 

Aspar'aoin, \ a peculiar principle ob- 

Aspar'agine, ) tained from the juice of 
the asparagus by evaporation. It crys- 
tallises in white transparent rhomboidal 
prisms. It consists of 8 Car 8 H -f- C O 
-f 2N, but the crystals included 2 atoms 
of water. It is identical witli the sub- 
stance called agedoite, obtained by Kobi- 
quet from liquorice root, and al»o with the 
althein discovered by Bacon. 

AsPARAoi'sEx, a natural family of 
plants, the genus asparagus is the type. 

AsPABAGixous PLANTS. Thosc cuUnary 
vegetables, of which the points of the 
tender shoots are eaten. 

Aspar'agcs, popularly named sparrow- 
grass. A genus of many species. Hex- 
andria — ilonogynia. Name aa-fra^ttyes , 
which denotes generally a young shoot 
before it unfolds its leaves. The only 
British type of this genus is the A. offici- 
nalis, the favourite culinary vegetable. 

As'pECT, Lat. aspcctus, of ad ar.J sperio. 
1 . In astronomy, the situation of the planeta 
and stars with respect to each other. 
There are five aspects : 1st, sextile, marked 
i|C, when the planets are 60® distant; 
2nd, quadrile, Q , at 90° ; 3rd, trine, A . 
when 120'; 4th, opposition. § , when 
180" ; and 5th, conjunction, O , when both 
in the Nune defrte. The Mpecu wet* 




introduced into astronomy by the old 
astrologers, and were distinguished by 
them into benign, malignant, and indif- 
ferent. 2. In architecture, the direction 

towards the point of the compass in which 

a building is placed. 3. In horticulture, 

tised in reference to the inclination of the 
pround with respect to the sun. 

As'pEN, aspen-tree, called also the 
trembling poplar, from the trembling of 
Its leaves when moved by the slightest 
Impulse of air, is the popiUtis tremula of 
the botanist. The name is Sax. sefpe, 
restless. The aspen grows in all soils, but 
especially mijist. 

AsrEROEi/nM, a genus of testaceous 
acephala: animal lives in the sand, and 
inhabits a calcareous tube seven or eight 
inches in length ; hence the name asper- 
ffiUum, " a holy water-stick" (to sprinkle 
holy water), and aspergilliform, applied to 
any shaped like that instrument. 

As'PERiFo'n*, a natural family of 
plants characterised as asperifolious. 

As'peruo'lious, Lat. asperifolius , rough- 
leaved, asper &nAfolius, a leaf. 

Asve'rmois, a, without, and e-jiofjux^ 
•eed. Destitute of seed. 

AsPHALT.-os,-UM, native bitumen, so 
called because anciently procured only 
from the Lake Asphaltites (Dead Sea) in 
Judea. Hence called ai.00 Jew's Pitch 
{bitximen Judaicum). See Bitumen. 

Instead, however, of the lake giving 
name to the bitumen, it is probable 
that the bitumen ga ve n ame to the lake , 
and that eca-CaXre;, the general Greek 
word for bitumen, is derived from 
aF^kiica, to make secure, the sub- 
stance being used as pitch is with us 
for ships. 

Asphode'le;b, a natural order of plants 
of which the genus asphodelus is the type. 
AsPHODKLus, the asphodel, a genus of 
hardy exotic perennials, the best known 
of which is the branched asphodel or 
king's spear (A. ramosus), used medi- 
cinally. Hexandria — Monogynia. Name, 
aur^ohiki? , of uncertain origin. 

Aspht'xt, Lat. asphyxia, of a, without, 
and c^t/l*?, pulse. Literally, absence of 
pulse, but applied usually to that state in 
which the vital phenomena are sus- 
pended, from some cause interrupting 
respiration, but in which life is not ac- 
tually extinct. 

Aspic. 1. The asp (q.v.) 2. A gun 

which carries 121b. shot. 

Aspid'icm, the shield-fern, an exten- 
sive genus of ferns of which there are up- 
wards of 15 British species. Name 
i<rr;3»!f . a shield, which the involucres 

As'j'iBATB. spiritus asper. In grammar, 
an accent peculiar to the Greek lan- 

guage, marked • and denoting that the 
letter over which it is placed should be 
strongly aspirated, i. e. pronounced as if A 
were prefixed. 

Asple'nium, the spleenwort. an exten- 
sive genus of perennials of which there 
are 10 British species. Cryptogamia — 
Filices. Name of a, not, and g-trXrit, the 
spleen, some of the plants being supposed 
useful in removing disorders of the spleen. 
Leek-fern or black maiden hair, milt- 
waste, mules-fern, wall-rue or tent-fern, 
&c., are species. 

A^'rael, an angel in the Mohammedan, 
mythology, who watches the souls of the 

Ass, this well-known animal is a na- 
tive of the deserts of central Asia. It be- 
longs to the equine gen»is of the solipede 
family of pachydermata : Cuvier. Latin 
name asiyius, native name onager. 

As'sAi, an Italian term used in music, 
which, when annexed to a word mean- 
ing slow, signifies a little more lively, and 
Mhen apnexed to a word meaning quick, 
it indicates a little slower. 

As's.vRT, in the old laws. 1. A tree 

plucked up by the roots. 2. The offence 

of grubbing up trees. 3. A piece of 

forest land cleared. Assart rents were 
paid to the crown for lands assarted. 
Assart is from the old Fr. word assartir^ 
which was latinised assartum. 

AssAs'siNS, a tribe or clan of Ismael 
ites which took possession of the moun- 
tains of Lebanon about 1090, and be 
came famous for their assassinations. 

Assac'lt, aasulttis. 1. In law, an at 
tempt or offer to do corporeal hurt to 
another, as by striking at him with or 
without a weapon, without touching hia 
person. If the person be actually struck 

it is battery. 2. In war, an effort made 

to carry a fortified post, camp, or for- 
tress, wherein the assailants do not 

screen themselves by any works. 3. 

In fencing, a mock engagement with single 

Assa't, Assa'ting. The process by 
which the quantity of gold or silver in 
any mineral or metallic compound is de- 
termined. It differs from analysis in 
this: — the analysis is instituted for the 
purpose of ascertaining the exact pro- 
portions of all the ingredients in the com- 
pound, whereas the whole object of the 
assay is to determine the precise amount 
of the particular metal in question, con- 
tained in the specimen under examina- 
tion. The purposes of assaying were, till 
lately, confined to the valuation of the 
alloys of gold and silver, but are now ex- 
tended to determine the quantity of pal- 
ladium and platinum in certain bullion 
and gold dust brought from Brazil. The 
term is from Fr. atiayer, to try. 




Assi'x ba'l4nce, a very delicate ba- 
lance employed in chemical analysis, and 
80 called from its being tirst employed In 
assaying metals. It ought to indicate 

Assem'blt, Ft. assembUe, any convoca- 
tion. The general assembly of the church 
of Scotland is an ecclesiastical court com- 
posed of deles^ates from every Presbytery, 
univertiiy, and royal burgh in Scotland. 
In viilitan/ language, assembly means the 
second beating of the drum before a march. 

AssEss'OR, in Scotch late, a person who 
sits along with the judges In the inferior 
courts, and assists with his professional 
knowledge in the decisions pronounced. 

Asse'ts, from Fr. awei, enough. 1. 
Property placed for the discharge of some 
particular obligation or trust in the hands 

of executors, assignees, &c. 2. The 

stock in trade and the entire available 
property belonging to a merchant or 
trading company. 

-^-ssies'to, a Spanish word signifying a 
co*itract or treaty, and used to denote the 
contract or agreement by which the Spa- 
ri.iK government ceded, first to the French, 
and aiterwards (by the treaty of Utrecht) 
to a. company of English merchants, 
called the cutieiUo company, the right of 
imrorting slaves into the Spanish colo- 
nies in America, on payment of certain 
duties. Ships so employed were called 
atnento thips. 

Assto's AT , the name of the French paper 
currency in the time of the French revo- 
lution, which by over-issue (40,000 mil- 
lions), after a while, became of no value. 

Assioka'tion, a Russian paper money 
used since 1769. There are assignations 
for 6, 10, 25, 50, and 100 rubles, but the no- 
minal and real values are such that; in 
1809, four assignation-rubles were paid 
fr onp ruble silver money. 

amione'e, a person appointed by com- 
petent authority to transact some busi- 
ness, or exercise some particular privi- 
lege or power , on accoimt of some specified 
person or persons. The term is most com- 
monly applied to the creditor of a bank- 
rupt appointed to manage for the rest of 
the creditors, and who has the bankrupt's 
estate assigned over to him. This person 
is called trustee in Scotland. 

Assize, Fr. assizes, of Lat. ad and sedeo. 
1. In the middle ages, the name given to 
assemblies, and especially to courts for 
the administration of justice to vassals 
and freemen. 2. In England, the ses- 
sions of the court of justice held by the 
judges in the counties are called assizes. 
At these assizes the judges sit under five 
different commissions, some of which 
relate to civil and others to criminal 
causes. Tlic first is the commission of 
assize, from which the session derives its 

name, and by \*Tiich they are authorised 
to take assizes in the several counties; 
that is, to take the verdict of the particu- 
lar kind of jury called an assize, and sum- 
moned to decide certain cases respecting 

the titles of land. 3. In Scotch law, a 

jury of fifteen sworn men, picked out 
from the court by a greater number, not 
exceeding forty-five, who have been 
summoned by the sherififfor that purpose 
A list of these is given to the defender 
when a copy of the libel is served upon him. 

Assize of Novel Disseisin, a writgivea 

to recover possession of lands, tenements 
&c.,of which the tenant has been lately 

disseised. Assize of Mart d' Ancestor, lies 

against an abator, who enters upon land 
after the death of the tenant and before 
the heir enters. Assize of darrein Pre- 
sentment, lies against a stranger who pre- 
sents a clerk to a benefice. Assize of 

Bread, the price of bread as formerly re- 
gulated by statute, in proportion to the 
price of wheat. 

Associa'tion. 1. In psvc)iology,&n\mt 
given to that property of the mind, by 
which any object or state of consciousness 
has a tendency to recall other states or 
objects of consciousness with which it 

has been formerly connected. 2. In 

politics, a society formed of a number of 
individuals acting under common rules 
and an elective government, for the ac- 
complishment of some definite object. 

As'soNANCE. In rhetoric and poetry, a 
resemblance in termination without mak- 
ing rhyme, called by the Romans similiter 
desinens, and by the Greeks ofAoioTtXitiro*. 

As'soNAST Rbtmes, iu Spanish poetry, 
are those in which the vowels only are 
required to rhyme, as ligera, tierra, 

Asscm'psit, a Latin word meaning ^e 
undertook, used in English law to denote 
an action to recover a compensation in 
damages for the non-performance of a 
parol promise ; i. e. a promise whether 
verbal or written, not contained in a deed 
under seal. The word is taken as the 
name of the action, from its occurrence in 
declarations of the plaintiffs cause of 

action when these were in Latin. 

Assumpsits are either express or implied, 
according as the contract is actually ex- 
pressed by words, or inferrable from some 
benefit accruing to one person from the 
acts (as the labour) of another. 

Asscm'ptios, Lat. assumptio. The fes- 
tival by which the Roman and Greek 
Catholic Churches celebrate the miracu- 
lous ascent of the Virgin Mary on the Ifttb 
of August. 

AsscM'rxtTE, Lat. astumptius, can be 
assumed. In htraldry, assumptive arms 
are such as a person has a right, with the 
approbation of his sovereiun and the 
heralds, to assume in cor.4equ(.>act of tusu 




Aasc'RANce, insurance ; a contract to 
make good a loss {See Insc^asce;. — In 
law, legal evidence of the conveyance of 
property. — lu theology, full confidence in 
possessing an actual interest in the divine 
favour. The root of this class of words is, 
Fr. sir, sure, certain 

As'tac cs, da-rxxot. Cancer marinus (Plin. 
9. 31). A gen us of Crustacea, constituting 
Cuvier'8 family Macroura ;iong- tailed), 
and divided into four sections, each con- 
sisting of numerous sub-genera. In one 
cf these (the Pagurus) we find the Her- 
mit [Cwu'er Bertihardus, Lin.), which in- 
habits a univalve shell : it is common in 
the European seas. 1 n another (the Asta- 
eus, Fab.) is the common lobster (A. mari- 
nuii. The fresh- water species are known 
ty the name of Craw-fish. Among these 
are also the shrimp {Crangon], and the 
prawn 'Palcemon). See Cancer. 

Astak'ie, a Syrian goddess, probably 
corresponding to the Semele of the Greeks, 
the Aataroth of the Hebrews, and the Juno 
of the Romans. 

Astat'ic, from xcrctrei, balanced. The 
Astatic needle is a double magnetic needle, 
not affected by the earth's magnetism. 

As'TEisM.fromaiTTSiOf, polite. In rhe- 
toric, " polite irony," " genteel derision." 

As'TEa, a genus of syngenesious plants, 
of the order Poly, superfltia, containing up- 
wards of 150 species, mostly hardy peren- 
nials. The sea .Starwort or Michaelmas 
daisy (,A. tripoUum) , found in salt-marshes, 
is a bad type, and the only one which in- 
habits Britain. Name, aster, a star, 
which the flowers resemble. 

Aste'ria, from aster, a star. 1. A va- 
riety of sapphire, not perfectly transpa- 
rent, and showing a star-like opalescence 
in the direction of the axis, if cut round. It 
is sometimes called cat's eye and bastard 
opal. 2. The generic name of the star- 
fish or sea-star, so called because the body 
is divided into rays (usually five), in the 
centre of which, and underneath, is the 
mouth. The asterias have the power of 
reproducing the rays which have been 
removed, even if only the centre and one 
of the rays remain : for this reason their 
figure is often irregular. They are placed 
by CuvJer in the order Pendieellata and 
class £chinodermala,jot the radiated ani- 
mals or zoophytes. They inhabit the 
ocean, and are frequently found fos- 

AsTER'iAtiTE.fossilised asterias or star- 
fish : ikffTY.f, a star, and \iQo;, stone. 

Aste'rios and Chara [canes tetiatici}, 
the greyhounds. A constellation occupy- 
ing the space between BoOtes and the hind 
lege of Ursa Major, particularly distin- 
ffuishcd by a star of the third magnitude 
(Wiled Cor Carcli, in honour of Charles I.), 
in the neck of Chara. 

AsTERiTs, 'v siar-stone, ctff'r>if, a star, 

As'trite, .and X/^af, stone. I. Th« 

As'troite, ' same with asteria. See As- 
teria, 1st dcf. 2. Used to denote de- 
tached articulations of oncrites. This is 
especially the application of the French 
word astroite. 

AsTEK.>', in nautical language, tOTirda 
the after-part of the ship, opposed to a- 
head (q. v.>. 

As'TiROiDS, from afTTrjp, » 8t»r, and 
elSoJ, likeness. The name given by Her- 
schel to the little planeti between the orbits 
of M»rs and Jupiler, now called Plank- 
ToiPS, q. *. 

Asthsnol'ogt, from air8i»o;,, 
and >.oy6{, discussion. The doctrine of 
diseases arising from debility. 

As'thest, Lat. asthenia, debility; «•• 
without, and trQivot, strength. 

As'thma {xa-d/xa,)- A disease character 
ised by difficulty of breathing, recurrinn 
in paroxysms, accompanied with cough 
and a sense of constriction in the chest. 

As'tragal, in architecture, a small 
moulding, having a semicircular profile, 
usually surrounding the top or bottom ol 
a column, and representing a ring, to 
prevent the splitting of the part which it 
binds. — The ring or moulding near the 
mouth of a canon. — In analomy and 60- 
tany — See Astragalus. 

AsTRAG'ALrs, Gr of aVrjayoAef, the 
ankle-bone. 1. That bone of the tarsui 
upon which the tibia moves, called popu- 
larly the sling-bone. 2. In botany, a 

genus of plants of which there are three 
British species, known by the populuj 
name of the milk-vetch : perennials. Dia- 
delphia — Decandria. The seeds are gup- 
posed to bear some resemblance to the 
astragalus of the foot. — The gum traga- 
canth or gum dragon is derived from a 
Persian species, the goat's horn(.4.fenw). 

Astran'tia, the black-master-wort. A 
genus of hardy European perennials. 
Pentandria — Digynia. Named from a^- 
<r«>/j, a star, from the star-like shape of 
the flowers. 

Astrin'gest, Lat. astringens, binding. 
Appliedto medicines, which when applied 
to the body, renders the solids denser, by 
contracting the fibres. The astringent 
principle of vegetable substances is tan- 

As'trolabe, from ottrr^iii, a star, and 
Aa/Se/v, to take. 1. An instrument for 
measuring angles, and formerly used for 
taking the altitude of the sun or stars. It 
consists of a circular plate with the de 
grees and minutes marked round the 
edge, and a moveable index, with a sight 
glass at each end. The instrument i« 
suspended when used. 2. An old 8ter# 



«^aphic projection of th? 
sphere, equivalent to the modern armii- 
Liry sphere. 

Astrol'ogt, from eterrftft a star, and 
Xoyo(. discussion. This term, in its more 
extended sense, is synonymous with astro- 
nomy, but it haspo'neraily been emp3,iyed 
to denote the pseudo-science which pro- 
fesses to explain the phenomena of nature 
by astral influences, and to predict future 
events, especially the character and fate 
of persons, from the aspects or relative 
positions of the heavenly bodies. This 
latter department was called Judicial as- 

Astron'omt, from ewr^ey, a star, and 
fouof, law. The science which treats of 
the heavenly bodies, their motions, posi- 
tions, magnitudes, and all consequent 
phenomena. It is founded on observation, 
and perfected by calculation. See Table 

As'troscope, from ecg-r^cv, a star, and 
pxoTUt, to view. An astronomical instru- 
ment consisting of two cones, on the sur- 
faces of which the constellations are deli- 
neated according to their respective posi- 
tions in the heavens, so that by observing 
any particular star, and the position of 
another with regard to it, that other may 
be known by reference to the astroscope. 

As'ttb, a genus of accipitrine birds, 
including the goshawks and sparrow- 
hawks. Name anciently applied to the 

A*T''-rM, from aavXit, of a, not, and 


avi^ajii. to plunder. A place where per- 
sons find protection. The name wa* an- 
ciently given to temples, statues of the 
gods, and altars where criminals ami 
debtors sheltered themselves from justice, 
it being sacrilege forcibly to remove 
them. In modern times the name is given 
to many charitable institutions, for 'the 
relief of orphans, and persons who are 
blind, dumb and deaf, lunatic, &c. 

Astm'metry, from at, not, and ffvf/-fju- 
rj/at, symmetry. A want of proportion 
between parts. Applied in mathematics in 
the same sense as incommensurability, 
e.g. 1 : v^2. 

Astm'ptote, from a, not, and ovfir- 
trt^ru, to fall together (coincide). Aright 
or straight line which continually ap- 
proaches a curve, but which, though both 
were infinitely extended, would never 
meet it ; or it may be regarded as a tan- 
gent to the curve, when infinitely pro- 
duced, or at an infijiite distance. See 

Asyn'deton, from «, not, and avviim, 
to bind together. A grammatical figure, 
which omits the connective, in order to 
render the expression more forcible and 
lively, as teui,ridi, vici. 

At'abal, a Spanish word, meaning a 
kettle-drum, and used to designate a kind 
of tabor. 

Atac'amite. prismatoidal green mala- 
chite ; a native muriate of copper. It 
takes its name from its being found in al- 
luvial sand in the river of l.ipus. In the 


Sidereal Mwn 'InelinaMonof Mean 1-3 • .3? 

Revolutioni Distance I Orbiu to • Orbital s * * °^ 

in mean firom the Plane of iVelocily h § ^ <• 

Bolardayt. Sun. Ecliptic, per hour eS>?^ 

18«0. m mile*. -"£-55 

[ Vcw;an(?) 
I Maacvay . 
j Vbncs . 

Mabs .... 

Plarietoids", .. .. 
Jt'piTKR . I 4S89-.'^84804S 
I Satuks .. 10:S9-2197106 
rBANii .. i-t^-^e 8205v56 
Narru.NB.. 6jl-X-7iti 

6S6-9, 94561 


5-2()!2:67 I 

191^2390 , 

70 c 
30 Si' 
00 c 

1» 18'' 

0" 4«'' 















J 5-6 







1-000 ! 
»-iir2 i 


I o-aai 

0-9 60 
0-1 64 


• Vesta, Juno, Ceres, and Pallai were discovered ia the early part tf the i9H) century, 
and a numerous set uf discoveries of other planetoids, or small planets, forming with these 
part of the remarkable group between Mars and Jupiter with orbits at a great deviation 
from the plane of the ecliptic, bare since been made An attempt to give them namlei 
failed, as up to 1876 they ba<l reached the vast number of about 156, and the simpler 
mef'od has been adopted of indicating them by an easily remembered distinction and s 
•ymbol, t.e., by placioK their number in the ^rder of discorery within a small circle. 




desert of Alac'an.a, in Peru. rrUnitivc 
foim, (Ktohedron. 

A'tar. When the petals of roses are 
intmersed in Mater and disiilli-d, there 
separates a small portion of frasrrant bu- 
tyraceous oil, which liquefies by heat, and 
appears yellow, but concretes in the cold 
into a white mass. This is called atar of 
roses, and is highly prized as a perfume. 

Ateles, nTi\r,i, irritus, impfrjtctut. 
Krande has it, " A genus of South Ame- 
rican monkeys, characterised by the 
absence of the thumb of the anterior 
hand, for the want of which they are 
sutBciently compensated by a very effi- 
cient-prehensile tail." 

AtellVn* Fauui.x, a species of co- 
medy, which oririnatcd among the Oscan 
inhabitants of Caiupauia, from the town 
Atella, which gave it its name. 

A Tempo Gusto. (In tempore jtisto). 
Ail Italian phrase used in music to signify 
in equal time, or just time. A tempo, at 
the same time. 

Ates'chus, agenus of pentamerous cole- 
optera, two of the species of which were 
•worshipped by the ancient Egyptians, and 
form a conspicuous feature in their syst«m 
of hieroglyphics. They were also figured 
on all their monuments, and separately 
on the most precious metals, and were 
used as seals and as amulets, which were 
suspended to the neck, and buried with 
the mummies. Atenchi are also found in 
Bome of theircofflns. One of the species, 
A. sacer, is an object of superstitious dis- 
tinction, even in Europe. 

Athal'amous, Gr. from «, without, and 
BaXotfju*!, a bed. Lichens whose thallus is 
not furnished with shields or beds for the 
spores, but whose reproductive matter is 
supposed to be dispersed through the ab- 
sence of the crust, as in l.p^arxa. 

Athaman'ta, a genus of European per- 
ennials, of which the Candy carrot 
'brought from the island of Candy), and 
the black mountain parsley, used in me- 
dicine, are species. Pentandria — Digynia. 
Named from the country of the Atha- 
manies, in Epirus. 

Athana'sian Creed, the exposition of 
faith composed by Hilary, bishop of Aries 
(430), and formerly attributed to Athaua- 
sius, bishop of Alexandria. 

A'theism, from «, without, and ©£ej, 
God. The doctrine which teaches the 
non-existence of a Supreme Intelligent 
Being. Opposed to theism and deism. As 
a manner of thinking with regard to re- 
ligion, it is the opposite of faithand belief. 

Athe'n-Sum. A8r,veciov. In antiquity, 
I. The school which Adrian established 
on the Capitoline Mount. 2. A gym- 
nasium at Athens. In modern times, a 

name given to different establishments 
connected with literature or the sciences. 

Athe»ic'era, a family of dipterous in- 
sects in the system of Cuvicr, generally 
found on foliage, comprehending th« 
modem families Syrphidae, Aslridce, Co- 
nopidai, and Muscida;. Kame frcm e^(, 
acute, and «£»«, a horn. 

Atheri'na, a genus of abdominal fishes, 
the b'^st known of which, Hepfetvs, is 
found abundantly in the Mediterranean. 

Ather'oma, I eidi^ofjCM of a(/a§«, pap. 

Athero'me, ) An encysted tumour, 
which contains a substance of a pulpy 

Athle't.*, combatants who took part in 
the public games of Greece, and made 
wrestling and boxing their business. 
From oiiOXoi, contest. 

Athwa'kt (from a and twert, traverse}, 
in natitical language, across the line of a 
ship's course. Athwart ships, reaching 
across the ship from side to side, or in 
that direction. 

Athwa'rt-Hawse, the situation of a 
ship when she is driven by the wind, 
tide, or other accident, across the fore- 
part of another. Athwart the fore-foot, 
denotes the flight of a cannon-ball from 
one ship across the course of another to 
intercept that other, and make lier 
shorten sail. 

Atlan'tides. I. In astronomy, the 
Pleiades (q.v.). 2. In nrrhitecture, sta- 
tues of men used to support entablature* 
with mutules, otherwise called alioiei. 

At'las. 1. In the Greek mythology, a 
Titan condemned by Jupiter to tear the 

vault of heaven. 2. In atuitotny, the 

first vertebra of the neck which support* 
the head, as Atlas did the heavens: 

3. A collection of maps to which a pic- 
ture of the fable is usually prefixed. 

4. In commerce, a beautiful silk manufac- 
ture of the East Indies. 5. In architec 

tare, see Atlantides t2nd def.). 

Atmom'eter, from ur/xoi, vapour, and 
f^ir^ttu, to measure. An instrument con- 
trived by Sir J. Leslie to measure the 
quantity of vapour e.vhaled from a humid 
surface in a given time. 

At'mosphere, from cctiuu?, vapour, and 
irif ot'.^a, a sphere. The body of air which 
surrounds the earth. {See Air.) In a 
wider sense, it is that mass of elastic 
fluid with which any body is surrounded. 
Hence we speak of an atmosphere of the 
sun, of the moon, of electric bodies, &c. 
Atmosphere, one, two, &c., means a pres- 
sure of 15 lbs., 30 lbs., &c., on the square 
inch, resulting from condensation. The 
force of steam, weight of flu.ds, &c., are 
often so estimated. 

Atom, Atoju,o; (from at, not, ar.d nu^ru 
to cut), one of the elementary particles ot 
matter, and so small as to be iiicap tMe ot 
further division. See Molecule anJ Co&- 




prBcri-B. Component aiomi, are those 
atoms which, being different in their na- 
ture, united fonn a third or compound 
atom. Thus the atoms of sulphur and 
oxygen are the component atoms of sul- 
phuric acid. Organic atoms are the atoms 
of substances found only in organic 

Atom'ic rniLosopHT. See CoRPrscuLE. 

Atom'ic Theory. See Euuivale.nts. 

ATRAc'TYLEs.thedistaff-tliisile, a genus 
of European plants of five species. 
Sj/ngmesia — Poly, aqtialis. Name from 
ar^axroi, a distaff. A species, called the 
pine-thistle, is used for diseases of the 

Atrip, a nautical term applicable to 
the anchor when it is drawn perpendi- 
cularly out of the ground, and to the sails 
■when hoisted to the top of the mast. 

Atrip'lex, the orache. A genus of plants 
of which there are seven British species, 
mostly inhabiting muddy sea-shores and 
salt-marshes. Polygamia — Monacia. 
Name from », not, and T^a(fuv, to nou- 
rish, and written by the Greeks 

A'trivm, aiO^iof, exposed. In ancient 
architecture considered the same as the 

Atro'pa., a genus of plants of which 
the deadly nightshade or dwall (A. bel- 
ladonna), is a species. Pentandria — 3Io- 
nogitnia. Named from Ar^ovo;, the eld- 
est of the Parcee or Fates, in allusion to 
its deadly quality. 

At'rophy, from et, not, and r^i^u, to 
nourish. A wasting of the body or any 
particular part of it, in consequence of 
some derangements of the functions of as- 
similation and absorption. 
■ At'ropia, 1 a peculiar vegetable salt, 

At'ropine, I obtained from the Atropa 
belladonna. It is tasteless, alkaline, and 
highly poisonous, and is soluble in boiling 

At'ta, a subgenus of formica (q.T.), in- 
cluding some of the largest species of 
ants (some an inch in length of body). 
The visiting ant (formica cephalotes, Lin.), 
of South America, is the type of the 
genus, and receives its name trom its 
habit of visiting in troops the houses of 
the residents, who open their doors and 
receive it gladly, a* it consumes or drives 
away not only the cockroaches and spi- 
ders, but even mice and rats. 

Attac'la, an Italian word meaning 
attach, and used in music to signify that 
a passage is to follow another imme- 
diately ; e. g., attacca allegro. 

Attach', Attachment. (TT.attacher,to 
fasten.) In English late, to attach, means 
to take or apprehend a person by virtue 
of a writ or precept. Attachment dif- 
fers from arreit by proceeding out of a 

higher court, by precept or writ, whereat 
the latter proceeds out of an inferior 
court by precept only; and further, an 
arrest lies only against the body of a 
man, whereas the attachment often lies 
only against the goods, and may lie 
against both body and goods. Attach- 
ment is also a mode of punishing con- 
tempts. [See Contempt.) The first no- 
tice to appear in a Court of Equity is by 
summons. If the defendant disobeys thla 
monition, a writ of attachment issues, 
commanding the sheriff to attach him, by 
taking gage or security of goods, which 
he forfeits by non-appearance, or by 
making him find securities for his ap- 
pearance. Attachment for this cause is 
not made in courts of law, for should the 
defendant not appear when summoned, 
his default is noted and judgment is given 
against him. Attachments are issued by 
courts of law for various kinds of con- 
tempts, but in all the use is to bring the 

offender into court. Foreign Attachment 

is the attachment, by a creditor, of a debt 
due to his debtor from a third party ; It 
is so called from its being one of the 
modes of securing debts due by foreigners. 
In Scotland, it is called assisting the debt. 
In London the process is called garnish- 
ment or warning, the person suumioned 
being the garnishee. 

Attain'der, (Nor. Fr. atteindre, to cor- 
rupt). In law, the corruption of blood 
consequent upon a persons being ad- 
judged guilty of a capital offence ; the 
law thereby sets a mark of infamy upon 
him, and takes no further concern about 
him than to have him executed. A sta- 
tute attainting a person is called an act 
of attainder. 

Attaint', a writ at the common law 
which lies to inquire whether a jury have 
given a false verdict : it is so called be- 
cause the party who obtains it endeavours 
to taint the character of the jury. 

Attejjd'ant, accompanying. In lata, 
depending on or owing service to. In 
»nt«t<r, applied to the keys on the fifth 
above, and the fifth ^or fourth) above any 
given key. 

ATTEN'rATED, Lat. n«en«<i<t«, tapcring : 
applied to parts of plants &c. : dispropor- 
tionably slender ; thinned. 

Attesca'ti-s. When the thickness of a 
part diminishes in some direction, it is 
often used in the sense of narrowed or 

Attic, Lat. 4«t<nM,ofATT/««f- Pertain- 
ing to Attica, or its capital Athens. 

At'tic Salt, a delicate, poignant kind 
of wit peculiar to the old Athenians. In 
architecture, an attic denotes a low story 
erected over an order of architecture by 
way of crowning. — An Attic base consist* 
of an upper and lower torsus, a scotla 




and lUlets between ihem, used byaacient 
architects in the Ionic order, and some- 
times in the Doric. — Attic order is a term 
sometimes used to denote the pilasters 
employed in the decoration of an attic 
story. — An attic story is the upper story 
of a house. 

Atti'rb. 1. Dress. 2. Horns of a 

deer. 3. The sexual parts of plants. 

Attol'lent, Lat. attollens, lifting up ; 
applied to muscles which raise the parts 
they are affixed to. 

ATTo'iiNEy, Lat. attomatus ; one ap- 
pointed by another to transact some 
business in his name and stead. An at- 
torney is either public or special; the 
former is one who is authorized by the 
rules of the court to represent suitors 
without any especial written authority 
for the particular case — a special attorney 
is appointed by a deed called a power, 
uarrant, or letter of uHomey, which is a 
eommission from the principal specifying 
the acts for which he, the principal, wUl 
hold him.self liable on their being per- 
formed by the attorney. 

ATTOR'NEY-GEN'ERAt, a principal law- 
oflBcer appointed to manage alllaw affairs 
on the part of the government. 
Attorn'ment, 1 Lat. aitomamentum, 
Attourn'ment, ( (from Fr. tourner). In 
Xi-glish law, the actof a feudatory vassal 
or tenant, by which he consents, on the 
alit-nation of an estate, to receive a new 
lord or superior. 

Attrac'tion, Lat. attractio, a drawing 
to. ad and Iraho. The tendency which 
btKlies have to come together, or the 
principle which inclines them to unite 
and remain in union. (Sec Atfinitt.) 
The terms attraction and repulsion in 
the language of modem philosophy are 
employed merely as the expression of the 
general facts that fhe masses or particles 
of matter have a tendency to approach or 
recede from each other under certain cir- 
cumstances. The term aflBnity has been 
used synonymously with attraction, but 
it is now generally restricted to chemi- 
cal attraction, while the termgraviti/ is 
used to designate that influence which 
one mass of matter exerts over another 
at sensible distances (See Gravity). 
Whether the several kinds of attraction 
are referable to one and the same 
cause is still aa open question ; all that 
is at present known is, that they give 
rise to diflferent phenomena, and appear 
to operate according to different laws. 
At us, is a Latin termination; Angli- 
cised ate or ated, and denotes the presence 
of something general ; e. g. ulatta, Ang. 
<ilate, winged. The same applies to itus. 
AuBAifE, Fr. aubain, an alien. The 
dmit d'Aubaine was a French law, by 
which the king became heir to an alien 
dying witliin liis jurisdiction. 

Avcn n'.N i » , a (jenus of ruminant animals 
allied to the camel : the species are two. 
the Lama and the Paco, both natives of 

Arcc'BAjthe Gold-Plant, %\ir\s\i; native 
of Japan. Moncecia — Tetrandria. 

Aude'anism, anthropomorphism; the 
doctrine of Audeus. 

Au'dience, Lat. audienfia, of audio, to 
hear. 1. The ceremonies practised in 
courts at the admission ot ambassadors 

and public ministers to a hearing. 2. A 

court held in Kngland by an archbishop 
whenever he chooses to call up a cause to 

be argued before himself. 3. In Spain, 

a court of oyer and terminer. 

Au'ditor, a Latin word denoting a 
hearer ; and in the language of the ancient 
law, an officer of courts whose duty it was 
to interrogate the parties. In England, 
the term is employed as the designation 
of certain officers who examine accounts, 
compare the charges with the vouchers, 
interrogate parties, allow or reject 
charges, and state the balance. Accotxnts 
80 examined are said to be audited, and 
the process is called auditing. 

Atr'DiTORV, Lat. auditorium. 1. A seat 
or bench where a magistrate or jud;;e 

hears causes. 2. That part of an ancient 

church where the people sate, now called 

the nave. 3. Belonging to fhe parts 

connected with the sense of hearing ; e. g. 
the auditory nerves. 

A0'oiTE, a mineral of a dark green, 
brown or black colour, of which the most 
remarkable varieties are Diopside,Sah- 
lite, Coccolite and Omphazite ; the Ziller- 
thal.used in jewelry, is also a variety. It 
occurs in volcanic rocks, crystallised in 
six or eight sided prisms, terminated by 
dihedral stmimits. J^amefrom iuyi} (Pia. 
37, 16), splendo::r. It is the pyroxene of 
Hatty, and the puratomous augite-spar cf 

Acgmenta'tion, from Lat. augmen, in- 
crease. In mtisic, a doubling the value of 
the notes of the subject of a fugue or 
canon. In heraldry, additional charges to 
a coat-armour. The Augmentation Court 
was a court erected by 27 Hen. VIII., to 
augment the revenues of the crown by 
the suppression of monasteries ; abolished. 

AuocRs were certain priests among the 
Romans, who from the flight and ciios <•{' 
birds, from lightning, &c., pretended to 
foretell future events, and announce the 
will of the gods. 

An'otrsT, the eighth month of the year, 
having 31 days. The name was changed 
by the Romans from Seztilis (the sii-th 
month from March ) , in honour of the em- 
peror Oct. Augustus. 

Augustan Confession, a memoria. 
drawn up at Augsburg (Lat. Augrtsta'^, by 
Luther and Melancthon in 1530, setting 




forth their reason* of separation .'rom the 
Romish church. 

Auo-js'tixns, \ an order of monks so 

Ac'ousTiNs, ) called from St. Auihistln. 
They made one of the four orders of 
Mendicants, and were originally called 
Austin friars. 

Au:.a'rian. Vi'Iongine to aula, a haU. 
A member of a hall, at Oxford, in distinc- 
tion to a co'i'yutn. 

Av'nc, poruiiuinz to aula, a court. An 
epithet {fen«TallT given to one of the two 
supifnie courts "of the ci-devant German 
empire — the Hetchshofrath. 

AuLos'roMA., Gr. fi-oni eci/ke;, a pipe, and 
erofjui, a mouth. A genus of acantho- 
pterygians, belonging to the family called 
l)y C'uvier bo%ich>:s en flute ; including the 
pipe-fishes, or those species whose mouth 
is elongated into a kind of tube or pipe. 

AtRA.sTiA'cE«, a natural family of 
plants, of which the orange {aiirantium) 
is the type. 

ArBAN'xirM, the orange (ri<n« auran- 
tium), so called ab aureo .'owre. 

Aure'lia, some of the two-winged tribe 
of insects. Butterflies and moths when 
in their pupa state are inclosed in a mem- 
braneous envelope, and as these pupae are 
often tinged of a gold colour, they were 
called from this circumstance chrysalides 
by the Greeks, and aureliee by the Romans, 
both which terms are In some measure 
become Anglicised, and though not strictly 
applicable to ungilded pupae, are often 
given to those of all lepidopterous in- 
sects. These by Linn6 are denominated 
oblected pupx-. 

Avre'ola, of the colour of gold. ,In 
paintiujf, the glory M-ith which the an- 
citnt painters decorated the heads of the 
naints, martyi-s, and confessors, which 
they executed. 

Ac'reus, a Roman gold coin worth 
about 16 shillings, according to Tacitus, 
and weighing about 2i oz. avotrd. 

Au'ricle, Lat. auricula, a little ear 
(aurii). Applied, 1. In anaioniy, to the 
external ear, and to two cavities of the 
heart, which have some resemblance to 

oars. 'i. In botany, to plants whose 

leaves or oth-.r parts more or less resem- 
ble cars. 

Arjiic c'i^, a subgenus of bulimi. See 

AuarcPLAR CosTEssiO!*. Coufessiou of 
sins to a priest in private, distinguished 
from public confession. 

Acricu'late, Lat. auriculatus, having 
ears or appendages resembling ears. 
Applied, 1. In botany, to leaves which are 
furnished with a pair of leaflets, generally 
distinct, but sometimes joining them at 

the base. 2. In coiichology, to a few 

bivalves which have a flat angulated 
projecuon on one or both sides of the 

umbonue or bosses: most developed in th» 

AcRi'oA, in astronomy, the vaggon-r. 
A constellation of the nortliem hexi- 
sphcre, containing 66 stars according to 
the British catalogue. 

Au'rochs, Germ, urocht, the ure-ox. A 
name given to an animal of the boviiie 
kind, found fossil in alluvion. 

.Aur'ora Borea'lis, literally tiorthem 
daicn. The name given to that extraor- 
dinary luminous appearance or m-.-teor 
which shows itself in northern latitudes 
after simset, called also wrihern light 
(Germ. norrfZif/i^) , and popularly »fr«imer« 
and merry dancers. 

This appearance is from our position 
on the earth regarded ai peculiar to the 
north, but a similar phenomenon is also 
observable in the southert. ht-misphere, 
called with like propriety Aurora Aus- 
tralis. It was witness.d in 1773 be- 
tween 58° and 60" S. lat. by Cooke's 
sailors, and later travellers have ob- 
served the same. These phenomena 
therefore, as they are common to both 
poles, ought properly to be called Polar 

Ac'rum MtJsi'vtTM, or Mosaicum. Mo- 
saic gold, composed of 100 tin -t- 64 sul- 

AcscuLTA'TioN.Lat. ausrullatio (of a««- 
cuUo, to listen). This term is applied to 
the several methods of detecting the 
nature and seat of disease by means of 
the sense of hearing, but particularly to 
the exploration of the thorax by means 
of the soimds in that part, rendered more 
distinct to the ear by the intervention of 
an instrument called a stetlftscope (q, v.). 

AtrspiCEs, the observations taken by the 
Roman augurs from the flight of birds 
and other natural appea7-ances. An aus/Hx 
was any one who interpreted omens : an 
augur was a member of the sacred college . 
Acs'ter, the south-wind.jJuiirtxi, south, 

Av'terfoits, from Fr. autre, another, 
and /oi<*,/o»s, time. A term introduced 
into law phraseology under the Norman 
princes of England, to signify at another 
time, formerly ; as auterfnits acquit, for- 
merly acquitted, which, being specinlly 
pleaded, bars a second prosecution for the 
same offence. 

Authen'tic (eL'j6irTix6{) , of genuine 
origin. Applied in music, I. To chorJs 

which have the 4th uppermost. 2. In 

melodies whose principal notes lie be- 
tween the key-note and its octave. 

Acthen'tic Melodies, in music, such 
as have their principal notes contained 
between the key-note and its octave. 

Acthen'tics, in cinl law, a name given 
to an extract from the Novels (q. v.'i, by 
which a law of the code is cither changed 



o'l a">oUshed. So called, because first ex- 
tracted from a MS. copy of the Novel 
{liber authenticus) , put among the altered 
passages of the code, and have thus re- 
mained in the editions of the Corpiis Juris. 

AuTOCiR'pccs, Gr. from oturci, him- 
self, and xot^Tot, fruit. A name given to 
such fruit as consists of nothing but peri- 
carp, without any additional organ. 

Autoch'thom (cuiToxOaiv) , one produced 
from the ground. Several ancient nations 
assumed the name of autochthones, to in- 
dicate the antiquity of their origin. 

Au'to v\ 7^, Port. \ literally, act of 

An'xo UF. te'. Span. j/(n'<A. A sentence 
given by the Inquisition, and read to a 
criminal (heretic) on the scaffold just be- 
fore he is executed. 

Autom'ahtb, ) octahedral comndum. 

Autom'olite, J A variety of corundum 
containing oxide of zinc (thence called 
pinelle zindfire by Hauy) and alumina. 
It is sometimes called fahlunite, because 
found in a talcose rock at Fahlun, and 
gahnite, from Gahn, its discoverer. 

AuToM.iT'ic, self-acting. Applied to 
machinery which in some measure super- 
sedes manual labour and attention. 

A.xsiov.'h.To-s,iTOva.avT0[jutT0; {oieturot, 
self, and fjutta, to move Any mechanical 
contrivance which, by some concealed 
force (springs or weights), can carry on 
for some time certain movements, more 
or less resembling animal exertion. In 
this respect all kinds of clocks, watches, 
and numerous other machines employed 
in cotton and other factories, are deno- 
minated automata ; but the term is more 
commonly restricted to that class of 
mechanism in which the power is made 
to imitate the voluntary motions of living 
beings. When such automata represent 
human figures and actions, they are 
termed atidroides (man-like). 

Au'tumn, Lat. autumnus. That one of 
the seasons, which, in the N. temperate 
zone, begins when the sun, in its apparent 
descent to the southern hemisphere, 
touches the equator, and enters Libra 
(23rd September), and ends at the winter 
solstice (20th December) : from this as- 
tronomical autumn, the popular autumn 
differs according to climate. 

Autum'nal point, the point where the 
equator cuts the ecliptic : the sun reaches 
it on the 23rd September. It is said to be 
at the beginning of Libra, but the point 
has really long since receded from this 
constellation : it is now near the stars on 
the left shotUder of Virgo. 

AuTUM'sAL SIGNS, the signs Libra, Scor- 
pio, and Sagittarius. 

A'vA.-A.'vA, a plant of Otaheite, from 
which the inhabitants obtain a species of 

AVaukchb, the name given to those 

vast snow-slips which roll down the Alps 
and often overwhelm forests, villages, &c., 
in their course. The term is from Fi". 
avaler, to swallow. 

Ava'st, with seamen, cease, stop, stay ; 
Germ, hasta, stop. 

AvellVna, the hazel-nut : a species of 
corylus. Named from Avella, a town of 

A've Mar'ia, Ave Mary. Among Catho- 
lics, the beginning of a prayer to the 
Holy Virgin is Ave Maria, whence the 
whole prayer takes that name {Ave meang 
hail). The name Ave Maria is also given 
to the little balls in rosaries, each of which 
denotes a prayer called Ave Maria, whUe 
the larger balls denote a Pater -noster. 

Ave'na, the oat-grass. A genus of which 
the plant that produces the grain, well 
known under the name of oats, is a species 
{A.satiia). Triandria — Digyyiia. Name ap- 
plied by the ancients to the Brome-grass. 

Av'enage, oats {avena). Paid by a ten- 
ant in lieu of rent or other duty. 

Av'ener,-or, iTLferulal law, an officer of 
the king's stables, whose duty it was to 
provide oats. 

Av'eraoe, a term used in commerce and 
navigation, to signify a general contribu- 
tion to make up a particular loss ; as when 
the goods of a particular merchant are 
thrown overboard to prevent the ship 
from sinking, or where the masts, cables, 
anchors, or other furniture of the ship, 
are cut away or destroyed for the preser- 
vation of the whole, or money or goods 
are given to pirates to save the rest, or 
where any expense is deliberately and 
voluntarily made, or any expense fairly 
and bond fide incurred, to prevent a total 
loss — such sacrifice or expense ought to 
be rateably borne by the owners of the 
ship, freight, and cargo, so that the loss, 
for the good of all, may fall equally on 
all. — There are also some small charges 
called petty or accustomed averages : it is 
usual to charge one-third of them to the 
ship, and two-thirds to the cargo. Hence 
the expression in bills of lading, " freight 
with primage and average accustomed." 

Aver'nus, a lake of Italy, 10 miles west 
of Naples, celebrated in antiquity as the 
entrance to the infernal regions. 

Averruxca'tor, Lat. averrunco, I dress 
or weed ; in arboriculture, an instrument 
for cutting off the branches of trees, con- 
sisting of two blades fixed on the end of a 
rod ; one of which has a moveable joint, 
which, by means of a line fixed to it, 
operates like a pair of scissors. 

Aver'se, Lat. aversus, turned back. In 
ornithology, when the posterior extremi- 
ties are attached to the trunk near the 
anus, so that the body is held erect, as in 
the penguin. 

Avicen'xa, the generic name of the 
Mangrove-tree. IHdynamia — Angiontmitm 




Named in honour of an Arabian physician. 
Native of the hot parts of both Eastern 
ard Western continents. 

S.ric'vLA, a genus of eqxii valve shell 
with a rectilinear hinge : it belongs to 
the oyster family, and is known popularly 
as the Mother-of-pearl oyster. The 
species which produces the tine pearls of 
Ceylon is the Mytilm Margariti/rra, Lin. 

Avicc'lidje, a family of shell-flsh com- 
prehending the muscles and pearl oysters. 

Avot'DAjJCE. In ecclesiastical law, sig- 
nifies the condition of a benefice when 
void of an incumbent, and is opposed to 

AvoiBDCPo'is, Fr. avoirdupois, to have 
weight. The weight commonly used for 
balky and coarse commodities. The pound 
contains 16 oz., and is to the troy pound 
as 17 to 14. 

Avoszt'ta, the Avoset, a species of 
grallae placed by Pennant among the 
palmipedes. The bird is of the size of the 
lapwing, and is common to Europe and 

Avo'wRT, in law, the act of the dis- 
trainer of goods who in an action of re- 
plevin avows and justifies the taking ; the 
act of maintaining the right to distrain. 

A-wBioB, in nautical language, the 
BSjne with a-trip. 

Awl'wort, the Subularia aquatica, an 
indigenous aquatic perennial, so named 
from its awl-shaped (^subulate) leaves. 

Awn'ino. 1. A covering of canvas ex- 
ti^nded over the decks of a ship to give 
shelter from the sun, rain or wind.- — 2. 
That part of the poop deck which is con- 
tinued forward beyond the bulk head of 
the cabin. 

AwNLESs, without awn or arista. 

AxATACAT, a Mexican fly whose eggs, 
deposited on rushes, &c. in large quanti- 
ties, are collected and used as a son of 
caviare, called ahuauhtli. 

Axe'ston e , a mineral ; a sub-species of 
jade, which in some respects resembles 
nephrite. It occurs in New Zealand and 
the isles of the Pacific, where it is made 
into axes and other cutt ng instruments 
by the natives, from which circumstance 
it has obtained its name. 

Axif'erous, Lat. azis, a centre, and 
ftro, I bear. Said of those plants which 
consist solely of an axis with foliage or 
other appendage. 

Ax'iL, Lat. arilla. 1. In anatomy, the 

arm-pit. 2. In botany, the angle formed 

by the stalk of a leaf with the stem. 

Ax'iLE, Lat. axis, lying in the axis of 
anything, as an embryo in the axis of a 
SAed ; viz., from the base to the end dia- 
metrically opposite. 

Ax'iLLART, Lat. axillaris, pertaining to 
axilla, the arm-pit. Ic 6t tani , applied to 
Ivarea, Ac. which rrc^ed from tho asglf 

formed by the st«^m and branch. Otn4- 
rally, applied to parts which spring from 
the point of union of two or more other 

Ax'in:tb, thnnderstonc, {thumerttein, 
Werner). A mineral commonly found la 
crystals of four-sided prisms, so flattened 
that some o/ its ed^es become thin and 
sharp ; hence its name from a^ivvi an ax, 
and Xt6o{ stone. Colours, brown, grey, 
black and violet. 

Ax'is, ot^aiv- This term is applied in 
the language of science to a right line 
passing through the centre of a body oa 
which it may revolve. The axis may 
either be real or imaginary, as : 1. In 
mathematics, the straight line which 
divides the area of a figure and about 
which it revolves to produce a solid. 
Further, the straight line drawn from a 
point in the periphery through the cen- 
cre of a sphere is its axis ; and a straight 
line drawn from the vertex of a cone 
through the centre of its base io the axis 
of the cone. See Cone and Conic 1?ection3. 

'2. In mechanics, the line about which 

a balance moves or rather turns is the 
axis of the balance ; the axi) of oscillation 
is a right line parallel to the horizon, 
about which a pendulum vibrates ; the 
axis in peritrochio is another name for 
the mechanical contrivancj called the 

wheel and axle. 3. In optics, that ray of 

light which passing from the eye falls 
perpendicularly on the eye. i. In as- 
tronomy, an imaginary right line passing 
through the two poles and the centre of 
the sphere, is called the axis of the sphere, 
and similarly the sun and all the planets 
are each conceived to revolve about their 

respective axes. 5. In botany, a taper 

column in the centre of some flowers 
about which the other parts are disposed. 

6. In anatomy, the second vertebra of 

the neck : the atlas rotates on its tooth- 
like process as on an axis. 

Axot'omous, from cefa/r an axis, and 
TifMi), to cut. A mineralogical term, sig- 
nifying cleavable in one particular direc- 

Ate-Ate, the n.irae given by the 
natives to an animal of Madagascar, 
Cheiromys Madagascariensis. for it« pe- 
culiar cry. It is a nocturnal quadruped, 
size of a hare, burrows, and motion seem* 
painful to it. 

Aza'lea, an extensive genus of plants of 
the class pentandria,&aa order »no»i<vyn««. 
Name from aZocXiot, arid, because foonA 
only in such places. The trailing azalea, 
a low shrub with very woody tortuous 
stems, and crowded leafy branches, found, 
plentifully on the Scottish HighUnl 
mountain*, is the only British type. 

A2'mcTE,froci Ar. oJ and «ama<A, path. 
In astronomy, the arc of the horison ijiter- 




cepted between the meridian of the ob- 1 
ser\-er and a vertical circle passing 
through the celestial object whose azi- 
muth la measured. Azimuth circles, are 
great circles of the sphere, intersecting 
each other in the zenith and nadir, and 
cutting the horizon at right angles. The 
magnetic azimuth is an arc of the horizon, 
intercepted between the vertical circle 
passing through the centre of the celes- 
tial body and the magnetic meridian. It 
is found by the azimuth compass. 

Ar'iMCTH Dial, a dial of which the 
style or gnomon is perpendicular to the 
plane of the horizon. 

A20GA Ships were those Spanish go- 
vernment ships, called also quicksilver 
ships (Sp. azogue, quicksilver) because em- 
ployed to carry mercury to the Spanish 
West Indies, to extract the silver from 
the ores of the mines of Mexico and Peru. 

Az'oTE, from a, not, and ^aw;, life. A 
gas otherwise called nitrogen (q. v.), 
which when breathed alone destroys life. 

Az'oTizED, containing azote, said of 
some vegetables which contain much 
azote, and therefore in some measure par- 
take of the nature of animal matter. 

A'zcRE. 1. The fine blue pigment com- 
monly called smalt. It is a glass coloured 
with oxide of cobalt, and ground to an 

impalpable powder. 2. In heraldry, the 

blue colour in coats of all persons under 
the rank of baron. 

Az'tgos. Aluyc?, an anatomical term 
applied to muscles, veins, &c, which have 
no corresponding muscle, vein, &c. 

AyxMiTEs (from cc4vuos, unleavened). 
Christians who administer the eucharist 
with unleavened bread {azyme). 


B is the first letter of all known alpha- 
bets except the Ethiopic, in which it is 
the ninth. As a numeral B was used by 
the Hebrews and Greeks, as now by the 
Arabians, for 2 : by the Romans for 300, 
and with a dash over it, thus, B, for 3000. 
It is often used as an abbreviation: thus, 
B.A., stands for bachelor of arts; B.l.., 
for bachelor of laws ; B.D., for bachelor 
of divinity ; B.F., before the decrees of 
the old Romans, for bonum factum. In 
music, B is the designation of the seventh 
note in the natural diatonic scale of C ; 
but anciently it denoted the second inter- 
val in the scale beginning with A. B I? 
stands for B flat, or the semitone major 
above A. B also stands for base, and B.C., 
for thorough base {basso continue). In 
chronology B is one of the dominical let- 
ters, and in the old chemical alphabet it 
denotes mercury. 

Baal, a name common to the male, as 
Ashtarothyr&sxa the female idols of the 

East. The name is common to several 01 
the oriental languages, and signifies lord 
or master. 

Bab'lah, the rind or shell which sur- 
rounds the fruit of the mimosa cineraria, 
and which is brought from the East under 
the name of neb-nab. It is used in dye- 
ing cotton for proving various shades of 

Baboo's, a name common to several of 
the larger species of the monkey tribe, 
which have short taUs, and more or less 
approximate to the human figure. They 
are peculiar to the eastern continent. 
The term is Fr. babouin, from the re- 
sembles which the animals bear to a child. 

Babtrou'ssa, the Indian hog; a species 
of the genus sus. It is a native of Ce- 
lebes and Bourou. 

Bac. 1. In navigatio7i, a praam or ferry- 
boat. 2. In brewing, a large flat ves- 
sel in which wort is cooled before boiling, 

hence called a cooler. 3. In distilleries, 

a tub in which liquor to be fermented is 
pumped from the cooler in order to be 
worked with the yeast. 

Bac'ca, a berry. A fl-uit which con- 
sists of a pulpy pericarp without valves, 
inclosing several naked seeds. 

Baccalau'reus, Lat., the lowest aca- 
demical degree in the English and French 

Baccaula'ris, a fruit consisting of dis- 
tinct carpels, seated upon a short recep- 

Bacchana'lia, festivals at Rome in 
honour of Bacchus, the god of wine. 
They were ultimately suppressed for their 

Bacchus, the god of wine, and son of 
Jupiter and Semele. 

Bacchi'cs, a foot in ancient poetry 
composed of one short and two long syl- 
lables ; e. g., ddlons, employed much in 
hymns to Bacchus. 

Baccif'erous, Eat. bacciferus, berry- 
bearing, applied to plants which produce 

BACciVoRotrs, berry-eating, bacca anl 
voro to eat. 

Bache'lor, Lat. baccalaureus, from, ba- 
cuius, a shoot. 1. A person who has 
taken the first degree in the liberal arts 
and sciences, at a college or university. 
The honour or degree is called the bac- 
calaureate. 2. In the middle ages, a 

knight of the lowest order, or rather a 
yoimg knight, called a knight bachelor 

[bachelier). 3. A canon of the lowest 


Bacilla're>e, a small group of alga- 
ceous plants, much the same as those 
called cymbeUeee. They are said to pos- 
sess the power of spontaneous motion. 
Back, a nautical term. 1. To back an 

anchor. See Anchor. 2. To back tails 

I is to arrange them so that tte ship shall 




move astern. 3. To back astern is to 

manage a boat in rowing eo that it shall 
move stem foreif.oit. Back is here used 
aa an abbreTiation of backwards. 

BAc'Ksa. Ill architecture, used to de- 
note a narrow slate laid on the back of a 
brosui, fr^uare-hcaded slate when the 
ulatos begin to diminish in width. 

BiCKGAM'MoN, a game played with 
dice by two persons on a table divided 
mio two parts, upon which there are 24 
black and white spaces called poitits. 
ilach player has 15 men, black and 
while, to distinguish them. The term 
Is from Welsh bnc, little, and cammaun 
battle. The little battle. 

liiLCK', a quadi-ant formerly 
used at sea for taking the sun's altitude ; 
•o called from the back being turned to- 
wards the Sim in using it. 

Back'set. In Scotland, a sublease, in 
which possession is restored to those hav- 
ing the primary interest in it. From back 
and $et, a lease. 

Back'stapf, the backqnadrant (q. v.) ; 
called also, from its inventor, Davis's 
Quadrant, and by the French, the Eng- 
lish Quadrant. 

Backstays, ropes or stays extending 
fi-om the topmast heads to both sides of a 
fhip, to assist the shrouds in supporting 
the mast,when strained by a weight of sail. 

Back'sword. In £nglat%d, a stick with 
1 basket- handle, used in rustic fencing. 

Back'tack. la Scotland, 9. AeeA by which 
» wadsetter, instead of himself possessing 
the lands which he has in wadset, gives a 
lease of them to the reverser, to continue 
Jja force till they are redeemed, on condi- 
tion of the payment of the wadset-inter- 
36t as rent. From back and tack, lease. 

Baco'nian Philosopht. The system 
propounded by Francis Bacon, Lord Ve- 

Bacula'res, a sect of anabaptists is so 
named from bacutum, because they held it 
unchristian to carry any other weapon 
than a staff. 

Baculom'etrt, the art of measuring 
heights with a staff— fractious and metrum. 

Badoer. In old law, a person licensed 
to buy com in one place and sell it in an- 
other, without incurring the penalties of 
engrossing. In zoology, a genus of qua- 
drupeds belonging to the plantigrade 
tribe, and placed by Linnaeus with the 
Kacoons, in the genus Ursus. 

In the first sense, badger is from Sax. 

bjrejpu, to buy. In the second, from 

Gothic baydga, to fight, to beat. 

Badia'oa, a marine plant of the order 
algx, used in Kussia to remove the livid 
marks of bruises. 

Badige'on, a mixture of plaister and 
freestone well sifted and ground together. 
Usert by 8Utuarie« to fill up the UtUc 

holes, and repair the defects in stones of 
which their work is made. Joinen also 
give this name to a mixture of feawdiul 
and glue, with which they fill up the 
chaps and other defects of wood after it 
has been wrought. 

Bad'isaoe, a method of hunting wUd- 
ducks practised in France. It consists in 
covering a boat with foliage, and sailing 
it cautiously towards the birds, when a 
small dog, trained to the sport, is silently 
put out ; the birds seek shelter about the 
insidious island, and are generally 
speared, but sometimes shot. 

BiSLTL'iA, certain anointed stones wor- 
shipped by the Phoinicians. 3et4ToX»(, 
the stone which Saturn devoured instead 
of Jupiter ! 

B^TOEN, an exceedingly venomous ser- 
pent of Africa, described by Foskal. 

Bag. 1. In commerce, a certain quan- 
tity of a commodity, such as it is common 
to carry to market in a sack ; e. g. a bag 

of meal is 240 lbs. avoir. 2. In farriery, 

a bag or list of one oz. asafoetida, with as 
much powder of sa^-in, tied to the bit of 
a horse's bridle, to restore his appetite. 
Norm. bage. 

Baoa'ssb, the sugar-cane in its dry 
and crushed state, as delivered from the 
sugar-mill. Used for fuel. 

Bag'qing, a mode of reaping com or 
pulse with a hook by chopping, instead of 
by a drawing-cut. 

Bag'lafecht, a variety of the Philip- 
pine Grosbeak {Zoxia I'hilippiana) found 
in Abyssinia. 

Baon'io, an Italian term for a bath. 
Applied to a house provided with conve- 
niences for bathing, &c. 

BAo'piPE,the«(rx«uX«f of the Greeks, 
and the tibia utricularis of the Romans, is 
a musical wind-instrument of high anti- 
qtiity, especially among the northern na- 
tions. Its peculiarity consists in collecting 
the air into a leathern bag, from which 
it is forced, by the pressure of the per- 
former's arm, into the pipes. The base 
pipe is very appropriately called the 
drone, and the tenor or treble is called the 
chajiter. This has eight holes, like those 
of a flute, which the performer opens and 
stops at pleasure. Air is supplied either 
with bellows, as in the Irish bagpipe, or 
with the mouth, as in the Scottish or 
Highland bagpipe. 

This instmment has so long been a 
favourite in Scotland and Ireland, that 
it is regarded as the national music of 
those countries ; but it is by no meant 
peculiar to them. It is found on Gre- 
cian and Roman sculptures, and in 
several other countries it is a popular 
instrument at the present time. It is, 
besides, one of the few things on which 
time has wrought ro improvement. It 

I 2 

« A I 



is siill exieedingly defective. The 
range of t)ic Irish or soft pipe does not 
exceed twelve tolerable notes, and that 
of the Scottish or Highland pipe nine ; 
and itcau hardly be said that the music 
of either is a " pleasant noise," unless 
when filtered through a stone-wall of 
two feet thick. 

Baoukt'te, an architectural term, from 
the rrench, denoting a small round mould- 
insr, somewliat less than an astragal, 
■which, when enriched with ornaments, is 
called a chaplct, and when plain . it is a bead. 
Bah'ar barhk, a weight used in various 
parts of the Kast Indies. That of Acheen 
= 490 lbs., that of Bencoolen = .560 lbs., 
that of Junkseylon = 48-5 lbs. 5J oz., that 
of Malacca = 405 lbs., and that of Mocha 
= 445 lbs. avoirdupois. 

Bail, from Fr. bailler, to deliver. In 
Imo, to bail is to liberate from arrest and 
Imprisonment. Thus the magistrate hails 
a man when he sets him at liberty upon 
bond given with securities ; and the surety 
hails a man when he procures his release 
by giving bond for his appearance. When 
a person has procured his liberty on bond 
given for his appearance when cited, he 
is said to be out on bail ; the persons who 
are surety for him are his bail, ami the 
bond of surety is the bail-bond. When the 
securities are mere fictitious names, a 
John Doe and Richard Roe, the bail is 
called common ; when the bail-bond is 
bond fide a bond of surety, the bail is 

called special. The word hail is used by 

seamen to signify the process of clearing 
a boat of water ; but in this sense il is 
usually written, thouirh improperly, bale. 
B.\.'iLEE, the person to whom a bail- 
ment (q. V.) is made. — Bailer, the person 
making the bailment 

Bai'lie. in l<cotland, a magistrate of a 
royal burgh, possessed of certain jurisdic- 
tion by common law as well as by statute : 
the title is analogous to alderman in Eng- 

Bailitp, Fr. baHif, of Lat. baila, autho- 
rity. This name was anciently used to 
signify an officer appointed for the ad- 
ministration of justice within a certain 
district, and comprehended sheriffs of 
counties (called bailiwicks or ballivee), as 
well as bailiffs of hundreds. There are 
now many sorts of bailiffs: 1. Sherifs- 
bailiffs, who are either special, and ap- 
pointed for their adroitness to apprehend 
defaulters; or bailiffs of hundreds, who 
collect fines, summon juries, attend the 
assizes, and execute writs and processes. 
The speciai- bailiffs are more commonly in 
Scotland called sheriff-officers, and the 
bailiffs of hundreds have in England got 
the homely appellation of bum-baiiiffs (an 
odd corruption of hound-bailiff. See Ap- 

rsi.Li.Tioii). 2. Bailiffs of liberties, are 

appolntea by rte .iord<» of iheir recpeotiva 

jurisdictions, to execute processes and 

perform other duties. 3. Bailiffs of 

courts baron, summon these courts and 
execute the process thereof. i. Water- 
bailiffs, are apptointed in seaport towns to 
search vessels, gather toll for sinchorage, 

arrest debtors on the water, &c. 5. In 

some provincial towns of England the 
principal magistrates are called bailiffs; 
there is a At<7A-6(Ji7i;/f of Westminster; the 
lord mayor of London sits under his title 
of bailiff (which title he bore before the 
present became usual), in the court of Old 
Bailey ; the sheriff is the Queen's bailiff, 
and there are bailiffs of castles, as that of 
Dover, and bailiffs on estates, who have 
charge of the inferior servants and direct 
their work. 

Bai'i.iwick {haili, and Sax. plC, jtkrii- 
diction). Thejurisdiction of a bailiff (q.y.). 
Under William I. , the counties of Englan i 
were called bailiwicks (Lat. ballica), and 
the subdivisions hundreds. The courts of 
the latter have long since ceased. 

Bail'ment, from bail. A delivery oi 
goods, in trust, upon a contract expressed 
or implied that the trust shall be fait>i- 
fuUy executed. It comprehends : (1.) De- 
posit. (2.) Loan. (3.) Hire. (4.) Piedga, 
(5.) Carriage of goods for reward. (9.) 

Bail'piece, a slip of parchment or paper, 
containing a recognisance of bail above or 
bail to the action. 

Bair'am, an annual festival among the 
Mohammedans. It may be called the 
Easter, as the rhamadftn is the Lent of 
the followers of Mahomet. See Rhax- 


B AIRMAN, bair and man. An old law 
term, denoting a debtor sworn in court 
not to be in possession of property worth 
five shillings and flvepence. Synonymous 
with dyvour. 

Baj'aderes, the Porttiguese name ot 
the Indian dancing girls, employed partly 
as priestesses, and partly as means of 
entertainment and pleasure to the gran- 
dees of India. 

Baj'ulus, Lat. hajulare, to carry. In the 
lower Greek empire, the officer intrusted 
with the education of a prince 

Ba'ker'8-itch, a species of psoriasis is 
so called when it is confined to the back 
of the hand, where it often appears among 

Baue'na, from ^aXecivn, a whale (of 
fitxXXiu, to throw, in allusion to its power 
of spouting the water, technically called 
blou;in-j). A genus of mammalia belong- 
ing to the order cetacta of Cuvier ; and to 
that tribe popularly called the blowers. 
See Cetacea and Whale. 

Balala'ika, a musical instrument of 
the guitar kind, of very ancient Sclavonian 
o.olfln, EUid common among the Russian* 





»nd Tartirs, and also found in Egypt and i 

Ba.l'a.j«ce, Fr. balance, Sp. baianza, Lat. 
hilanx;ot bis, double, and hinx, a dish, i 
«c*le. A well-known mechanical contriv- | 
tsce which serves to find out the equality j 
or difference of weisht in ponderable 
fccdies. It is commonly reckoned among 
the mechanical powers, but it is only 
a particular species of the lever, in which 
the arms are equal , and which must there- 
fore be in equilibrio when the power or 
weight are equal. Beside the common, 
th<:re are varioxis other kinds of balances, 
OS : 1. The Bent-lever balance, is abent lever 
A.BC, to whose ^, 

extremity, C, a M (^ 

weight is flxsd, - -" — 

and at its extrem- 
ity, A, a hook, 
CBJrying a scale- 
pan, is moveable 
about an axis, B. 
£very different 
weight placed in 
the scale-pan va- 
ries the perpen- 
dicular, CD, and 

therefore the inclination of BC and these 
positions are noted upojoi the quadrant, 

FO, usually in lbs. and oz. 2. The 

Dc.nith balance differs torn the steel- 
yard or Koman stater*, in harlnir a 


moy«abIe fulcrum instead of a moveable 
weight. It is oitcn nothing more than a 
batten of hard wood AB, with a knob of 
lead B, and a shifting fulcrum F, often a 
piece of cord, by which to suspend it in 
weighing. The weight is read off on a 
division marked along the arm for the 

purpose. 3. The Hydrostatic balance is 

a delicate balance of the common form, 
oaed in determing the specific gravities of 

bodicn. 4. Homan balance. See Steel- 

TXKD and Statera. 5 Torsion balance. 

8t* ToMStoM. Balance, in commerce, is 

the ttrm used to denote the difference in 
Talue between the exports from and im- 
p.Tts Into a country. The balance is 
eald tc lie favourable when the value of 
esportb exceeds that of the imports, and 
(Lofavorsble when the value of the imports 

i£ the greater. Balance of power, in 

politie*,». oystem by which the relative 
power of different states and alliances is 
so maintained as to render any extensive 

derangement improbable. Balance. 

among u!at:h- makers, that part of a watch 
or c'.c<\. which regulates its b«ata. It is 
asort ol wheel, thecircumferenjia of whicJi 

is called the rim, and its spindle the verge. 
It answers the purpoEee of a pendulum. 

B\t,i>cE-Fisu, a species of squalus or 
shark, weighing about 50O lbs. 

Balance-Reef, a reef-band crossing a 
sail diagonally, used in balancing (q. t. ) 

Bai.'ancing, in nautical langtuige, the 
contracting a sail into narrower compass 
by folding up a part of it at oni comer, 
bv which it is distinguished from reefing. 

Bal'akcs, a genus of moUusca ; order 
Cirrhopoda, Cuv. The principal part of 
the shell of the balani consists of a testa- 
ceous tube attached to various bodies, as 
rocks, shells, and the bottoms of ships. 
One species, the barnacle, [Lepas balanua, 
Lin.) is exceedingly numerous on the 
coasts of Europe. They often penetrate 
into the flesh of large fish, as the whale. 
Name fiaXatof, a nut. 

Bal'ass-Rcbt, 1 A sub-species of Cor- 

BAT,'LAss-RciiT,iundum, which being 
found chiefly in Ceylon has obtained the 
name of Ceylonite. It is called also 
Spinelle Ruby. The name balass is the Fr. 
balais, and Lat. balasius lapis. 

Balc'ont, Fr. and Sp. balcon, from Ar. 
balkana. 1. A projection in front of a 
building supported by pillars, and usually 

encompassed with a balustrade. 2. A 

gallery in a ship, either open or covere I, 
made abaft the captain's cabin for con- 
venience or ornament. 

Baldach'iw, \ A term derived from the 

Baluaqc'in, ) Italian 6flWacAtno, and ap- 
plied to a building in the form of a canopy, 
supported by columns, and serving as the 
crowning or covering to an altar. 

Bal'dbbick, Ir. balta, a belt, and rick, 

rich. 1. A richly ornamented belt. i. 

The zodiac, {obsolete). 

Baldwin's Phosfhorus, ignited nitratj 
of lime. 

Balb-Goods, are such as are imported 
or exported in bales. 

Bal'ben, Fr. baleine, a name given by 
the whale -Ushers to the whalebone cf 
commerce. The term is a corruption of 
baltena, the generic name of the common 

Bai^nop'tera, the jubarta; asub-genu8 
of the whale-tribe, from balcena {(^.t.) 
and ptera, a fin, the animal being prc^- 
vided with dorsal fins. 

BAL'isTsa.a cross-bow,named from the 
ancient bclista, a warlike engine ,used in 
besieging fortified places, for projecting- 
stones, arrows and other missiles. Hoot, 
^etkXai, to throw. 

Bali'va, in old statutes, a bailiwick, (q. 
V.) Balivotts, a bailiff. Baliio amovendc U 
tlie name of a writ to remove a bailiif 
from his ofllce. 

Balize, Fr. balise, Sp. baliza, a beacon, 
a sea-mark or pole rai£ed on a bor.k 

Balk, (r>. balk.) B&Uu are large piece* 




of timber or beams, of from 5 lo 12 IncAt-a 
Rquare, as imported; the larger are ac- 
counted timber. Jiatk is also a pro- 
Tincial name of the summer-beam of a 
building; and in some parts of Scotland 
it is synonyBious with Cttbber. Among 
hrieklayera, the term denotes the pieces 
of timber used in making scaffolds. In 
agrictilture, a balk is a ridge of land passed 
over in ploughing and not turned. 

Balr'ers, in fishery, persons stationed 
on rocks and eminences to espy the shoals 
of herrings, and give notice to the men 
In the boats which way they pass. 

Ball, is a popular name of any spherical 
body, whether natural or artificial ; found 
in most European languages with little 

Tariation of meaning or orthography. 

In heraldry, balls are common bearings, 
called, according to their different colours, 
ogresses, besants, golpes, guzes, hurts, 
pellets, plates, pomeys, oranges, torteaux. 
—^A printer's ball consists of hair or 
•wool covered with leather, fixed into a 
stock called the ball-stock, somewhat hol- 
low at one end, and serving as a handle : 
used (formerly) to put ink on the types 
in the forms (instead of the roller now 

used). Puff-ball is a popular name of 

the lycoperdon; and ball-vein, a miner's 
name for a species of iron ore which oc- 
curs in loose nodular masses. 

Ball and Socket, an instrument made 
nsually of brass, with a perpetual screw, 
so as to move horizontally, vertically, 
and obliquely : used in managing survey- 
ing and astronomical instruments. 

Ball-cock, a hollow globe of metal 
attached to the end of a lever which turns 
the stop-cock of a cistern pipe, by floating 
on the surface of the water, thereby re- 
gulating the supply. 

Bal'let, a Fr. term, dim. of bal, a dance. 
1. A dramatic dance, the object of which 
is to express by the different movements 
some subject, sentiment, passion, or ac- 
tion. "J. A species of dramatic poem 

representing some fabulous subject. 

3. In heraldry, the term is used in the 
same sense as ball [q. v.). 

Balliage, a small duty paid to the city 
of London by aliens, and even by denizens, 
for certain commodities exported by them. 

Ballista, written also balista. See 

Ballistic Pendulum, a machine for 
ascertaining the force of military projec- 
tiles, and consequently of gunpowder. It 
consists of a large block of wood, sus- 
pended vertically by a horizontal iron 
axis, to -which it is connected by an iron 
stem. The ball impiuges against the 
block, and causes it to vibrate through a 
certain arc proportional to tte force of 
the impact, and this arc being accurately 
observed, the force of the projectile is 
ccnisqu iTitly known. 

Bii.'LUiM, Li the architecture of the 
middle ages, the open space or court oi a 
fortified castle. 

Ball'on is a French term, meaning a 
large ball or balloon; used to denote a 
globe on the top of a pillar. 

Bal'loon, from 6aWou (4- v.). 1. Ache- 
mical glass receiver in the form of a 

hollow globe with a short neck. 2. 

A spherical silk bag filled with hydrogen 
gas or with heated air, by the t .-oyancy 
of which it ascends into the atmosphere : 
sometimes called for distinction an air- 
balloon. 3. A ball of pasteboard filled 

with combustibles to be played o;? when 
fired, either in the air or in water, burst- 
ing like a bomb, and throwing out sparks 
like stars. 

Bal'lot, a ball used in voting : Fr. haZ- 
lote ; Sp. balota, a little ball. Voting by 
ballot signifies voting by putting little 
balls of different colours into a box or 
um: the greater number of one coloujr 
determines the result. Tickets are also 
used instead of ballots, and called by tae 
same name. 

Most clubs elect their members by 

ballot — a white ball indicating assent, 

and a black one dissent: hence whea 

an applicant is rejected, he is said to be 


Ballota, the stinking-horehoiind A 
genus of perennials. JHdynamia — (?«,'«»- 
nosperma. Name ^a>J.iU7^, from /So^A/', 
to repel, in allusion to its disagreeable 

Bal'lotade, in the manage, the leap oi 
a horse between two pillars or upo"a a 
straight line, so that when his fore fe^.t 
are in the air, he shows nothing but the 
shoes of his hind feet, without jerking 
out : it is thus distinguished from capriole. 

Balm, contraction of balsam (q. v.). Ir, 
botany, the popular name of several plants, 
especially the Melissa, the species of which 
are aromatic. Balm of Gilead, the bal- 
samic produce of the amyris gileadensis, a 
low tree or shrub indigenous to Arabia and 
Abyssinia, and transplanted at an early 
period to Judea. This is the most valti- 
able of all the balsams, but it rarely 
finds its way to this country. The balm 
of Canada, which is m^ely a fine turpen- 
tine, obtained from an American species 
of fir-tree i,pintis bahamea), is usually 
substituted for it, and the tree itself is in 
consequence popularly called the balm of 
Oilead. See Opobalsam. 

Bal'sam, Lat. balsamum, of ^xXffei^iOV, 
from the oriental baal samen. prince oif 
oils. Balsams are vegetable juices eithtr 
liquid, or which spontaneously become 
concrete, consisting of a substance of a 
resLQOUs nature, combined with benzoic- 
acid, or which are capable of affording 
benzoic acid bv bein^ heated alone or with 

iJ AN 



water. The liquid balsams are copaiva, 
opobalsam, balsam of Peru, storax and 
tolu; the concrete are benzoin, dragon's 
blood, and red storax — (which ^e). — The 
balsam of Peru is viscid, of a deep reddish 
brown colour, and of the consistency of 
honey : it is the produce of the myroxglon 
pomiiferum, a tree which grows in the 
warmest parts of South America. — Bal- 
sam is also the popular name of the im- 
patiens (q. v.}, of wliich the tioli me langere 
or touch-me-not is a species. — The name 
of balsam-tree is common to three genera, 
the ami/ris, the dtisia, and the copaifera. 
— The balsam-apple is an East India an- 
nual (momordica balsamina). — The pre- 
paration sold imder the name of balsam of 
Iwney, is a tincture either of benzoin or of 
tolu. — Balsam of mlphnr, solution of sul- 
phur in olive oil ; a brown fetid liquor. 

BAL£A.MtN'E2e, a natural order of herba- 
ceous and succulent plants. Type Im- 

Balte'cs, Lat., a girdle. In architec- 
ture, the wide step in theatres and am- 
phitheatres which afforded a passage 
round, without disturbing the sitters. In 
the Greek and Koman theatres every 
eighth step was a balteus. Nobody sat 
on these ; but they served as a landing or 

Ba.l'timohe-Bird, a beautiful American 
bird (Orioltts Baltimore, Wilson) called 
also, hanging-nest, fire-bird, golden robin. 
It is distinguished by its black and orange 
plumage, which being the colours of Cal- 
vert, Lord Baltimore, proprietary of the 
province of Maryland, gave it the name 
of the Baltimore bird. 

Bal'cster. 1. A small column or pil- 
lar belonging to a balustrade. 2. The 

lateral part of the volute of the Ionic ca- 
pital, called by Vitnivius, pulvinata. 

BAi,r8TR4.'DE, from Lat. baltistrum, a 
ipace in the ancient baths which was 
railed in with pali or poles. The term is 
now used to denote a row of pilasters or 
balusters, which are generally for real use 
in buildings, but sometimes for ornament 
merely. The balusters of the balustrade 
are usually joined by a rail as in balconies. 

Bamboo', j a species of cane, the bam- 

BxuBc', j bum arandinacete of bota- 
nista. It grows everywhere within the 
tropica, and is of the utmost utility to the 
inhabitants of those climates. It serves 
all the purposes of wood, is manufactured 
into cordage, cloth, and paper, and the 
grain makes tolerable bread. It is pro- 
perly a gigantic grass. 

Baxbu'sa, the generic name of the bam- 
boo-cane, of which there are two species. 
Hexandria — Ligynia. Name latinized 
from bambu, the Indian name. 

Ban. 1. a pvoclamation, hence bans, 

a notification of marriage proposed. 2. 

A declaration uf outlawry, eqxuTalcnt tn 

poUticaJ r&iitters to excommunieation 
areiong etc)c=iastic3. 3. In military af- 
fairs, an order given by beat of drum or 
sounding the trumpet, requiringthe strict 
observance of discipline, announcing the 

appointment of an officer, &c. 4. A 

mulct paid to a bishop by one guilty of sa- 
crilege. 5. The name of a smooth fine 

muslin imported from the East Indies. 

6. A title of the governor of Croatia, who 
has the third place among the secular 
nobles of Hungary. Ban is the Sclavonic 
word for master, hence provinces over 
which a ban was placed were called 

Bana'na, an Indian name of the musa 
tapientium, which grows in the West 
Indies and other tropical countries. The 
leaves are six feet long by one foot 
broad ; the fruit, which grows in bunches, 
is about live inches, and yields a soft and 
luscious pulp frequently used in desserts, 
and made into a sort of bread, 

BAN'co,Ital. 1. In commerce, a word sig- 
nifying a bank, and commonly applied 

to the bank of Venice. 2. In laio, 

superior courts are said to sit in banco 
during term, the judges occupying the 
benches of their respective courts. In architecture, the word band 
is applied to narrow members, somewhat 
wider than fillets and smaller than the 
facia. The cincture round the shaft of a 
rusticated column is called a band. 
Banded column, a column encircled with 
bands. The word band is frequently used 
to denote a narrow belt , e. g. the narrcTr 
belts or rather bands which give motioa 
to the wheelwork, &c. The bands of & 
saddle arc two pieces of iron nailed upoti 
the bows to hold them in their proper 
places. The band of pensioners is a com 
pany of 120 gentlemen, wlio receive a 
yearly allowance of 1001. for attendra^j 
the sovereign on solemn occasions. 

Bandaleer, t a large leather belt 

Bandoleer, j (thrown over the right 
shoulder, and hanging under the left am;) 
worn by the old musqueteers for sustain- 
ing their fire-arms and musket-charges. 
From band and D. leer, leather. 

Bandana, ) a style of calico print- 

Banda'nsa, iing in which white or 
brightly-coloured spots are produced upon 
a red or dark ground. The term is tlie 
name of those silk handkerchiefs, gene- 
rally red spotted with white, formerly 
manufactured only in India, where the 
art appears to have been practised firom 
time immemorial. 

Banded, when a body is striated with 
coloured bands. 

Bandelet', Ban»let. In architecturt, 
dim. of band (q. v.), used to desigiuite any 
small rtat moulding greater than a list, 
and lesathan a plat-band ; e. g. thatwhic3l 
tx'jvoi the Doric architrave 



£ AK 

Bxndero'le, a Pr. term meanlnif a nar- 
row flajf or streamer, used in heraldry to 
denote the streamer aflixed under the 
crook of a crosier and folding over the 

Band'ore, Sp. handurria. A musical- 
Stringed instrument resembling the lute. 
Bandbol, a little flag or streamer af- 
fixed to the top of masts, firom banderols 
(q- v.). 

Bangue, an opiate much used through- 
out the east to produce intoxication. It 
is obtained in several ways, from a kind 
of hemp. The Persians call it beng. 

B4.'iii.^ns, a name formerly given by 
Eur^^ans to all Hindus, because baniya, 
the term whence it is derived, signifies a 
backer, the with which Europeans 
ha-J most fiequent intercourse. Banian 
is ^th us th.^ name of a sort of morning 
diH*g rssembling the loose gown worn by 
thi Banians of India. The banian-day» 
of the sailors are those upon which no 
flesh meat is allowed, also borrowed from 
thi habits of the Banians, who, being 
ir»-tempsychosists, refrain not only from 
eatlr.g flesh, but even from killing noxious 
Ban'ian-tree, \ the Indian-fig or God- 
Ban'tan-tree, ) tree, the {J'icu«/ndica). 
The branches of this famous tree descend, 
take root, and are in time converted into 
great trunks, so that a single tree, with 
all its props and stems, may cover a space 
cf 2000 feet circiunference. 

Bank. 1. In carpentry, a piece of flr- 
■woodunsUt of about six inches square, and 

of any lenj^th. 2. In nautical language, 

a bench of rowers in a galley, so called 
from their seat, he7ieh and bank being ra- 
dically the same word. 3. In com- 
merce, an establishment for the custody 
and issue of money. Bank for savings, a 
bank established for the receipt of small 
sums deposited by the poorer class, and 
for their acciunulation at compound in- 

Bank-ckedits are credits peculiar to 
Scottish banking, by which, on proper se- 
curity being given to the bank, a person 
is entitled to draw money to the extent 
agreed upon. 

Bank'er. 1. Among maso^.s, the stone 
bench on which they cut and squire their 
work. 2. Among seamen, a vessel em- 
ployed in the cod-fishery, on the banks of 

Newfoundland. 3. The individual who 

manages a bank, or who carries on the 
business of banking. 

Bank'et. In bricklaying, a piece of 
wood of about eight inches square, and 
nine feet in length, on which to cut the 

Bank'rcptct, the state of an insolvent 
merchant. From bancus, a bench (whence 
bank), and ru/)«u», broken, in allusion to 
the benches formerly used by the money- I 

lenders of Italy, which were broken in 
case of their failure. No person but a 
trader can be a bankrupt. 

Bamk'sia, a very fc.\tensive genus of 
greenhouse shrubs, natives of New Hol- 

Ban'liece, Fr. The territory without 
the walls, but comprised within the legal 
limits of the city. 

Ban'n^r. 1. In militaiTf iaw'jcgr* , the co- 
lours, or square standard. -2. Inhotany, 

the upper large petal of a papilionaceous 

The origin of this term, which occurs 
in all modern languages of "Western 
Europe, is, perhaps, the Persian band, a 
standard, from bandan, to bind. Qu. 
Goth, bannan, to summon, proclaim ? 
Ban'nebet, a knight made on the field, 
with the ceremony of cutting off the 
point of his standard, and making it a 
square. The custom is obsolete. He M'as 
then called a knight of the square flag, 
and held a rank between a baron and sim- 
ple knight. 
BAN'QCET,BA:jat7ETTE. 1. The footpath 

of a bridge. 2. The elevation of earth 

behind a parapet, on which the garrif.on 
of a fortress may stand in order to fire 
upon an approaching enemy. 
Ban'shee, Banshi, an Irish fairy. 
Ban'sticrle, a small fish called abo 
stickle-back, and bantickle in some parts of 

Ban'vax, a kind of Indian fig, forming 
a very large tree, which sendsdown roots 
from its branches, which in their turn 
become triuiks. and prop the extending 

Baphomet, the imagijiary symbol which 
the Templars were accused of employing 
in their mysterious rites. 

Bap'tisteri. In architecture, a building 
destined for the purpose of administering 
the rite of baptism. 

Bap'tists, a protestant sect, distin- 
guished by opinions regarding the mode 
and subjects of baptism. As to the mode, 
the Baptists maintain the necessity of im- 
mersion, from the literal translation of 
the word (itxTniiu ; and the subjects, they 
maintain, should only be those who pro- 
fess repentance and faith. Hence, they 
are often called anlipadobaptists , because 
they consider infants imfit subjects for 

Bar, literally that which obstructs. 1. 
In law-courts, an inclosure made with a 
strong partition of timber, three or fonr 
feet high, where the counsel are placed 
to plead causes. Hence, lawyers licensed 
to plead, are called barristers. The benches 
where the lawyers are seated are also 
called bars, and the lawyers themselves 
are collectively called the bar. A trial at 
bar is a trial at the courts of Westmin- 
ster, in diiitinction to a trial at nini iriut. 




In the circuits. 2. In !atc. a peremptory 

exception sufficient to destroy the plain- 
tift'8 action, cither for the time being, or 
for ever, according as it is temporary or 

perpetual. 3. A bank of sand or pravel, 

or both, forming a shoal at the mouth of a 
riyer or harbour, obstructing entrance, or 

rendering it difficult. 1. In mwic, a 

Btroke or line drawn perpendicularly 
across the lines of a piece, to divide the 
notes into equal portions with respect to 
time. 5. In heraldry, one of the honour- 
able ordinances, consisting of two hori- 
zontal lines draSvn across the escutcheon. 

7 he space inclosed is the bar. 6. In the 

^'linage, the highest part of the place in a 
torse's mouth between the tusks and 
grinders, so that the part of the mouth 
Avhich lies under and at the side of the bars 
retains the name of the gum. The upper 
part of the gums which bears no teeth, 

and to which the bit is applied. 7. A 

bar of gold or silver is an ingot, wedge, 
or mass that has been cast in a mould, and 
unwrought. A 6arof iron is a long piece 
••wrought in the forge, and hammered 
from a pig. Iron when first formed into 
bars Is called bar-iron, and is marked 
Ko. 3 j but when cut up, piled, and 
worked over again, it is denominated 

J»o. 3, or bCiit lion. 8. To bar a vein is 

en operation in farriery, which consists 
in openijig the skin over a vein, disen- 
fadng It, and tying it in two places, and 
siriking between the two ligatures. 

BA.BAXip'Toji , an arbitrary term, used in 
logic, to denote the first indirect mode of 
the first figure of syllogism. 

BAaA.Li.oTa, a sectof Manicheans,atBo- 
Iflgna, who had all thin&rs in common, 
even their wives and children. The name 
la the compound 6ar-oU-;o«j. 

Bahatbt, in commerce, is the act of a 
ntaster of a vessel, or of the mariners, 
•when they cheat the owners or shippers, 
by running away with the ship to em- 
bezzle their goods. From Ital. haratare, 
to cheat. 

Barb, Lat. 5<jr6a, beard. 1. The beard, 
or that which grows in the place of it, as 

the barb of a fish. 2. In botany, the 

hiiry tufts which are found on various 

parts of plants ; a sort of pubescence. 

3. The points that stand backwards in an 
arrow, fish-hook, &c. are called barbt, 
and are intended to prevent easy extrac- 
tion. Barb is also the common name of 
the Barbary pigeon and Barbary horse. 

Bab'ba, Lat. a beard. In mammalogy, 
the long tuft of hair dependent from the 
under-jaw. In ornilholo^y, the setiform 
or simple feathers which depend from the 
skin coveting the gullet or crop. In Ich- 
thyology, a kind of spine, ^^nth the teeth 
pointing backward. In botany, any col- 
lection of long loose hairs forming a tuft 
or crest, as on the petals of fhe iris. 

Bar'bacan, Barbican, Fr.bar6<><:<in«. la 
fortification. 1. An outwork or defence of 
a city or castle, consisting of an elevatioa 
of earth along the foot of the rampart. 

2. A fort at the entrance of a bridge, 

or the outlet of a city ha\-lng a double 

wall with towers. 3. An opening in 

the wall of a tower or fortress, through 
which to fire upon an enemy ; called aldo 
an embrasure. 

Barbadoes-leo is a disease indigenous 
to Barbadoes, in which the limb becomes 
tumid, hard, and misshapen. 

Barbadoes-tar, a mineral fluid which 
trickles down the sides of the mountains 
in some parts of America, and sometimes 
is found on the surface of the waters. 

Bab'bara, an arbitrary term used in 
logic to denote the first mode of the first 
figure of syllogism. A syllogism in bar- 
bara, is one in wliich all the propositions 
are universal and al'annative, as, mice eat 
cheese ; moiwe is a syllable ; ergo, syllables 
eat cheese ! 

Baru'area, the tcinter-cress. A gentis of 
which there are two British types. Te- 
tradynamia — Siliqttosa. Named in honour 
of St. Barbara. 

Bar'bate, \ Lat. barbattts, having beard 

Bar'bed, j [barba), bearded. Applied 
to leaves, &c., terminated by a pubescence 
of strong hairs: awned. 

Barbe, in the military art. To fire in 
barbe,ia to tire the cannon over the para- 
pet, instead of firing them through th-^ 
embrasures. Anciently, armour with 
which horses were covered. 

Bar'becce. 1. In the West Indies, a 

hog roasted whole. 2. At home, any 

animal dressed whole. 

Bar'bed, bearded. In botany, the same 
with barbate. — In heraldry, applied to 
extremities pointed with barbs, and also 
used synonymously with crested. 

Bar'bel, a fish, a species of cyprinus 
(q. v.). Its dorsal fin is armed with strong 
spines, whence its name from barb. 

Bar'bellate. When the pappus of 
composite plants is bearded by short, stiff, 
straight bristles. When the roughness is 
caused by short points, it is termed bar 

Bar'bels, small cylindrical processes 
appended to the mouths of certain fishes, 
subservient to the sense of touch. 

Bar'uerry, a popular name of the genus 
berberis, of which there is one British 
species, common in hedges, and well 
known for its oblong, red berries. It is . 
called also pipperidgetntsh. f 

Bar'bet, the bticco (q. v.), of ornitholo- 
gists, is so named from its beak being 
barbed or furnished with bundles (five; 
of stiff hairs directed for%vards,one behind 
the nostril, one on each side of the lower 
jaw, and a fifth under iu symphysis. 

Babbet'tb, a Fr. term mtaxiui; & fUU- 




jorm; nsed to denote a breastwork of a 
fortlficatii^n, from which the caroiaa maj 
he fired over the parapet. 

Bar'biton, a musical instrument of the 
lyre kind. 

Bar'bles, a white excrescence that 
grows under the tongue in cattle: called 
barhes by the French. 

Bar'bula, Lat. dim. a Uttle heard. A 
finely divided beard-like apex to the peri- 
stome of some mosses, as in the genus 

Bau'carolle, a Venetian boat sonsr. 

Bar'con, a luggage vessel used in the 

Bardigli'one, a blue variety of anhy- 
drite, cut and polished for ornamental 

Bar'din, ia military antiquities, a com- 
plete set of armorial trapping for a horse. 
This word is written in the plural bar- 
dynges, and is derived by Grose from Fr. 
bardi, covered; but it is more probable 
that the term was primarily used to denote 
the pikes or spears fixed in the horse's 
trappings, and consequently may be from 
the Teut. harde, a pole-axe. 

Bards, the ancient Celtic poets are so 
tei-med by Roman writers. The etymology 
of the word is uncertain. They were the 
priests as well as the instructors of the 
people, and were greatly venerated. 

Bare-poles, the masts of a ship at sea 
without sails. 

Bar'-fee, a fee of Is. 8d. which every 
prisoner acquitted (.at the barj of felony 
pays to the gaoler. 

Bar'gain , from Welsh, 6«rg^en , to engage. 
Bargain and sale is a species of conveyance 
by which the bargainer contracts to con - 
vey certain lands to the bargainee, and 
becomes by such contract a trustee for 
and seised' to the use of the bargainee. 
The statute then completes the purchase, 
that is, the bargain vests the use, and the 
statute vests the possession. 

Barge-boards, in architecture, the in- 
clined boards placed at the gable of a 
building, to hide the horizontal timbers 
of the roof, and frequently ornamental. 

Baroe-i ocpLES, in architecture, abeam 
mortised into another to strengthen the 

Baroe-cdcrse, in bricklaying, that part 
of the tilting which projects OA'er the 
gable or kirkinhead of a building, and is 
made up below with mortar. 

Bargh'mote, a court which takes cog- 
nisance of causes and disputes among 
miners : also barmote. 

Baril'i.a, the name given in commerce 
to the impure carbonate of soda imported 
from Spain and the Levant. It is pro- 
cured by the incineration of various plants 
which grow on the sea-shore, but espe- 
cially the sal-'oln sorfrt, which is extensively 
«uJtlTe-Wd P-7 the purpr:ee. Kelp (l^ ' ,• 

is sometimes c.iUed British barillfo. Tha 
term barilla is Spanish, probal-ly tJ'H an 
Arabic root. 

Bar'itone, in muitic, a voice tne com- 
pass of which partakes of the bass and 
tenor: jSa«ef, heavy, and rc^oi, tone. 

Ba'rum', the metallic basis of the earth, 
baryta (q. v.) 

Bark. 1. The exterior part of trees, 
&c., corresponding to the skin of animals : 
it consists of a cuticle and epidermis.^—' 
2. Cinchona (q. v.). 

In medicine many kinds of bark are 
used; but the Peruvian or Jesuit's bark 
is especially called bark by way of emi- 
nence. It is the produce of s Peruvian 
tree {cinchotM lanrifolia},s.nii was intro- 
duced into Europe by the Jesuits. 
Among tanners, oak baiii. is bark par 

3. A particulaj form of rig of ve*- 

sels, namely, that of a ship, hut having » 
gaff top-sail instead of the square mlztt; 

Bark'er's Mill, a Tuluable hydraulic 
machine, of which A B is a hoUow cylin- 
der moveable about a vertical axis M N ; 
P P' another hollow cylinder placed at 

right angles to the former, and ccmmuni- 
cating internally with it. X."ar its f.c- 
tremities, which are closed, two apertures 
are made — the sides of this horizoBTaJ 
cylinder opening in opposite directions. 
The cylinders being filled with water, tne 
presstire on the portions opposite the 
orifices !• and P' being unsustained, the 
cylinder will tend to move in the direction 
of that pressure that is roimd its axis 
M N ,• and being froe to move about that 
axis, it will continue to revolve about it 
in a direction opposite to the efflux as 
long as any fluid remains in Ihe rylinders , 
and being coTinecWd with h. lystem of 




machinery, it operates as a powerful 
moving principle. 

Bar'i.ey, strictly the prain, but popu- 
larly the grain and plants indiflferently 
•which produce it. The English barley is 
that -with two-rowed ears {hordeum dis- 
tichon) : the Scotch beer or bigg is two- 
rowed, but has the appearance of being 
six-ear : it is the hordeum hexcutichon of 
the botanists. 

Barleycorn , a grain of barley. The 
third part of an inch in length, and the 
least of our long measures. 

Bab'nacle, the popular name applied 
to Cuvier's class of cirrhipodes, but espe- 
cially used to designate the Lepas balanns, 
Lin. In ornithology, the name barnacle 
is popularly applied to two species of the 
goose tribe, the brant and Egyptian 
goose. SeeBERNACLE. 

Baro'co, an arbitrary term used by 
logicians to denote the fourth mode of 
the figure of syllogism ; the first proposi- 
tion is universal and aflarmative, the 
other two particular and negative. 

Barom'eter, fi-om ^oi^of, iceight, and 
fUTfov, meas^tre. An instrument for mea- 
suring the variation in the weight of the 
ktmosphcrc. The common Tiarometer is 



b glass tube somewhat more than 30 ins., 
hermetically sealed at one end H, and 
being filled with mercury, the tube Is in- 
verted, and the open end placed in a dish 
M, containing mercury. The mercury in 
the tube will then stand somewhere be- 
tween 28 and 30 inches above the level of 
the mercury in the cup, and the varia- 
tions in the height denote the variation 
of atmospherical pressure. The tcheel- 
harometer is a tube filled with mercury 
and inverted as shewn in Figure 2. It 
differs nothing in principle from the com- 
mon barometer. A float is placed upon 
the surface of the mercury at L ; and to 
this a thread is attached, which is brought 

over a pulley at P, so that as the float 
rises or falls in the tube the pulley will 
move towards the left or right, and these 
variations are rendered more perceptible 
by attaching an index to the pulley. The 
common barometer is preferable for 

Bar'ometz, the hairy stem of a species 
of aspidium which looks like an animal 
crouching, from its procumbent position ; 
hence it has been called the Scj/</i»a» lanib 

Bar'on. 1. A title of nobility next 
below that of viscount and above that of 
baronet. The title was introduced into 
England by William I., and used to sig- 
nify an immediate vassal of the crown 
who had a seat and vote in the royal 
court and tribunals, and subsequently in 
the house of peers. Hence in old records 
the whole nobility are included in the 
word barons, which is equivalent to land- 
holders, manor-holders, or royal feuda- 
tories ; and as every manor had its court, 
these courts were called courts-baron. The 
title is not now attached to a manor, but 
is conveyed by letters patent, and the 
privileges of the courts-baron are merged 
in the house of peers, as the representa- 
tives of the ancient barons. 2. Baron 

is also a title of certain officers : — Barons 
of Exchequer arc the four judges who try 
cases between the sovereign and the sub- 
jects relative to revenue. — The Barons of 
the Cinque Ports are members of the 
House of Commons, elected for the seven 
Cinque ports, two for each. These porta 
are Dover, Sandwich, Romncy, Hastings, 

Hythe, "NVinchelsea and Rye. 3. In 

iojc, a husband, as baron and /ewe, husband 
and wife. 

Bar'oet, dim. of baron, a title next 
below a baron and above a knight. It is 
hereditary, and was originally instituted 
by James I., in 1611. 

Baront, a term used both of the terri- 
tory over which the jurisdiction of a 
baron extended, and the jurisdiction it- 
self. This lordship was held in cliief of 
the sovereign. 

BARou'cHE,a light open summer car- 
riage on four wheels. 

BARRAc'uBA.a Sp. namc for a marine 
fish of the pike tribe, about 10 ft. in 

Bar'ras, a resinous juice which exudes 
fi-om theptntw maritima, and concretes on 
the bark in yellow masses; called also 

Barra'tor, from old Fr. barat, strife. 
In late, a person who stirs up strife be- 
tween other persons is called a eommoti 
barrator, and the offence common barratry. 

Bar'hatrt, 1. In commerce. Set Bar- 
ATRT. 2. Inlaw. See Barrator. 

Bar'rel. 1. A cask or vessel of cylin- 
drical form, bulged in the middle and 
bound with hoops. 1. The qiuj\ti;j 




which a barrel contains: — A barrel of 
beer is 36 Imp. gal. ; a barrel of Essex 
butter is 106 lbs., of Suifolk butttr 256 ; 
a barrel of soap is also 2-56 lbs. ; and a 
barrel of herrings should measure 32 gals. 
"W. mesis., and contain 1000 herrings ; a 
barrel of flour should weigh 226 lbs. gross, 
and contain 196 lbs. of flour. Among 
■workmen, the terms barrel and drum are 
U»ed to designate a cylinder, e. g. the 
barrel of a watch. 

Bxa'sEN. \ barren flower,/osa6ori»tJu», 
is one which produces no perfect seeds. 
Barrec. flowers are generally such as have 
•tamens, but no pistils; they are called 
perhaps more commonly male flowers. 

BA.a'jiiCAr>B. a Fr. word signifying a 
eerie* of bar* or 6nrrier«, and used to de- 
note, 1. In /^<»/5/;n<io«, a defence made in 
a narrow p.->iisage with such things as can 
Ve hastily collected, as trees, waggons, &c., 

to obstruct the progress of an enemy. 

5. In JfavrJ a.'thitecture, a strong wooden 
rail supported by stanchions, extending 
across the foreniost part of the quarter- 
deck in ships of war, and filled with 
ropes, mats, pieces of old cable, and full 
hammocks to prevent the effect of small 
Bhot in time of action. 

Barbie a-THEATY. In 1713, a negotiation 
betwsen the Dutch and the French, by 
which the former reserved the right to 
hold garrisons in certain fortresses in the 
Bpanish Netherlands- 

K.ui'biows, or Tumuli, are said to be the 
most ancient monuments in the world. 
Tiiey were generally raised as sepulchres 
for the heroes of war, though not uni- 
formly 80. Barrow-burial is said by Sir 
R. Hoare to have existed from a period 
of unknown antiquity till the eighth 

Bak'rulet, m heraldry, the fourth part 
of the bar, or the one half of the closet. 

BAR'atTLT, in heraldry, means that the 
field is divided bancays, I. e. into several 
parts from side to side. 

Bar'kt-bzndt, in ^•n7<in/, means that 
the escutcheon is divided evenly barways 
and benduays, i. e. by lines drawn tra- 
Tcrsely and diagonally, interchangeably 
arid varying the tinctures of which it is 

I'tR'RY-piLT, in heraldry, is when a coat 
i« Oivided by several lines drawn obliquely 
bom side to side, where they form acute 

Bar'ton, means literally barley-toum 
(bafie-Con), and is taken to denote: 
(1.) The demesne lands of a manor. (2.^ 
The manor-house. (3.) The manor itself. 

Bart'ta, "I from jSx^us, heavy. A 

Bart'tb, ? mineral which occurs abun- 

Bart'tm, ; dantly in nature in the f.>nn 
of sulphate and carbonate, well known 
under the aaiuc of htavi/ spar, t?. all-ision 

to its great speci tic gravity : but the baryta 
of the chemist is only obtained artiflciaUy, 
e. g. by subjecting the nitrate to a red 
heat, or the carbonate to an intense white 
heat, which drives off the acid, and a 
protoxide of barium is obtained. This is 
the simple earth baryta; it is alkaline, 
and all its salts arc poisonous except the 
sulphate. Hence the best antidote is 
dilute stUphuric acid (cr a solution of sul- 
phate of soda). 

Bas'alt, a Tariety of trap-rock, usually 
of a dark green or brownish black colour ; 
composed of augite and felspar, with some 
iron and olivine. It occurs sometimes in 
veins or dykes, traversing all formations, 
sometimes in layers spreading over the 
surface of strata, and sometimes it form* 
hills of considerable magnitude. It has 
usually a columnar structure, e. g. the 
Giants Caviseway, and bears so close a 
resemblance to recent lavas, as to leave 
no doubt of its igneous origin. The name 
is derived by Cuvier from Ethiopic, batal, 
iron, and Pliny informs us that tie Egyp- 
tians found in Ethiopia a species of marble 
called basaltes, of an iron colour and hard- 
ness, whence it received its name. 

Bas'anite, a variety of schistose horn- 
stone. So named from jSairayof , the trier, 
in reference to its being formerly used as 
a touchstone in trying metals. It was 
also called Lydian stone {Lupit Lydiua, 
Plin.), from its being found abundantly 
in Lydia. 

Base, Lat. basis, Gr. 0auns,B. foundation. 
1. In geometry, the lowest side of the 
perimeter of a figure, in which sense 
is opposed to vertex. In rectangled tri- 
angles the base is the side opposite the 
right angle, and in solid figures it is the 
surface on which they rest. The base of 
a conic section is a right line in the hyper- 
bola and parabola arising from the com- 
mon intersection of the secant plane and 

the base of the cone. 2. In ardtitecture. 

The base of a column is that part which ic 
between the shaft and pedestal, or if there 
be no pedestal, between the shaft and the 
zocle or plinth. The base of a room is the 
lower projecting part of a room, consisting 
of a plain board which adjoins the floor, 
called the plinth, and one or two mould- 
ings above it called the base-mouldings. 

3. In surveying, a line measured with 

the greatest possible exactness, on which 
a series of triangles are constructed, in 
order to determine the position of objecte 
and places. 4. In fortification, the ex- 
terior side of the polygon, or an imaginary- 
line drawn from the flanked angle of a 

bastion to the angle opposite. 5. l»i 

tactics, a tract of country well protectee 
I by fortresses, or possessing certain natural 
i advantages, and »"?oz;. t'M.cV-. »h> ip?r5. 
I tions '^f nn armv I'ay p'oceed 6. In 




gunnery, the smallpst piece of ordnance 
used: bore li in., lenjnh, i ft., loud 5 lb. 

7. In con-.'holnay. that part of the shell 

m univalves by which they are attached 
to rocks or other SMbr.tances: in multi- 
valves, the opposite extremity to the apex. 
The last whorl of a spiral shell is called 
the base or basal wKorl. In uaattached 
bivalves the terra cannot be properly ap- 
plied. — Base and baMs are often used in- 
diJferently, the latter generally in pro- 
fessions, and especially in chemistry, 
pharmacy, and anatomy. See Basis. 

Ease-fee. In laic, to hold in base-fee is 
to hold at the will of the Lord : opposed 
to wctuje tenure. 

Base- lin e. In perspective, the common 
sertion of a picture, and the geometrical 

Base'mest. In architecture, the ground 
floor on which an order is placed with a 
base or plintb , die and cornice. 

Ba'semzt, a helmet. Sometimes written 
basinet and bascinet. 

BaehaV, a title of honour in the Tur- 
kish dominions, which ought to be written 
ansi pronounced pas/in/i. It is often written 
patSa. The Ar. is bashd, and the Per. 

Basi'ator, the orbicularis oris, a muscle 
of the mouth : from basio, to kiss, 

Bjvsiot'nitjm, Gr. from fi»rtt, the base, 
and yvffi, female. A stalk rising above 
the origin of the calyx, and bearing an 
ovary at its apex, as in Capparis. 

Ba'sil. 1. A word used by carpenters 
and joiners, who pronounce it bazil, to 
denote the angle co which the edge of an 

iron tool is ground. 2. The popular 

name of the Ocymum of botanists, espe- 
cially the Ocymum basilicum or citron 
basil, an Indian plant much used as a 
condiment to season dishes, to which it 
imparts a grateful odor and taste. Hence 
the name from basilic (q. v.) 

Bas'ilart-monks, are an existing order 
of monks of the order of St. Basil, who 
foonded the order in Pontus. 

Basii'ic, royal, from /3«^/A.6i»f , a king. 
This word, or its Latin type basilica, is 
lued by architects to denote a spacious 
building ; e. g. a church, cathedral, royal 

Ba'sil- LBATHER, tanned sheep-skin : 
written also hasan. 

Anciently, the term basilica was used 

to designate a public hall or court of 

judicature, where the magistrates sat 

to administer justice; but from the 

circumstance of Constantine giving the 

use of some basilica to the Christians 

for their worship, the term became 

with them synonymous with Church. 

—^Batilic is applied, in anatomy, to parts 

supposed to be pr« eminently important 

(n their functions ; and in pharvtaey. to 

compositions highly esteemed for their 

Bas'ilisk, bom ^awtXiut, a king. A. 
highly poisonous serpent, which waa so 
called, according to Pliny, from a white 
spot upon its head, which resembled a 
crown. Many extravagances were be- 
lieved by the ancients regarding this 
serpent ; the moderns added more wonders, 
and made it a monster sprung from a 
cock's egg ! whence it got the name of 
cockatrice. The animal at present known 
by the name of basilisk, is a harmless 
lizard. Basilisk is also a name given to 
a large piece of ordnance from its sup- 
posed resemblance in deadly effect to the 
wonderful serpent of that name. The 
old basilisk carried a ball of 200 lbs. The 
Dutch basilisk is 15 ft., the French 10 ft., 
and carry a ball of 48 lbs. 

Basilosau'rcs, an enormous fossil 
saurine, described by Dr. Harlan of Phila- 
delphia. Neither its relations to other 
species, nor its geological position, are 
yet determined. 

Ba'sis, Lat. from fiaifif, from fieutat, to 
go. originally the step or walk of an 
animal on the sole of the foot on which 
the body is supported in walking, and 
hence, analogically, that part of the body 
which supports all the rest, viz., the 
lowest part : Anglicft, 6ase. In ar^<o»ny, the 
term is used to denote a part from which 
other parts appear, as it were, to proceed, 
or by which they are supported. In che- 
mistry, the term is usually applied to 
alkalies, earths, and metallic oxides, in 
their relations to the acids and salts. It 
is sometimes also applied to the particular 
constituents of an acid or oxide, on the 
supposition that the substance combined 
with the oxygen &c. is the basis of the 
compound to which it owes its particular 
qualities. In pharmacy, the basis is the 
principal ingredient in a compound. For 
other significations, see Base. 

Basis'oi.I3te, Lat. iamand solutus,fret. 
Applied to leaves prolonged at the base 
below the point of origin. 

Bas'ket, from "W. basged, of basq, a net- 
ting. 1. A vessel made of twigs, &C.&C. 

2. As much as a basket will contain. In 
military affairs the term is used to desig- 
nate small baskets of earth , which serve 
as a defence against small shot : called by 
the French corbeilles. In architecture, the 
term denotes a carving in the form of a 
basket filled with flowers and fruits. 

Bas'kino-Shahk, a species of Squall. 
{See Sqcalus.) It is the largest of all the 
shark tribe, and has nothing of the fero- 
city of the shark. It inhabits the Arctic 
seas, and lies much on the surface , basking 
in the sxin. 

BAe-HELiEr. See Bas^o Relixvo. 

B>j>3. in tn*mc, the deepest or graTMft 




part of a trine. The word ia thos -writion 
in imitation of the Itai. bcuto, which is 
the Engl, oase.low. The bass is the foun 
dation of the harmony, and the base or 
Bupport of the whole composition. Figured 
hasb ia a bass which, while a certain 
chord of harmony is continued by the 
tiarts above, moves in notes of the same 
harmony. Fundamenta. bass is that -which 
lorms the tone or natural foundation of 
the harmony, and from which that har- 
mony is derived. Ground bass starts with 
some subject of its own, and continues to 
he repeated throughout the movement, 
while the upper parts pursue a separate air 
end supply the harmony. See Thoroloh- 
l^Ass. Bass is the name of several species 
of fishes. In England it is a name of the 
fish otherwise called the Sea-wolf (the 
Anarrhichics lupus, Lin.), and in America 
of thepermoc«W«<a,Lin. Another species 
of the same tribe is called the sea-bass. 

Ba.s', j A kind of helmet, a hat or 

Bas'sanat. j casque of steel, very light, 
made in the form of a basin. The soldiers 
in the French army who wore bassanets 
were called basdnets or bacinets. 

Bass-Cliff, called also the F. Cliff. 
The character here represented, ^^^— 
and placed at the beginning of a rrr — 
ctave, in which the base or lower ^^^^^^^ 
notes are placed. 

BAss-couNTEa, the under bass or con- 
tra-batt. That part which, when there 
are two baaf< parts in a musical composi- 
tion, is performed by the double basses, 
the Tiolincellos taking the upper bass or 
basso comertante. 

Bass-Hokn, a modification of the bas- 
soon, much lower and deeper in its tones ; 
it is now generally substituted in field 
music for the serpent. 

Babbit, a term used by miners to ex- 
press an upward slanting direction of a 
vein from below the surface. Basseting, 
alanting upwards, opposed to dipping. 

Bas'skt-Hobn, the richest of all musi- 
cal wind instruments ; it is properly an 
enlarged clarionet. Although differing in 
form, its intonations, the mode of hold- 
ing and fingering it are such, that any 
clarionet-player can perform on it with- 
out practice. It has the name comei from 
its curvature. 

Bas'bo, the Italian word for last (q. t.). 
Sasso-concertante, the bass of the little 
chorus, usually taken by the violincellos, 
called eJso basso recitante, and opposed to 
basso repieno, the bass of the great chorus. 
The former plays throughout the piece, 
the latter only at full parts. 

Ba2'8o-Rblib'vo, Ital. i The terms are 

Bass- Relief, Eng. / used to denote 
Bculptured representations raised upon a 
fUt surface, or back-ground, in such a 
manner as to project from it less than 
one-half the general depth of the figures, 

distinguished ftrom alto relievo, in which 
the figures project more than a half, and 
viezzo-relievo, in which they project a 
half. Popularly, however, the first term 
includes the other two. 

B.vssoo'n, Fr. has son, low sound. A 
musical instrament which forms the na- 
tural bass to the hautboy. It is played 
like that instrument, with a reed, and 
forms a contuiuation of its scale down- 
wards, hence called by the French bas- 
son de hautbois. It consists, of four rubes 
bound together like a fasgot, hence its 
Italian nauui/aggotte, which the Germans 
"write faggoti. 

Bas'sls, a genus of terebrantian hyme- 

Bass Viol, a stringed instrument re- 
sembling the viol in form, but much 
larger. It has four strings and eight 
stops, and is played with a bow. 

Bas'takd, Lat! basturdus, an individual 
bom out of wedlock. The subsequent 
marriage of the parents legitimises the 
bastard according to the common law of 
Scotland. Bastar eigni, bastard elder, is 
when a man has a bastard son, and after- 
wards weds the mother, and has a legiti- 
mate son, mulicr puisne, or younger. Tho 
term bastard is othervrise used in the senso 
ot spurious, and especially in botany, thu* ; 
bastard balm is the tnelittis of botanists, &e 
distinguished from melissa or true balaa. 
Bastard cabbage-tree, is the genus Geof rot/a 
in distinction to the calcalia kleinia, or 
cabbage-tree of the Canary' Islands, &c. &c. 

Bastard Stucco. In architecture, plas- 
tering of three coats : first, the roughing- 
In, second, the floating ; the third or finish- 
ing coat, contains a imall quantity of hair 

Bastard Wing, three or five feathers, 
placed at a small joint at the middle of 
the wing. 

Bastina'do, la punishment used among 

Bastona'do, ) the Turks, coi->iBting in 
beating the offender on the soles of the 
feet with a boston or wooden club. 

Bas'tion, a bulwark, from old Fr. bas- 
tir, to build. The bastion, formerly 

called a bulwark, is an erection by which 
the line of fortification is broken so as to 
obtain lateral defences and due command 
of every point at the bottom of the ram- 
parts, and in the ditch before the citadeL 
They are built in very different wayfc 




Borne are solid, being entirely filled with 
earth, some have a void space inside, 
■ome are straight, some curved, some 
double, that is, one raised on the plane 
of another, some are composed, or have 
three or four flanks one over the other ; 
some have fausse-brays ; some casemates 
for retreat of the garrison or for batteries ; 
aome cavaliers, orillons, «fcc. The parts 
generally considered essential are marked 
la. the fignre. 

Bas'ton, Batoon. See Tears. 

Bat, a name common to a large tribe 
of mammiferous quadrupeds, character- 
i*ed by a fold of skin, which commences 
at the sides of the neck, and, extending 
between their front feet and toes, consti- 
tutes wingf capable of supporting them 
In the air, and in many species so com- 
plete as to enable the creature to fly with 
great rapidity. They are all nocturnal, 
and in our climate pass the winter in stu- 
por. Duruig the day they suspend them- 
selves in obsciire places by the thumb- 
nallB. The bats belong to Primates of 
Lin., and constitute the family Cheiro- 
ptera of Cuvier. See Vespektilio and Ga- 


Bata'tas, the name given by the na- 
tives of Peru to the potato, solanum tube- 
rotum, and also to the root of a species of 
convolvulus. Batatas is also the name of 
ft mite found In the potatoes of Surinam. 

Batea'tj, Fr. from Lat. hatilUim. A 
light boat long in proportion to its 

Bath-stojje, 1 a species of limestone, 

Bath-oolite, / consisting of minute 
globules, cemented together by yellowish 
earthy calcareous matter, and presenting 
somewhat the appearance of the roe of a 
fish, hence called roe-stone. This member 
cf the oolite formation affords excellent 
freestone for building. The quarries at 
Bath are well known. See Oolite. 

Ba'tist, Batiste. A very fine, thick, 
white linen cloth, manufactured in va- 
rious parts of the Continent. Diflferent 
kinds of it are called linons, clairs, and 
cambrics. With us, cambric is the general 
name. The manufacture takes its name 
from Baptista Chambrai, who brought it 
rato vogue in Flanders, in the 13th cen- 

Bat'on. Fr. In tntmc, a rest of four 
semibreves. Also the staff of a field- 

Batra'chia, the name given by Cuvier 
to the fourth order of reptilia, from 
0eirf»x^> ^ ^^°^> ^^^ batrachians being 
analogous to frogs. It comprises frogs, 
toads, salamanders, and sirens, all of 
which have two equal lungs, and a heart 
composed of one auricle and one ventricle. 

BAT'RAcaOMT'oMACHi'A, composed of 
fimr^ix'i > ^ ''°?> H^f' * niousc, and jcm^ij, 

a battle ; the battle of the frogs and mic«. 
A mock-heroic poem, which has been 
ascribed to Homer. 

Battal'ion, a body of infantry, usu- 
ally from five to eight hundred strong. 
So called because originally a body ol 
men arrayed in order of battle {battalia'^. 

Bat'tel. In old law, the wager of battel 
was a species of trial for the decisio'i uf 
causes between parties, introduced into 
England by William the Nornan Con- 
queror, and used in three cases :— in courts 
of honour ; in appeals of felon.v ; and in 
issues joined upon a writ of right. The 
contest took place before judget:, and the 
combatants were bound to light till the 
stars appeared, unless the death '^i C7.c. 
party, or victory, sooner decided the con- 
test. At Oxford the word battel is used 
to designate the account of expenses of a 
student in the college books. Batteler there 
is the same with sizer at Cambridge. 

Bat'ten. In carpentry, a scantling of 
stiiflf from 2 to 6 inches broad, and from 
I to 2 inches thick. Used in the boarding 
of floors-, also upon walls, in order to se- 
cure the lath on which the plaster is laid. 
The act of fixing the battens is called 
battening. The name batten is also used in 
commerce, to designate wood 2i inches 
thick, and 7 wide : if more than 7 inches, 
it is called deal. 

Bat'tened down. The hatches of a 
ship covered down in bad weather with 
strong gratings nailed to battens. 

Bat'ter, Fr. battre. 1. Among masom, 
when a wall is built in a direction that is 
not perpendicular to its base, it is said to 
batter, and the amount of deviation froia 
the perpendicular is called its batter. 
Walls are made to batter in order to re- 
sist the weight of a body of water, moiLid 
of earth, or other pressure that may reft 
against it. 

Bat'terinoRam, a warlike instrument 
used by the ancients to beat down the 

walls of fortified places. These were of 
two kinds, the twinging and the rollinp 
ram, and when worked under a cover, to 
protect the assailants, they were denomi- 
nated tortoise-rams, from the shed being 
assimilated to a tortoise-shell. The na- 
ture of the swinging-ram is obvious from 
the figure i and the only difference of th6 




foiling- rata was, that it -^ut mounte.i en 
■wheels instead of being suspended. Some 
of these machines, from accounts, must 
have weighed little short of 100,000 lbs. 
They were wrought by human force. 

Bat'tery, Fr. batterie. In law, see As- 
PAVLT. In fxperimental physics', a combi- 
n.'Uion of Leydenjars forms an electrical 
battery; and a combination of metallic 
■plates (one set of which consists of oxidiz- 
■able metal; constitutes a galvanic battery. 
See Leyden Jar, and Galvanic Trough 
and Pile. In fortification, a parapet 
thrown up to cover the gunners from the 
enemy's shot, .and in which embrasures 
?.re made, through which the cannon are 
projected to be fired. Cross batteries are 
two batteries which play athwart each 
other. A battery d'enfilade is one which 
scours the whole line. A battery en echarpe 
IB one which plays obliquely. A battery 
lie rcrers is one which plays upon the 
enemy's back. 

Bat'tle-ax, 1 a weapon much used by 

Bat'tle-axe, ] the people who fought 
on foot, during the middle ages. It was 
eepscially a cutting instrument, but had 
usaaUy a point for thrusting. It was 
much used in England, Ireland, and 
Scotland, and, indeed, the Lochaber-axe 
remained a formidable weapon of destruc- 
tion in the hands of the Highlanders till 
Tery recently. 

BAT'TLE-piECB,a painting which repre- 
sents a battle, exhibiting large masses of 
men inaction. 

Bat'ton, in commerce and carpentry. See 


Bat'tox, Baton, Batoon. 1. The staff 

of a marshal. 2. A truncheon tised in 

coats of arms to denote illegitimacy. 

Bat'tue, Fr. In sporting, a practice of 
htaxtsmen, consisting of surrounding a 
portion of the forest, and, by beating the 
bushes and shouting, endeavouring to 
bring out wolves or other animals for the 

Battd'ta, It. abeatius. In mtuic, beat- 
ing time with the hand or foot. 

Batj'hinia, mountain-ebony. An ex- 
teniiYe genus of arborescent plants. De- 
(^:.Tuiria — Monogynia. All the species in- 
hi^Mt warm climates. Named in honour 
of G«pard Bauhin. 

Bjv'jl'k, from the Dutch. A piece of 
■tlnvbei trom four to ten inches square. 
Baulk-roofing is roofing constructed of 
taulk timber- 

Bawrel, a -trpecies of hawk. 

Baxte'rj^ns, the followers of BJchard 
Baxter, on the subject of grace and free- 
will, whoise opinions were midway be- 
tween Cal'vlnism and Arminianism. 

Bay, the wood of the bay-tree. See 
Lattrce. The term is like^s-ise used to 
designate the colour of horses when red- 
duh and inolincd to chestoiut, like the 

leaves of the bay-tree. The shades of thii 
colour are light-bay, dark-bay, dapple-bay, 
gilded-hay, chestnut-bay. Commonly all 
bay horses are called brown. 

Bay, from Teut. baeye, synonymous ■witii 
bulge. 1. An arm of the sea smaller thaa 
a gulf and larger than a creek. The tem 
is used very indefinitely, as will be ob- 
served in its application in Hudson's Bctf 
and the Bay of Biscay. 2. Among build- 
ers, any kind of opening in a building, as 
a door, window, or chimney. — A bay c/ 
joists consists of the joists between two 
binding joists, or between two girdeis 
where there are no binding joists. — Bcj 
of roofing, the small rafters and purlins be- 
tween principal rafters. — Bay, as appliei 
to windows, is the same with bow. — The 
bay of a barn is a part often about 15 feet, 
at the end where corn, &c., is laid: whea. 
a bam consists of a floor and two heads, it 

is called a bam of two bays. 3. In shif » 

(of war), that part on each side between 
decks which lies between the bitts. 

Bay-cher'rt, ) the prmizis lauro-cerams 

Bay-laurel, j of botanists ; called also 
poison-laurel, and Alexandrian-laurel. 
The leaves yield prussic acid. 

Ba'yonet, the iron blade for affixing on 
the muzzle of the musket, to transform it 
into a thrusting instrument: takes its 
name from Bayonne, where bayonet j 
were first made. 

Bay-salt, salt obtained by evaporatic?, 
sea water in shallow ponds by the heat oi 
the Sim — whence its name. It is of ». 
dark-grey colour, and contains iodine. 

Bay'-tree, a name common to the whol j 
genus Laurus (q. v.), consisting of 17 sp> 

Baza'ar, Bazar, a market-place. The 
word is borrowed from the Orientsl-, 
among whom bazars have been commas 
from time immemorial : it signifies saie. 

Baz'at, a long, fine spim cotton froia 
Jerusalem, hence called Jerusalem cotton. 

Bdella (^SeAX*). The horse leech. 

Bdel'licm {QiiXKiov). A gimi-resin 
produced by an unknown plant, which 
grows in Persia and Arabia. It is im- 
ported in semi-pellucid, yellowish-brown 
pieces, which smell feebly like myrrh. It 
contains 59 resin, 92 gum, 30-6 cerasin, 
and 12 etherous oil. 

Bdellos'tomes, ) Gr. from /S5aXX«, I 

Bdellos'toma, ) snck, and o-rofMx,, a 
mouth, i. e. a mouth formed for suction. 
A genus of cyclostomous fishes. 

Bea'con AGE, dues levied for maintenance 
of beacons. 

Bead, from Sax. beao, a praying. 
Beads are the small globules or balls 
used as necklaces, and made of different 
materials, as peail, amber, steel, &c. The 
CathoUcs use strings of beads in rehearsing 
their prayera; Lencc the phraaes, to te8 




hfftdt and to be at beads, means to be at 

Bead, among builders and xcrights, is a 
round moulding; (originally and often yet 
carved in short embossments like beads in 
necklaces), frequently set on the edare of 
each facia of an architrave ; also used as 
the mouldings of doors, shutters, skirt- 
iniis, impost and cornices. When the 
bead is flush with the surface, it is called 
quirk-bead, and when raised, cock-bead. 
The term is frequently used by car- 
penters, thus : Bead and btitt work, a 
piece of framing in which the panels 
are flush, having beads upon the two 
edges. — Bead, butt, and square work, 
framing with bead and butt on one side, 
and square on the other, used chiefly in 
doors. — Bead and flush work, a piece of 
framed work with beads run on each 
edge of the inclined panel. — Bead, flush, 
and square work, framing with bead and 
flush on one side, and square on the 
other. — Bead and quirk, a bead stuck on 
the edge of a piece of stuff", flush with 
its suriface, with only one quirk. — Bead 
and double quirk. See Return Bead. 
Bead-proof, a rude method of deter- 
mining the strength of spirituous liquors 
from the continuance of the bubbles {beads) 
on the surface, produced by shaking. 

Beads, a number of glass globules for 
trying the strength of spirits, which is 
denominated by the 
number of the bead. 
Thus if the bead mark- 
ed 22 be exactly sus- 
pended, while those 
which are heavier sink , 
and those which are 
lighter stand above the 
surface, the spirit is said to be of bead 22. 
Bead-tree, the popular name of the 
genus melia, but used to denote especially 
the species azedarach and azedarachta, 
both Asiatic a*orescent plants. The fruit 
is a nut, which, being bored, is strong, 
and worn as beads, especially in Spain 
and Portugal. 

Beak, the bill or nib of a bird, from the 
same root aspca^. In architecture, a small 
fillet left on the edge of a larmier, which 
forms a canal, and makes a kind of pen- 
dant chin, answering to what is other- 
wise called the mentwn. — In farriery, a 
little shoe, at the toe, about one inch 
long, turned up and fastened upon the 
fore part of the hoof. 

Beam, from Goth, bagm, a tree; Sax. 
beam . Among builders , a piece of timber 
or metal of a rectangular section, laid 
across the walls, and serving to support 
the principal rafters. When the word is 
technically used, it is commonly com- 
pounded with another word used adjec- 
tiyelj, M tie beam collar-beam, camber- 

beam. There are also scarfing and trMtt 
beams (q. v.). The beatn of a ship is a grest 
cross timber which holds the sides of a. 
ship from falling together. The beams 
support the deck and orlops — the main- 
beam is that nearest the main-mast. — 
Beam-ends: a vessel is said to be on her 
beam-ends when she inclines so much on 
one side, that her beams approach a ver- 
tical position. — On the beam signifies at 
any distance from the ship on a line with 
the beams, or at right angles with the 
keel. — Before the beam is an arc of the 
horizon intercepted crossing the ship at 
right angles, and the point of the compass 
on which she steers. — The anchor-beam is 
the shank of the anchor. — The word beam 
is also used to signify: 1. The pole of a 
carriage, which runs between the horses. 

2. The lever or rod of a balance is 

termed the beam » and the parts on each 

side of the pivot are its arms. 3. The 

main horn of a stag, which bears the 
antlers, royal and tops. J. The cylin- 
ders of a loom on which the warp and 
cloth are rolled, are called, the one the 

back and the other the/ore-6fam. 5. The 

main piece of a plough, in which the 
plough-tails are fixed, and by which it is 

Beam-bird, a species of the genus Ifo- 
tacilla, Lin. ; called also petty-chaps and 
hay-bu'd. The name is also given in 
some parts to the spotted fly-catcher, a 
species of muscicapa. 

Beam -COMPASS, an instrument consisting; 
of a square wooden or brass beam, hav- 
ing sliding sockets that carry steel or 
pencil-points. Used for describing large 

Be.a'm-filling, the filling in masonry 
or brickwork between beams or joists, 
its height being equal to the depth of the 
timbers filled in. 

Beam-tree, White Beam. The Pynw 
aria of botanists. 

Bear, a name common to all the ani- 
mal' of the genus Ursus (q. v.). There 
are various species of the Bear, as the 
Polar Bear, Thibet Bear, Malay Bear, and 
the Grisly Bear. The thick-lipped Bear 
(17. labiatus. Lin.) is peculiar to India». 
where it is a great favourite with the 
jugglers on account of its blackness and 
general ugliness. The name is from the 
Goth. biHrn, Icelandic, beam, beom, the 
primary sense of which is rough. 

Bear {Great and Little). In astronomf/, 
see Ursa. 

Beard, Sax. bearS, Lat. barba (q. y.). 
1. In botany, the awn which grows trora 
the glume or chaff, in corn and grasses; 
and sometimes the lower lip of a ringent 

corolla. 2. In conchologii. the processes 

by which some univalves adhere to rocks, 
&C. 3. In/arrt*r!/,the chuck of a horse. 




or tha', part which bears the curb of the 
bridl« under the lower jaw or mandible, 
on the outside and above the chin. i . 
In attronomp, see Comet. 

Bear'er, that which supports. Amoni? 
builders, &c. whatever supports a body in 
its place, as a post, a strut. Amonfi heralds, 
a figure in an achievement, placed by the 
side of a shield, and seeming to support 
It; generally the flpure of a beast. A 
human figure similarly placed is called 
a tenant. 

Bejlr'ixo, the situation of an object or 
place with regard to another, as esti- 
mated by the points of the compass ; as 
A bears S. by SE. of B or the bearing 
of A is, &c. In heraldiy, whatever is 
borne in, or fills the escutcheon is called 
a bearing. Among builders, the bearing of 
a piece of timber is the unsupported part 
between two fixed extremities or sup- 
ports, which are likewise called bearings. 
"When a wall or partition is made to sup- 
port another, it is called a bearing-wall or 
partition, and the supported wall, if built 
in the same direction, is said to have a 
solid bearing ; if built in a traverse di- 
rection a false hearing, or as many false 
bearings as there are intervals below the 
wall or partition. 

Beat. In the manige, a horse heats the 
dust, when at each motion he does not take 
in ground enough with his forelegs ; at cur- 
■vets, when he does them too precipitately 
or too low. He beats upon a walk when he 
■walks too short. In seamanship, a ship 
beats up, when she sails against the direc- 
tion of the wind, in a zigzag line. In 
music, a beat is a small transient graoe- 
note, struck immediately before the note 
it is intended to ornament. 

Beau Ideal, Fr. In pauifnu;, that beauty 
vrhich is freed from the deformity and the 
peculiarity found in nature in all indivi- 
duals of a species. 

Beaver, the Castor, Lin. A genus of 
aquatic animals, highly interesting from 
their habits, industry, and ingenuity. 
The animal is about two feet long, its 
body thick and heavy, and its fur, which 
is in great demand with hatters, is of a 
reddish brown colour, but sometimes 
• flaxen-coloured, and at others black, or 
even white. The beaver is easily tamed, 
lives on bark and other hard substances, 
and builds huts on the banks of some soli- 
tary river for winter habitation, each hut 
serving for several families, which sepa- 
rate in siumner and live solitarily. See 

Bed. 1. In geology, a stratum of two 
yards or more in thickness. 2. In ma- 
sonry, the horizontal courses of a wall are 
called beds : that at the under surface of 
any particular stone is the under-hed, and 
that at the upper surface, the upper-bed. 
—Z. In gunnery, the frame of timber in 

which cannon, mortars, &c. are placed to 
give them a steady and even position. 

Bed-cham'bek, Lords of the. Officers 
of the royal household, under the groom 
of the stole ; they are 12 in number. 

Bed-mocldisg. In architecture, the 
members of a cornice which are placed 
below the coronet, consisting of an ogee, 
a list, and boultine. 

Bed-straw, a popular name. 1. Of the 
Phamaeeum mollugo, an Indian shrub. 
2. Of all the plants of the genus Ga- 
lium, of which there are sixteen British 
species, known by many other names, 
as mug-wort, goose-grass, goose-share, 
cleavers, hayriff, cheese-rennet, ladies' 

Bee, a name common to all the insects 
of the genus Apis, Lin., but particularly 
applied to the Apis mellifica, Lin., or 
honey-bee {Apis, Latreille). There are 
several other species, however, which de- 
serve the name nearly as well. The bee- 
communities consist of neuters (barren 
females), usually from 1500 to 2000, but 
sometimes exceeding 3000, with 600 or 
800 nmles, about 1000 drones, and com- 
monly a single female styled king by the 
ancients, and queen by us. "When the hive 
becomes overstocked, a young colony is 
sent out under the direction of a queen- 
bee ; this is called swarming, and casting 
in some parts of Scotland. 

Bee-bhead, the pollen of fiowers col- 
lected by bees as food for their larcte or 

Bee-eater, a bird of which there are 
several species closely allied to the swal- 
lows : it feeds on insects, chiefly bees. The 
name is common to all the species of the 
genus Merops (Lin.), but especially de- 
notes the apiaster. 

Be«'6lce, a soft unctuous matter with 
whieh bees cement the combs to the hives 
and close up the cells : called &\so propolis. 

Beich. a name common to all the spe- 
cies of the genus t'agus (q. v.). The beech- 
tree, well known in England as the Fagus 
sylratica, a valuable forest-tree. The 
nameisSax. becc, ftor, probably the name 
of the bark, and this being used by our 
ancestors as the material foi writing on, 
the word came to signify a book. 

Beef-eaters. 1. The yeomen of the 
Queen's guard, corrupted from Fr. buffe- 
tiers, of buffet, a sideboard, in allusion to 
their being stationed by the sideboard at 

royal dinners. 2. A genus of African 

bird of one species {Buphaga Africana) , so 
named from the popular notion, that, in 
extracting the larvse of the oestrus, on 
which it fee-is, from the skin of cattle, it 
really feeds on the cattle themselves. The 
bird is brownish, h'JS a cuneiform tail, 
and is as large as a 

Beer Fr. bUre, Germ. bier. The fer- 




mented infusion of malted barlty, fla- 
Tourcd •with hops, constitutes the best 
Bpecies of beer, but there are many beve- 
rages of inferior quality to which this 
name is given, as spruce-beer, ginger- 
beer, molasses-beer, &c., all of which 
consist of a saccharine liquor, partially 
advanced into the vinous fermentation, 
and flavoured with peculiar substances. 
The Romans gave beer the appropriate 
name of Cerevisia,iis being the product of 
corn, the gift of Ceres. 

Beet, a name common to all the plants 
of the genus Seta, but especially the Beta 
vulgaris, cultivated throughout the 
greater part of Europe for its succulent 
root (beet root) , from which sugar has been 
pretty extensively manufactured, espe- 
cisdly in Trance, and more recently used 
in the manufacture of beer. Nitre is 
obtained from the leaves of the same 
plant. There are three varieties known 
in our kitchen-garden, the red, white, 
and green. 

Bee'tle. 1. A name common to all the 
insects of the genus Scarabeeus (Lin.) .See 
ScAaA.B2Ecs. Beetles are for some reason, 

or none, called clocks in Scotland. 2. 

In architecture, a large wooden hammer, 
or mallet, with one, two, or three han- 
dles for as many persons, for drawing 
piles, stakes, &c. 

Beo, aTurkish title equivalent topri/ice 
or lord: written beyh, and pronounced 
hey or bee, by the Turks themselves. 

Beq'lerbeq, a title of a high oflBcer 
among the Turks, next in dignity to the 
grand vizier. The title beglerbeg means 
prhice of princes or lord of lords, and im- 
plies that the bearer is the governor of a 
province, called a beglerbeglic, a.nd.ha.Ying 
several begs under him 

Be'ocines, certain female societies in 
Germany and the Netherlands, whose 
members united themselves for the pur- 
poses of devotion and charity, without 
taking the monastic vows. The name 
means suppliants ; and in Germany several 
eleemosynary institutions are called be- 
ffuinaget, in imitation of the beguinages 
or houses inhabited by the beguines. 

Be'hemoth, the scriptural name of an 
animal which Bochart endeavours to 
prove to be the hippopotamus. The He- 
brew word is from an Arabic root signify- 
ing a beast, but indefinitely. 

Beju'io, the bean of Carthagena. A 
small bean of South America, famous as 
an antidote against the poison of all ser- 
pents, when eaten immediately. 

Belem'nites, an extinct genus of mol- 
lusca, the shells of which are found plen- 
tifully in the chalk rocks. They are 
classed with the cephalopods: about 90 
species are known. The name is from 
/BiXtuyoii, a dart, in allusion to the straight 
Upering form of the shell. 

Beiem'noid, in anatomy, a term applied 
to the styloid processes m general : from 
^iXifAvovy a dart, and eTSe; , likeness, in 
allusion to their shape. 
Bel-esprit, naturalised from the French, 
An agreeable vivacity in writing or con- 

BEi,'FRET,Fr.J^/'>'<M/, or rather, Sax. boll, 
and Lat. /(?/•)•«, to carry. In the middle 
ages this term denoted a tower raised by 
the besiegers to overlook the place be- 
sieged, in which sentinels were stationed 
to watch the avenues, and to prevent sur- 
prise by parties of the enemy, and to give 
notice of fires by ringing a bell. — The 
name has since been transferred to that 
part of a steeple in which the bell is hung. 
This was called in the middle ages the 

Bell. A bell consists of three parts— 
the barrel or body, the clapper or hammer 
called also the tongue, and the ear or can- 
non, which is the enlarged mouth.— 
Church-bells originated in Italy, and were 
introduced into England in the eighth 
century. — The word bell is used to desig- 
nate many instruments and parts of 
machines of forms similar to that of a 
bell. The word is also used popularly to 
denote the calyx of a flower, from its 

BELL-FLow'Efi, a name common to all 
the plants of the genus Campamda, of 
which there are nine British species. The 
name is synonymous with harebell. 

Bell-met'al, a composition of tin and 
copper, usually consisting of three parts 
of copper and one of tin. Less tin is used 
for church-bells, than for clock-bells, and 
for very small bells a small quantity of 
zinc is added to the alloy. 

Bell-pepper, the Capsicum grossum, a 
biennial plant of both Indies. It is the 
red pepper of the gardens, and pepper of 
Guinea used in pickling. 

Belladonna, the deadly nightshade 
{Atropa belladonna), s&id. to be named bella- 
donna, because the Italian ladies use the 
juice of its berries as a cosmetic. 

Belles-Lettres (\ng\ick, bell-letter). A 
French term meaning polite literature. 
It is impossible to give a satisfactory 
explanation of what is or has been 
called belles-lettres; in fact, the vaguest 
definition is the best, as almost every 
branch of knowledge has at one time 
been included in, at another excluded 
from, this denomination. Themostcor- 
rect definition, therefore, would be, 
perhaps, such as embrace all knowledge 
and every science not merely abstract, 
nor simply useful ; but there is a gene- 
ral understanding, at present, that the 
name ought to be restricted to poetry, 
rhetoric, and such prose writings as lay 
claim to elegance of style. 
K 2 




WEi'bis, the daisy. A genus of the 
clf.s8 Syngenesia, and order Poij/. mperftna. 
Named from hellus, pretty. There is only 
one liritish type, B. perennis, called also 

llELo'MANCT, Gr. from ^iA«f, javelin, 
and fjutvrua,, prophecy, divination by a 
fll!?ht of arrows, quite common among 
the Arabians. The inscription on the 
label on the arrow first found, generally 
serves as a puide. 

Bel'one, the generic name of the jfar- 
flsh, of which there are several species. 
Kame from ^O.ovn, a point, In reference 
to the pointed snout. The gar- fish are 
placed by Cuvicr among the pikes {esoceg), 
in the soft-finned order of abdominales 
(Malacopterygii ahdominales) , and were 
first formed by him into a distinct genus. 

Belt, Sax. belt, loit. halteua. A gir- 
dle or band, as that in which a sword is 
hung. Machinery is often driven by 
means of belts. Those two zones or girdles 
■which surround the planet Jupiter are 
named belts, and surgeons use the same 
term to denote the broader sort of bands 
used in dressing wounds In masonry, 
the term belt means a course of bricks or 
stones projecting from the rest of the 
■wall, generally placed in a line with the 
sills of the first-floor windows. In he- 
raldry, it denotes the badge given to a 
person when raised to knighthood. 

Beltein, an ancient festival in Ireland 
and Scotland, held on the 21st of June, 
where fires were kindled on the tops of the 
hills. It was among the last remains of 

Belu'oa., a Russian term signifying 
white-fish, and used to designate a species 
of the dolphin found in the Arctic seas, 
and rivers, aud caught for its oil and skin. 

Belvede're, an Italian term, which 
literally means fine view, used to desig- 
nate a turret or lantern raised above a 
roof, &c. as an observatory ; and in Italy 
and France, a small edifice erected in 
gardens for enjoying a fine prospect. 

Ben, Ben-nvt. The fruit of the JHo- 
ringa aptern. It affords an oil by simple 
pressure, called oil of ben and sometimes 

Bench'ers, in the inns of court, are the 
Bcnior members of the society. They have 
been readers, and being admitted to plead 
within the bar, are called inner barristers. 

Bend. In nnutical language, to bend is 
to fasten, as the cable to the ring of an 
anchor ; and the knot by which the fasten- 
ing is made, is called a. bend. The betids of 
a ship are the strongest and thickest 
planks of her sides, more usually called 
ivales. They are reckoned from the water, 
first, second, &c. bend. 

Bend. In heraldry, an honourable or- 
dinary, formed bv lines drawn from the 

dexter comer to the sinister base. It is 
supposed to represent a shoulder-belt or 
scarf, and to signify that the bearer has 
been valiant in war. 

Bend'let, in heraldry, dim. of bend. It 
occupies a sixth part of the shield. 

Be.nd'y. In heraldry, applied to the 
field when divided into parts diagonally, 
and varying in metal and colour. 

Ben E," the Sesamum orientale, an African 

Benedic'tines, a celebrated order of 
monks, called also Black Friars. They 
take their name from professing to follow 
the rules of St. Benedict. 

Ben'efice, from bene, well, and facto, to 
make. All church preferments are called 
benefices, except bishoprics, which are 
called dignities ; but ordinarily the latter 
term is applied also to deaneries, arch- 
deaneries, and prebendaries ; and bene- 
fices is appropriated to parsonages, vicar- 
ages, and donatives. In the middle ages, 
benefice was used for a fee, or an estate in 
lands, granted at first for life only, and 
held ex mero beneficio of the donor. The 
estate afterwards becoming hereditary, 
took the appellation of fexid, and benefice 
was transferred to church livings. 

Benefit of Clergy, a privilege in law, 
at first peculiar to clergymen, but after- 
wards made available to the laity who 
could read, all such being considered 
clerks. It consisted in the exemption, 
wholly or partially, from the jurisdiction 
of the lay tribunals. The felon, on being 
convicted by the latter, claimed the bene- 
fit of clergy, had a book put into his 
hands, and if the ordinary pronounced 
these words, "legit ut clericus," he reads 
like a clergyman, the culprit was handed 
over to the ecclesiastical court for a new 
trial or purgation, the pretty uniform 
result of which was his acquittal. Bene- 
fit of clergy was finally abolished in Eng- 
' land by 7 & 8 George IV. c. 28. 
I Bene'volence, a species of tax levied 
by the sovereign. It was nominally a 
gratuity; but was in fact exacted as a 
forced loan, with or without repayment. 
1 Ben'jamin-Tree, a name common to 
I two distinct trees. 1. The Laurxis hen- 
j zoin, called a\&ospice-htish, native of Amc- 

! rica. 2. The Styrax benzoin, which af- 

j fords the gum benzoin. See Benzoin. 

Bent, bent-grass, a name common to 
I all the species of grasses composing the 
i genus Agrostis. There are five British 
I species. 

I Ben'zine, the name applied by Mlt- 
scherlick to the bi-carburet of hydrogen, 
. which is procured by heating benzoic 
acid with lime. 

Ben'zoate, a salt formed by the nnloa 
of the benzoic acid with any saliiabie 
Benzo'ic Acid, a peculiar vegetibta 




acid procured in small white needles of a 
flilky Ixistre, from gum benzoin by subli- 
mation, hence called flowers of heT\iamin 
or bmzoin, as well as by more compli- 
cated chemical processes. The taste is 
acrid, hot, acidulous and bitter, its smell 
slightlv aromatic. 

Hen'zoix, Ger. henzse, \ a substance 
Ben'j A.M1N, Fr. ftwjoin, i classed by 
modern chemists among the balsams and 
chiefly used in perfumery. It is extracted 
by incision from the trunk and branches 
of the styrax benzoin, a tree which jtrows 
m several parts of the East Indies and 
adjacent islands. It comes to us in brittle 
masses, which, when white and of the 
form of almonds, are called amygdaloid, 
but when coloured and impure are called 
sorted benzoin. 

Bek'zoine, a crystalline compound de- 
posited from oil of bitter almonds and 
«ome other oils when kept in contact with 

Ken'zone, a volatile fluid procured by 
Peligot by heating dry benzoate of lime. 
Syn. Ci3,Hj,. 

Behbeb ruEv^:. a natural order of plants 
of which the genus berberis is the type. 

Bbrberis, the barberry or pepperidge- 
bush, a genus. Herandria — Monogynia. 

Kf.r'dash, a kind of neck dress for- 
merly worn in England. Persons who 
made and sold berdashcs, were called 
berdoiheri, whence our modern haber- 

Bere'ans, a sect of Protestant dissen- 
ters from the Church of Scotland, who 
profess to follow the example of the an- 
cient Bereans (Acts xvii.lO— 13, and xx. 4) , 
in building their system of faith and 
practice upon the scriptures alone, with- 
out regard to human authority. 

BERBNOA^'RiiiNs, the adherents of Beren- 
garius or Berenger of Tours, who de- 
clared (1050) against transubstantiation, 
In which he agreed with John Erigena. 

Berem'ce'8 Hair (Coma Berenices), a 
name given to seven stars in the tail of 
the constellation Leo. in compliment to 
Berenice, wife of Ptolemy Evergetes, who 
made an olfering of her hair to the gods 
for the preservation of her husband. 

Beroamot, a species of citron (citr^ts 
wcdica), of which there are three varie- 
ties:—!. The lemon-tree, {petiolis lineari- 
bus, Lin.,^ a native of the upper part of 
Asia, but cultivated in Spain, Portugal, 

and France. 2. The citroc-tree [Citrus 

medica, Lin.), the fruit of whtch is tfie 
eedromel, less succulent than the lemon. 
3. The Citrus mella rota. Lam., pro- 
duced at first by grafting a citron on a 
stoct, of a bewjamot peartree, whence 
Uic miit participates both of the citron 
and pear. The essential oil, called essence 
cfberyamotte, is prepared from this fruit. 

Beromote, a court hold on a hill (Sax. 
beoig, a hill, and mote, meeting) in 
Derbyshire, to decide controversies 
among the miners. 

Bekib'eri. Two perfectly distinct dis- 
eases have been confounded under this 
name, the one a peculiar form of acute 
dropsy, the Other a chronic disease of 
which paralysis is the most prominent 
feature. The first is the true beriberi. 

Berlin Blue, Prussian blue. 

Berme, in fortification, a space of 
ground, of three or four feet in width, 
left between the rampart and the moat 
or foss, designed to receive the ruins of 
the rampart, and prevent the earth from 
ftUing the foss. It is usually palisaded 
or planted with hedge. 

BuR'NiCLEs, a geuus of palmipedes, dis- 
tinguislied from tlie common geese by a 
shorter and slenderer bill. The brant 
and Egyptian goose are species. The 
bemacles were included by Lin. in the 
genus anas (q-v.), and are placed by Cu- 
vier among the lamellimstres. 

Bernirdiss, Beniardine monks. See 


Ber'kt. See Bacca. Berries are the 
fruits or seeds of many plants. The bap 
berries are of the fruit of the Laurus no- 
bilis, a tree which is a native of the 
south of Europe. The juniper berries are 
the fruit of the common juniper, Juni- 
perus communis, principally imported from 
Holland, Germany, and Italy. The Tur- 
key yellow berries, the Persian berries, and 
the berries of Avignon, are extensively 
used in dyeing yellow ; they are the un- 
ripe fruit of the Rhamnus infectorius, a 
plant cultivated in Turkey, Persia, 
France, and other countries, for the sake 
of its berries. These are the berries 
quoted in the London price currents. 

Bbr'yl, Lat. beryllus, Gr. ^r,^vK\o(- A 
beautiful mineral ranked among the 
gems, usually a green colour of various 
shades, hence called by jewellers aqua- 
marine. See Emerald. 

Besatle. (Norm, ayle, grandfather.) 
Great grandfather. 

If an abatement happen on the death 
of one's grandfather or grandmother, a 
writ of ayle lieth ; if on the death of 
the great-grandfather, then a writ of 
besayle, but if it mount one degree 
higher to the tresayle, or grandfj^ther's 
grandfather, the writ is calici a writ 
of cosinage, or de consanguimo. 
Beta, the beet (q. t.). A genus of 
plants. Pentandria — Iri^^na. Isamed 
from the river Bonus in :^p.iju. or accor- 
ding to Th^is, from Celtic, I'iH, red. 

Bk'tel, the fyip*r betel is a species of 
pepper vine cultivated extensively in 
India- for ite leaves, which the natives 
are in the habit of chewing, either alone 




or more commonly whrn compounded I 
■with a little lime obtained from sca-shcll | 
(chunam), and wrapped round slices of 
the arcca nut (See Areca). This whole 
compound is called betel, of which there 
is an almost incredible consumption 
throughout India and other parts of the 
East as an article of luxury. It is carried 
about in boxes, and presented, by way of 
civility, as snuff is in Europe. It reddens 
the saliva, gives a bright hue to the lips, 
and renders the teeth quite black. 

Beth'lemites, an order of monks intro- 
duced into England in 1257. They were 
habited like the Dominicans, only that 
they wore a star of live rays, in memory 
of that which conducted the wise men to 
Bethlehem : hence called also star- bearers 

Bet'onica, the beiony. A. genus of hardy 
perennials. Didynamia — Gymnospermia. 
Name altered from hcntmiic, in Celtic: 
hen, meaning aead and ton, good or tonic: 
Its properties are cephalic. Whole vo- 
lumes have been written on the virtues of 
betony, and at the present time, yoti 
Juive more virmes than betony, is a prover- 
bial compliment in Italy. — The wood-be- 
tony {B. officinalis), is the only British 
type: it is common in Scotland in woods 
and thickets. 

Betroth'ment, in law, a mutual pro- 
mise or compact between two parties, by 
■which they bind themselves to marry. The 
"word imports, giving one's troth, i. e. true 
feith or promise. Betrothment amounts 
to what civilians and canonists call spon- 
talia or espousals, sometimes desponsalion, 
or what the French caUJian failles. 

Be'tula, the birch. A genus of hardy 
trees of about 20 species, besides several 
varieties. Moncecia — Polyandria. Name 
Xatinised from Celtic, betu, the birch, 
■which is the badge of the clan Buchanan. 

Bet'i-line, a vegetable principle ob- 
tained from the bark of the common birch 
{Betula alba). It is of a white colour, very 
light, and crystallises in the form of long 
needles ; soluble in concentrated sulphuric 
acid, ether, alcohol, and the fixed and 
Tolaiile oils, but insoluble in water and 
alkaline solutions; fusible, volatile and 

Bev'el, an instrument tised by masons, 
carpenters, joiners, &c. It differs from a 
square in having a moveable tongue, so 
that the instrument may be set to any 

Bevsl-anole is a workman's term for 
any other angle than one of 90" or 45°. — 
The operation of cutting to a l)evel-angle 
is called bevelling. 

Bevel-geer, in mechanics, a. species of 

•wheel- work , in which the axes of the two 

■hafts are neither parallel nor at right 

ausrles to each other. 

Bbvm.ment. in miHernloj/j/, supposes the 

removal of two contiguous segments from 
the edges, angles, or terminal faces of the 
predominant form, thereby producing 
new faces ini lined to each other at a 
certain angle, and forming an edae. 

Beville, ^ in heraldry, a thing broken 

Bevile, I or opening like a carpenter's 
bevel ; e. g. '' He bears argent, a chief 
bevil6, vert." 

Bey. See Beg. 

Bezant's, round flat pieces of pure gold 
without any impression, supposed to have 
been thecuVrent coin of Byzantium. Thi» 
coin was probably introduced into coat- 
armour by the Crusaders. The gold of- 
fered by the Queen on the altar at the 
feast of Epiphany and Purification, i» 
called bezant. 

Bezel, the upper part of the collet of a 
ring which encompasses and fastens the 
stone. Sw. belzla, to curb. 

Be'zoar, a concretion found in the 
stomach of an animal of the goat kind 
(capra gazella) ; hence the name from Pers. 
pazar, a goat. Some however derive the 
word from Pers. pazachcr, which means 
tYie poison-destroyer ; the substance being 
regarded in Oriental countries as an in- 
fallible antidote to poison ; and hence all 
alexiphannics were called bezoardics. — 
The n.^me hezoar has latterly been ex- 
tended to all the concretions found in 
animals : hence we have the bovine, and 
the camel bezoar , the Persian bezoar ia 
however most highly valued: it is of the 
size of a kidney-bean. The King of Persia 
sent three as a presentVo Napoleon : these 
consisted of woody tibre. 

Be'zoar-minfral, a deutoxide of anti- 
mony awkwardly prepared. 

Bi, a Latin prefix for bis, double, twice ; 
e. g. when prefixed to the name of a saline 
compound, it indicates two equivalents of 
acid to one of the base. 

Biarse.n'iate, a salt in which there are 
two primes of the arsenic acid to one of 
the base. 

BiAKTic'uLATE, Lat. his and artiadtu, 
joint. Applied to the antennae and the 
abdomen of insects, consisting of but two 

BiACRic'iLATE, Eat- from bis, and auri- 
cula, an auricle. In comparative anatomy, 
a heart with two auricles. 

Bj'ble, ^t^Koi The Book, by way of 
eminence. The authorised version now 
in use in England was made by command 
of James I., and is commonly called King 
James' Bible. It is the work of 47 translators. 

Bible Society. A society established 
in England in 1804, with the sole object 
of encouraging a wider circulation of the 
Scriptures without note or comment, as 
expressed in its regulations. 

Biblio'graphy, from /S;/SA.Of , a book, 
and y^a/fy,. description. A history or 




description of books as to their dates, 
editions, form, type, and other particulars 
connected with their publication. The 
term is now sometimes used to denote the 
arrangement and classification of the par- 
ticulars, facts, or objects of some depart- 
ment of science, as the bibliography of 
the mammalia. 

Biblom\'nia, from jBi^Xc{, a book, and 
fMi¥ia, madness, book-madness, a dis- 
ease which manifests itself in an over- 
anxiety to obtain old and scarce editions 
of books, without much regard to the 
value of their contents. 

Bical'carate, Lat. bis and calcar, a 
spur. When a limb or part is armed with 
two spxirs. 

BiCAP'scLAR, Lat. bieapstdaris , having 
two capsules ; e. g. a bicapsular pericarp. 

j^icar'bonate, a carbonate containing 
two equivalents of the acid to one of the 

Bice, Bise. A bine colour used in paint- 
ing, and prepared from the lAipis Armenua 
(Armenian stone). It is a smalt reduced 
to a fine powder by levigation. 

Biceps, Lat. 6i« and caput, head. Ap- 
plied to muscles having a double insertion. 

Bichromate, a ehromate containing 
two equivalents of the acid, for one of the 

Bicip'iTAT,, ) Lat. biceps, having two 

Bicip'ETors, j heads. A term applied to 
muscles which have two distinct origins. 

Bicol'ligate, Lat. bis, and colligo, I bind 
together. In ornithology, the connexion 
of all the anterior toes by a basal web. 

Bi'coKN, ( from Lat. bis and cornu, a 

Bicor'scs, j horn, two-horned. Applied 
to parts of plants from their shape, 
as the anthers of the Erica vulgaris. 

Bicos'piDATE, \ Lat. biciispidattts, two- 

Biccs'piD, ) pointed, two-fanged 
(,ctispis,A spear). Applied,!. To leaves 
that terminate in two points. 2. To teeth 
which have double fangs. 

Bid' ALE [bid and ale). A local custom in 
some parts, of inviting friends to a poor 
person's house to drink ale, and make up 
a charitable reckoning. 

Bides'tate, Lat. bidentatus, furnished 
■wit)-, two teeth. Applied to parts of 

BiDio'iTATE, Lat. bidigitatus {bis and 
digitus, a finifer). Applied to leaves, the 
common petiole of which has two leaflets 
at its extremity. 

BiDiGiTi-rENNAiE, Lat. bidigiti-ptii- 
natus. AppUfd in botany to bidigitatc 
leaves, the I»a«i-18 of which are pinnate. 

BiDKT, a kind of basin supported on 
legs : used ia washing the lower part of 
the body. 

BiER-B.*^i.K, the church-road for burials. 

Bi'rER,Lat. hiferusibis, twice, and/ero, 
to bMTj. A plsnt that bears fruit twice 

a year, which is the case with many tro- 
pical plants. 

Bir'iD, forked, Lat. bifidus, divided into 
two. Applied chiefly in botany, as to seed- 
vessels, petals, &c., which are two-cleft, 
but not deeply divided. 

BiFi-o'aATE, Lat. 6t/?ort<s, two- flowered. 
Applied to a pedicle having two flowers. 

Bif'orate, Lat, biforatus(bi!>,anAforis), 
a door. Having two apertures or pores. 

Bif'orme5, singular bodies, minute 
oval S.1CS, lately discovered in the interior 
of the green pulpy part of the leaves of 
some plants. 

Bio, a kind of barley (Scotch barley), 
more commonly written bigg. See Bar- 

Bi'oA. In old records, a cart or vehicle 
with two wheels, drawn by two horses. 
JBis and jttgtim. 

Big'amy, from bis and ya^f, marriage. 
A hybrid term meaning double marriage, 
or the having of two wives at once, 
which is felony by statute. The term is 
frequently used synonymously with poly- 
gamy, and in this sense means the crime 
of having a plurality of wives. In the 
canon law, the term was formerly applied 
to marriage with a second wife after tho 
death of the first, or once marrying a 
widow, wliich disqualified a man for or- 
ders, and holding ecclesiastcal offices. 

BiGAs'TER,from bis and ■yaa-rr,^, a belly, 
A hybrid term sometimes used for biven- 
ter (q.v.). 

Bigem'inate, Lat. bigeminntus, double- 
paired [bis and gemini, twins). Appliea 
to a leaf, when near the apex of the com- 
mon petiole there is a straight pair of 
secondary petioles, each of whith is sup- 
ported by a pair of opposite leaflets ; e. g. 
Mimosa unguiscati. 

Bight, i)an. boyt, a bend, coil, ur turn- 
ing. 1. The double part of a rope, where 

it is folded, in distinction to tlw» ends. 

2. The inward bent of a horse's chambreb, 
and of the fore knees. 

BiGNo NiA, the trumpet-flower. A very 
extensive genus of plants, most of which 
are shrubs. J>idynamia — A7iyiospermia. 
Inhabit warm climates. Named la honour 
of Bignon, by Tournefort. 

Bignosia'ce^, a natural family of 
plants. The genus Jtigitotita-in Uie typo. 

Bi-HYDRo-CARBON, carburcttcd hydro- 
gen, or olefiant gas, is sometimes so 
named. It is composed of two equiva- 
lents of carbon, and two of hydrogen. 

Bi-HTDRoo'cRET OP Carbon, sub-car- 
buretted hydrogen gas, called also heavy 
inflammable air, and fire-damp, = C -t- 
2 H. Aiee Htdroouret. 

Bihirak', 1 a Persian intercalary 

Bihvrak' < month, introduced once in 
120 years. It serves the same parpote M 
our leap yeai' intercalations. 




BiHTDRoo'iRET, a doublc hydroguret. 


Bij'uGous, Lat. h\}ugu$, twice-paired 
{bit and jugum). Applied to leaves com- 
posed of two pairs of opposite leaflets on 
the common petiole. 

MiKH, a deleterious plant used by the 
inhabitants of Nepal to poison their wells, 
at the time the British troops invaded it. 
This poison has been ascertained to be 
the AconitHin ferox. 

Bil'abiate, Lat. bilabiatus, two-lipped 
(bis and labUim). Applied in botany ; e.g. 
the corols of flowers. 

Bilacin'iate, Lat. bilaciniatw, double 
laciniate. Applied to a leaf when the 
margin is cut into two segments. 

Bilam'ellate. Lat. 6«7nmeHntiw, having 
two layers {bis and Jamella). Used in 
botany to denote that the part is of the 
form of a flattened sphere longitudinally 

Bi'lavder, by and la/id. A small vessel 
with two masts, distinguished from other 
two -masted vessels by the form of the 
mainsail, which is b<!nt to the whole 
length of a yard, hanging fore and aft, 
and inclined to the horizon in an angle of 
about 45", the forcjnost lower corner, 
called the tack, being secured by a ring- 
bolt in the deck, and the aftermost or 
sheet in the taflferel. It was used chiefly 
in the canals of the Low Countries : hence 
its name. 

Bilat'eral, Lat. bilateralis, two-sided 
(fct? and latus, a side). 

Bil'boes. ( In $hips, long bars of iron 

Bii.'bows. / with shackles sliding on 
them, and a lock at the end, used to con- 
fine the feet of oflfenders. Hence, also, the 
punishment of oflfenders in this way is 
called by the same name, and is equiva- 
lent to punishment in the stocks on land. 

Bile, Lat. bilis, the gall ; a bitter fluid 
secreted by the liver, in part flowing into 
the intestines, and in part regurgitating 
into the gall-bladder. This fluid is se- 
creted in the minute lobules of the liver 
from the blood, contained in the extreme 
branches of the portal vein, and is brought 
by minute canals, called biliary ducts, 
into the hepatic duct, which conveys it 
into the common biliary duct, by which 
it is carried into the duodenum. 

Bile'sto.nes, biliary calculi are popu- 
larly so named. See Calcilis. 

Bilge, from Goth, bulgia, to swell. The 
protuberant part of a cask, which is 
usually in the middle. The bilge of a ship 
is the underpart of her floor which ap- 
proaches to a horizontal direction, and 
on which she would rest if aground. 
"When this part of the ship is fractured, 
she is said to be bilged ; the water which 
lies in the bilge, is called the bilge-water, 
and the pump adapted to withdraw it is 
called the bilge-i>ump. 

Bil'iakt, Lat biliarius, appertaining of 
relating to bile; e.g. the bile or biliary 
ducts, which are minute canals adapted 
to convey the bile intc the hepatic duct. 
Biliary calculi are concretions which form 
in the gall bladder or bile ducts. 

Bilin'guent, from bis and lingua. A 
jury impanelled on a foreigner, part being 
English and part being natives of the 
same country with the panel. 

Bill. 1. The beak of a bird, from Sax. 
bille, the primary sense of which is a 

shoot. 2. A cutting instrument, used 

by plumbei-s, basket-makers, and gar- 
deners, made in the form of a bird's man- 
dible, and fitted with a handle ; when 
short it is called a hand-bill, when long, a 
hedge-bill, being used for cutting hedges 
and pruning-trees. FromSax. bille, Ger. 
beil, an axe, a hatchet. 

Bill, from Norm, bille, a note. In laio, 
a declaration in writing expressing some 
wrong the complainant has suflfered from 
the defendant, or a fault committed by 
some person against a law. It contains 
the fact complained of, the damage sus- 
tained, and a petition or process against 
the defendant for redress. In Scots law, 
the term extends to every application in 
writing, by way of petition to the court 
of session. The term is also used in Eng- 
land to signify an obligation or security 
given for money under the hana, and 
sometimes the seal, of the debtor, w^ith- 
out a condition or forfeiture for non-pay- 
ment, in which circumstance it differs 
from a bond. This kind of security is 
very generally called a note of hand. In 
parliament, the word bill is used to denote 
a draft or form of a law presented but not 
enacted. In some instances statutes are 
called bills, but they are usually qualified 
by some descriptive title, ae a bill of at- 
tainder. When a bill has received the 
sanction of both houses of parliament and 
the royal assent, it is generally named an 
Act of Parliament. 

Bill or Entry, a written accotmt of 
goods entered at the custom-house, whe- 
ther imported or intended for export- 

Bill of Exchange, a written request 
or order to one person or company to pay 
a certain sum of money therein stated to 
another person or company, on his or 
their order. The person who makes the 
bill is called the drawer, the person to 
whom it is addressed, the drawee, and 
the person to whom or to whose order 
on the face of the bill it is payable, the 
payee. If the drawee accepts the bill, 
he thereby becomes the acceptor. A bill 
of exchange differs trom a promissory 
note in being a request to another per- 
son to pay, whereaa the latter is a pro- 
.Tiae on the part of the maker himself 





to pay the sum specified to the payee. 
BUls of exchange are either inland, i.e., 
■when both the drawer and drawee re- 
side in the same county; or foreiyn, i.e., 
when drawn by a person in one country 
upon one residing in another. 

Bill or Health, a certificate or in- 
strument, sifirned by consuls or other pro- 
per authorities delivered to the masters 
of ships at the time of their clearing 
out from all ports or places suspected 
of being particularly liable to infectious 
disorders, certifying the state of health 
at the time that such ship sailed. A 
clean hill imiwrts tliat, at the time the 
ship sailed no infectious disorder was 
known to exist there. A suspected bill, 
more commonly called a touched patent 
or bill, imports that no infectious dis- 
order had actually broken out, but that 
there were rumours of such. A foul bill 
imports that the place was affected when 
the vessel left; this is more commonly 
known by the absence of clean bills, 
a foul bill not being worth having. 

Bill of Ladikg, a formal receipt signed 
by the master of a trading vessel in his 
capacity of carrier, acknowledging that 
he has received the goods specified in it 
on board his ship, and binding himself, 
under certain exceptions, to deliver them 
in the like good order as received, at the 
place and to the individual named, &c. 
There are usually triplicate copies, one 
for the party sending, another for the 
party to whom the goods are sent, and 
the third for the captain. 

Bill of Mortality, an account of the 
number of deaths in a place in a given 
time. These bills usually contain also a 
summary of births, christenings, &c. 

Bill of Parcels, an account given by 
the seller to the buyer of the several arti- 
cles purchased, with the price of each. 
See Invoice. 

Bill of Rights, a summary " of that 
residium of natural liberty which is not 
required by the laws of society to be sacri- 
ficed to public convenience ; or else those 
civil privileges which society has engaged 
to provide in lieu of those natural liberties 
BO given up by individuals." The name 
is usually given to the declaration pre- 
sented by the houses of Lords and Com- 
mons to the Prince of Orange in 168S, on 
his succession to the British throne, 
wherein they "do claim, demand, and 
Insist upon, all and singular the pre- 
mises" as their undoubted rights and 
privileges. A similar declaration was 
made in the act of settletnent. 

Bill of Sale, a contract under seal, by 
which an individual conveys away the 
right and interest he has in the goods and 
Chattels named in the bill, on some consi- 
detation given or promised. 

Bill of Sight, when a merchant is 

ignorant of the real nature of the goods 
assigned to him, so that he is unable to 
make a perfect entry of them, he must 
give due notice of the circumstance at the- 
custom-house : the collector is thereupon 
authorised to take an entry by bill of sight, 
and to grant warrant that the goods be 
landed and examined by tlie importer in 
presence of the oflScers. 

Bill of Store, a license granted by the 
custom-house to merchants, to carry such 
stores and provisions as are necessary fol 
a voyage free of duty. 

Bil'la Vera, true bill. The indorse- 
ment of the grand inquest upon any in- 
dictment which is fouud to be probably 

Billete', bilU-Vii. A French word used 
in heraldry to signify that the ground of 
the escutcheon is strewed with billets or 
rectangular oblong figures — supposed to 
represent cloth of gold and silver — num- 
ber of such indetinite. 

Bill'iards, an interesting game of 
French invention, played on a rectangular 
table covered with green cloth, with ivory 
balls which are to be driven into holes 
called hazard-nets or pockets, at the corners 
of the table, with sticks, one of which is 
a mace, and the other a cue. 

Bill'ion, that is, bi-million. According 
to the English system of numeration, a 
billion means a million times a million, or 
1,000,000 X 1,000,000 = 1,000,000,000,000; 
but in the French sytem it expresses a 
thousand times a million, or 1000 X 
1,000,000 = 1,000,000,000. See Numera- 

Biio'bed, Lat. bilobus, two-lobed. Ap- 
plied in botany to leaves, petals, seed- 
vessels, &c., which are divided into two 
rounded portions or lobes ; e. g. the cap- 
sules of the veronica biloha. 

Biloc'hlar, Lat. fc<7oci»/rt»-i«, two-celled. 
Applied to capsules, &c., which have two 

BiM Ac'cLATE, Lat. Us and mactcla, a spot. 
Anything marked with two spots. 

Bima'na, Lat. from bis and manits, a 
hand : two-handed animals. The bimana 
constitute the first order of mammalia — 
comprehends but one genus, and that 
genus is man. 

Bimar'ginate, two-margined. A terra 
applied to shells wliich are furnished with 
a double margin as far as the lip.'dial, bis and medial. If two me- 
dial lines, commensurable only in power, 
and contaioinst a rational rectangle, be 
compounded, the whole will be irrational 
with respect to the other too, and is afirxt 
bitnedial line: but if the lines be commen- 
surable only in power and contain a me- 
dial rectnngle, the whole, when com- 
pounded, will be irrational, and constitute 
a second bimedial line. Euclid, B. s. proy 
38 and 32 



Bt N , for bi>ii*s,a» a prefix is synonymous 
with bi (q. v.). 

Ki'nart, Lat. 6t>iartt«, arranged in 
twos; e.g. a binary compound is that 
resulting from the union of two elements ; 
a binary number is one made up of two 
units; a binary arrangement is made 
with pairs. 

Jli'sARY Arithmetic is that wherein 
unity or 1 and are only used. In this 
arithmetic the cypher multipli°s by 2 
instead of 10, as it does in the common 

Ui'NARr I,oo\RiTHMs werc cojitJived 
and calculated by M. Euler for facilitating 
musical calculations. The modulxis j tw o 
instead of ten, as in the comjion loga- 
rithms, OP one in the hyperbolic loga- 

Bi'nart Meascre, in music, is that used 
in common time .wherein the time of rising 
in beating is equal to the time of falling. 

Bi'nate, Lat. binatus, in pairs. Applied 
to a leaf ftivided into two parts almost its 
whole length ; or to a compound leaf hav- 
ing only two leaflets on a common petiole. 

Bi .N D. 1 . jBinrf and clu)ich are names used 
indifferently by miners to designate the 
soil upon which the coal strata rest. It 
is an argillaceous shale, more or less in- 
durated, and sometimes intermixed with 
sand and resembling sandstone, but al- 
most always passing into a clayey soil on 
exposure to the action of the atmosphere. 

2. In music, a tie for grouping notes 


BiND'iNG-joisTs, those joists of a floor 
into which the trimmers of stair-cases, 
or well-holes of the stairs and chimney- 
ways, are framed. 

Bin er'vate, Lat. binerviue, two-nerred ; 
applied in botany to leaves which have 
two longitudinal ribs or nerves. 

Bin'nacle, a box containing a ship's 
compass, and light to show it at night. 
It was formerly called bittacle, supposed 
to be a corruption of Fr. habitacle, but 
more probably boite d'aiguille, needle-box. 


scope to which both eyes may be ap- 
plied, hence the name from binoculus, 
double-eyed. It consists of two tubes 
with two sets of glasses of the same 
power, and adjusted to the same axis. 
The instrument is not now used, being 
found inconvenient. 

Binomial, from binut and nomen. In 
algebra, a quantity consisting of two 
terms or names, and connected by the 
sign + or — . When connected by the 
latter sign the quantity is usually called 
a residual, and by Euclid an apotome. 

Bino'mial Theorem, a general alge- 
braical expression or formula by which 
any power or root of a quantity of two 
terms may be expanded into a series. It 
is usually called the yewtonian theorem. 

Newton being considered the inventor, 
as he certainly was, in the case of the 
fractional and negative exponents, and 
this includes all the other cases of powers, 
division, &c. 

Bin'oxalate, an oxalate in which there 
are two {binus, twice) equivalents of the 
acids to one of the base. 

Bin'oxide, written incorrectly for deii- 
toride. Sm Oxide. 

Bi'Nrs, a Lat. word meaningby couples, 
{bis and unus,) applied to leaves when 
there are only two upon a plant. 

Bio'cELLATE, Lat. bis and ocrlltis, dim. a 
small eye. In entomology, when the wing 
of an insect is marked with two eye-like 

Bip'artile, Lat. bipartilus, having two 
corresponding parts, applied to the co- 
rolla, leaf, and other parts of plants when 
divided into two corresponding parts at 
the base. 

Biparti'ti, a tribe of pentamerous cole- 
opt era, composed of carabici which," in 
relation to their habits, might be styled 
fossores." These insects all keep on the 
ground, conceal themselves either in 
holes or imder stones, and frequently 
leave their retreat only at night, to prey 
on other insects ; they are particularly 
proper to hot climates, though Britain 
produces some genera. 

Bipec'tinai.e, Lat., bis and pecten, a 
comb ; a part having two margins toothed 
like a comb. 

Bipel'tate, Lat. bis, and pelta, a buck- 
ler ; an animal or part liaving a defence 
like a double shield. 

Bipes'nate. Lat. bipennatus, doubly 
peunate, applied to a compound leaf hav- 
ing a common petiole which produces 
two partial ones, each bearing leaflets of 
its own. 

BiPET'ALors having two petals, bis and 
iriraXov. a petal. 

Bipinnat'ifid, Lat. bipinnatifidus, 
doubly pinnatificd: applied to a pinnati- 
fied lea. the segments of which are them- 
selves pinnatilied. 

Bipr'piiLATE, Lat. bis, and pupilla, a 
pupil. In entomology, an eye-like spot on 
the wing of a butterfly, having two dots 
or pupils within it of a different colour. 

Biuuad'rate, Lat. biquadrattts, doubly- 
squared. The biquadrate of a number is 
the square of the square. Thus 4 is the 
square of 2, and 16 is the square of 4 ; 16 
is therefore the biquadrate of 2. 

BiQrADRATic, from bis and quadraius, 
squared. In algebra, a biquadratic power, 
root, or equation, is a power, root, or 
equation of the fourth degree. See Equa- 
tion, Power, and Root. 

Birch, the bctida of botanists, a genus 
of arborescent plants of about 20 species, 
met with in every part of the north of 
Europe. Two species are found in Bri- 





tain, the common and dwarf birch, but 
there arp four varieties of the former. 
The Scotch name is birk, Sax. birc. 

The second letter of the Runic alpha- 
bet is called hinrkann, i.e. the birch- 
leaf, and the second of the Irish is beit 
or beith, birch. 

Bird'-call, a little stick, cleft at one 
end. in which is put a leaf of some plant 
for imitating the cry of birds when blown 
upon like a whistle. A laurel leaf coun- 
terfeits the cry of lapwings, a leek that 
of nightingales, &.:;. 

Biri>'lime, bird and slime, a vegetable 
substance generally prepared from the 
middle bark of the holly, and so called 
because, from its great viscidity, it is 
used to entangle birds. It may likewise 
be obtained from the mistletoe, the vi- 
burnum lantana, young shoots of alder, 
and (Jther vegetables. 

Bird of Paradise. The birds of Para- 
dise are natives of New Guinea and the 
adjoining islands, are said to live on 
fruits, and are particularly fond of aro- 
matics. See Paradis.ea. 

Bird'-pepper, the capsictim baccatutn, a 
shrubby plant of both Indies, bearing an 
oval fruit, very biting, to which the name 
of bird-pepper is given. 

Birds, in heraldry, are emblems of ex- 
pedition, liberty, readiness, and fear. 

Bird's-eve. 1. A species of the prim- 
rose, the primula farinosa. 2, The 

Adonis vera, and sometimes the whole 
genus Adonis, more usually called phea- 

BiRD's-ETE-viEw, a view taken from a 
point considerably above the objects re- 

BiRD's-MorTH, in architecture, an inte- 
rior angle or notch cut in the end of a 
piece of timber for its reception on the 
edge of a pole or plate. It signifies also 
the internal angle of a polygon. 
BiRD's-NEST. I. A genus of ferns, the 

stnUhiopteris germanica. 2. The plants 

of the genus mouotropa are distinguished 
by the name ycUow-bird's-nest, but are 
often called simply bird's-nest. The British 

species is the 3f. hypopithys. -3. The 

lisUra nidus avis of Britain. 

BiRD's-NESTs, in commerce, the nest of a 
species of swallow peculiar to the Indian 
islands ^tho hirundo esculenta),YCTj highly 
valued in China as an article of luxury. 
The nest in shape resembles that of other 
swallows. It is formed of a viscid sub- 
stance not unlike fibrous, imperfectly, 
concocted isinglass. These esculent nests 
are chiefly found in caverns in Java, and 
the better sorts are sold at Canton at from 
6/. to 71. per lb. 
Bi'rekb, Lat. biremis, a vessel with two 
I or tiers of oars {bis and remu* an 

Birhomboi'dai., bis and rhomboid HaT- 
ing a surface of 12 rhombic faces, which 
being taken 6 and 6, and prolonged till 
they intercept each other, would form 
two different rhombs. 

Birth , evidence of By the French civil 
code it is required that a declaration be 
made of the birth of every child to the 
proper officer within three days, with the 
production of the child. 

Birth or Berth, of a ship. The ground 
in which she is anchored ; also, an apart- 
ment, as the midshipman's berth; also, 
the space allotted to a seaman to hang up 
his hammock in. 

Birth'wort, a name common to all the 
plants of the genus aristolochia (q. v.). 

Bis, Lat. twice. In music, a word 
placed over passages signifying that they 
are to be flayed twice over. 

Bis'cciT, Lat. bis and cuit, baked. Ear- 
thenware when it has been baked, but 
not glazed. 

Bi'sECT, Bisection, Lat. bis and seco, to 
cut. To bisect is to divide into two equal 
parts ; e. g. the rational horizon bisects the 
globe ; and such division is called a bisec 

Biseg'ment, bis and segment. One of the 
parts of a line, &c., divided into two equal 

Bis'ETors, Lat. bis and seta, a bristle. 
"U'hen an animal is furnished with two 
bristle-like appendages. 

BisEx'cAL, when flowers contain both 
stamens and pistils in the same envelope. 
It is the same as hermaphrodite. 

Bishop, Lat. episcopu^ ; Gr. iTKDtvrcitOt 
UTi, over, and s-^otref, inspector; trxo^iiUf 
to view. This Greek and Latin word ac- 
companied the introduction of Christi- 
anity into the west and north of Europe, 
and has been corrupted into Saxon, 
biscop, bisceop; Sw. and Dan. biskop; 
D. hisschop ; Germ, bischof. It is the title 
which the Athenians gave to those whom 
they sent into the provinces subject to 
them, to inspect the state of affairs; and 
the Romans gave the title to those whose 
business it was to inspect the provisions 
brought into the markets. In the primi- 
tive church the title denoted one who had 
the pastoral charge of a church. In pro- 
cess of time the maintenance of their 
ecclesiastical prerogatives, and their ex- 
tensive ecclesiastical as well as criminal 
jurisdiction, left the bishops little time or 
inclination for the discharge of their 
duties as teachers and spiritual fathers. 
They Jierefore attached to themselves 
particular vicars, called suffragans, for 
the inspection of all that concerned the 
church. The office now became an object 
of ambition for the nobility and the sons 
of kings: it was honourable, profitable, 
and permitted sensual enjoyments of evei y 




description. The reformation, in some of 
the Protestant eountries, left the higher 
clergy with the title of 6is;»op, but stripped 
them of many of their privileges and 
much of their revenues: the English 
bishops fared the best, and for that reason 
the English church has received the name 
of episcopal. Her bishops are appointed 
by the Sovereign, must be thirty years of 
age, and are, with the exception of the 
bishop of Sodor and Man, peers of the 

Bis'mcth, Germ, biamut. A metal of a 
reddish white colour, and almost destitute 
of taste and smell. It is softer than cop- 
per, breaks when struck smartly with a 
hammer, and consequently is not mallea- 
ble, neither can it be drawn into wire. 
Its sp. gr. is 982, but its density may be 
much increased by cautious hammering ; 
it melts at 476" Fah., and, if gradually 
cooled, it crystallises in octohedrons. At 
a strong heat it burns with a pale blue 
flame, and sublimes in the form of the 
yellow-coloured oxide known by the name 
of fiowers of bismuth. It occurs both na- 
tive and combined with other substances, 
as oxygen, sulphur, and arsenic, and, in 
veins of primitive rocks, accompanied by 
ores of lead, silver, and sometimes cobalt 
and nickel. When foimd as an oxide, it 
is called bismuth ochre ; as a sulphuret, bis- 
muth glance ; as a sulphuret with copper, 
it is copper bismuth ore ; with copper and 
lead, it forms needle ore. The metal used 
*n the arts is derived chiefly from the 
mineral called native bismuth. It gene- 
rally contains small proportions of sul- 
phur, iron, and copper. It is known among 
workmen by the names of niarcasite and 
tin-glass : the last a corruption of French, 
^tain lie glace. 

Bison, ^la-am. Alarge, wild, trntame- 
able, herbiverous, and gregarious animal 
of the bovine genus, which inhabits the 
temperate parts of North America, and 
■which, from its resemblance to the buffalo 
{bos bubulus, Lin.), is often termed the 
buffalo of America {Bos Americanus, 
Gmel.). It is particularly distinguished 
by a great hump or projection over its 
fore-shoulders, and by the length and 
fineness of its woolly hair. 

BispiNo'srs, Lat. bis and spina, a spine, 
armed with two spines. 

Bis'sEXTiLE, leap-year. A year consist- 
ing of 366 days, the additional day being 
added to the month of February. This is 
done every fourth year, on account of the 
excess of six hours by which the year 
really exceeds 365 days. It takes its name 
thus: the Komans, instead of making a 
29th day in February, reckoned the 24th 
twice, and called this 24th day, sexto calen- 
das Martias, i.e. the sixth day before the 
calends of March. This, with the prefix 
bU, to denote that it was reckoned twice, 

gave the name bissextilis, which we write 
bissextile, to the leap-year. 

Bistor'ta, snake weed. A species of po- 
lygonum, named from bis and lorqueo, to 
twist, in allusion to the contortions of its 

Bia'xouBT, Fr. bistcntri, any small knife 
for surgical purposes. 

Bis'tre, ) Fr. bistre, from bis, brown 

Bis'ter,/a brown colour prepan-c 
from wood soot, and used in water-colours 
in the same way as China ink. 

Bi'scLPHATE, a sulphate in which the 
oxygen of the sulphuric acid is a null 
tiple by two of that of the base. 

Bisul'phite, a sulphite in which the 
oxygen of the sulphurous acid is a mul- 
tiple by two of that of the base. 

Bisul'phuret, a sulphuret with a 
double proportion of sulphur. 

Bit, from Sax. bita, a mouthfdl, of 
bitan, to bite. 1. The iron part of a 
bridle, wliich is inserted into the mouth 
of a horse, and its appendages to which 
the reins are fastened. It includes the 
bit-mouth, the branches, the curb, the 
level-holes, the tranchefll, and the cross- 
chains. There are various kinds ; the 
musrole, snaflic or waterbit, the canon 
mouth, jointed in the middle, the canon or 
fast-mouth, all of a piece, kneed in the 
middle; the scotch-mouth, the masticador 
or slavering-bit. 2. A boring instru- 
ment: the boring end of the stock and 

bit. See Stock. 3. A small coin of the 

West Indies, half a pistareen, about five- 
pence sterling. 

Biter'nate, Lat. bitematus, doubly- 
temate. Applied to compound leaves 
when the common fooutalk supports three 
secondary petioles on its apex, and each 
of them bears three leaflets. 

BiT-NoBEjj (Indian), Salt of Bitumen. 
A white saline substance prepared by the 
Hindus, and variously used to improve 
the appetite, cure diseases of the liver, 
paralytic disorders, cutaneous affections, 
rheumatisms, and indeed all chronic dis- 
orders of man and beast. It is called in 
the country pandanoon, soucherloon, and 
popularly khalamimuc, or black salt — 

Bitter-Apple, \ The cncuniis colo- 

Bit'ter-Clcumber, ><■!/'«''«««• -An an- 

Bit'ter-Goird, ,' nual of Turkey 
and Nubia, and also its fruit, which is a 
round berry or pep* of the size of a smill 
orange, yellow, and smooth on the out- 
side when ripe. It is gathered, peeled, and 
dried in a stove, and in this state sent into 
this country, where it is known popu 
larly by the names given, and scientifi- 
cally as coloquintidu. It is intensely 
bitter, and strikes, with sulphate of iron. 
a deep oiire colour. It is much used in 





Bit'tern. 1. A species of heron, the 

srd».% siMnris, a native of Europe. 2. 

The mother-water which remains after 
the crrstallisation of common salt from 

BiTTBR PKi>xirLE. Applied to ccrtaitt 
results of the action of nitric acid upon 
organised matter, of an intensely bitter 

Bit'tersweet, a species of nightshade, 
the solanntn dulcamara, a slender climbing 
plant, whose root, when chewed, prqduces 
lirst a bitter, then a sweet taste. 

Bit'terwort, a name common to all 
the British species of the Gentian. See 

BiTTs, a plural word used to denote a 
frame of two pieces of timber, fixed per- 
pendicularly in the forepart of a ship, on 
which to fasten the cables when she rides 
at anchor. There are several other 
smaller bitts, as the topsail-sheet-bitts, 
paul-bitts, carrick-bitts, &c. 

Bitu'men, a generic name for a num- 
ber of inflammable mineral substances 
known under the names of naphtha, pe- 
troleum, mineral tar, mineral pitch, mal- 
tha or sea- wax, asphalte, elastic bitumen, 
or mineral caoutchouc, jet, mellilite or 
honey-stone, mineral coal, amber, and 
mineral tallow or adipocire. The four 
lirst are liquid, the others are solid at or- 
dinary temperatures. All the varieties 
of bitumen seem to partake, more or less, 
both of an oily and resinous nature, and 
are composed, in a great measure, of car- 
bon and hydrogen, but their origin is not 
known; the tar-like substance which 
oozes out of coal when on fire, is a good 
example of bitumen. 

Bitu'minous Cement, 1 a factitious sub- 

Birr'MiNous Mastic, j stance which 
has of late been much used in France for 
covering roofs, lining water cisterns, &c. 
It is made by boiling asphaltum, and 
■when hot mixing it with chalk or brick- 
dust. Boiled coal-tar treated in the same 
"way is equally good. 

Bitu'minous Limestone, a limestone of 
a lamellar structure, more or less charged 
with bitumen. It is found near Bristol, 
and abundantly in Galway, hence called 
Galway marble. 

BiTc'MiNors Springs, properly springs 
impregnated with petroleum and analo- 
gous nominal substances ; but the. name 
is commonly used to de&ignate those foun- 
tains of almost pure petroleum, so very 
numerous, especially in Persia, where 
some of them yield from 1000 to 1500 lbs. 
of petroleum a day, and teem to be quite 

Bi'vALVE, Lat. bitalviM, two-Talred 

Biv'A.irxs, one of the three Linnean 
classes of shell-fish, the shells of which 
are composed of two pieces or valves 

joined together by a hinge. The oyster 
is an example. 

Bi'vocAC, Gcr. biwacht. The name 
given to the modern system by which 
the soldiers in service lie in the open air 
without tents, in opposition to the old 
system of camps and cantonments. 

Bix'a, the amotto-tree or roucou, a ge- 
nus of two species, one of which, the B. 
orellana, common to both Indies, pro- 
duces the terra vrllana" or amotto of the 
shops. Class, polyandria ; order, mono- 

Bix'acejs, a natural order of plants of 
which the genus bixa is the type. 

Black Acts. In England, the statute* 
of 9 George I. and 31 George II. In Scot- 
land, the acts or statutes of the five 
Jameses, with those of Mary's reign and 
of James VI., down to 1587, ajl of which 
were printed in the old English charac- 
ter, or black letter. 

Black'amoor's-hkad', a chemical vessel 
of a conical form, named from its sup- 
posed resemblance to a negro's head. It 
is now rarely used. 

Black' Bar, a plea obliging the plain- 
tiff to assign the place of trespass. 

Black'-Bird. In England, the turdut 
merrda, Lin. In America, 1. The gracula 
guiscula, Lin. This is called the. crow 

black-bird. 2. The stumus predatorius, 

Wilson; oriolus phoenicug, I,in. This is 
called the red- winged black-bird. 

Black'-book. 1. A book kept in the 
Exchequer of England, and containing 
the orders of that court, its ofiicers, their 
ranks and privileges, wages, perquisites 
and jurisdiction, with the revenues of the 
Crown in money, grain, and cattle. It is 
supposed to have been composed in 1175, 
by Gervais of Tilbury. 2. A book com- 
piled by order of the visitors of monas- 
teries under Henry VIII., containing an 
account of the enormitie spractised in 

those houses. 3. Any book which treats 

of necromancy or the black art. 

Black-Cap, a little bird, the motacilla 
atrtcapilla, Lin. ; called otherwise the 
mock nightingale ; it has obtained its 
name from the fine black crown on its 

Black Cattle, a general name for all 
cattle of the bovine genus, reared ex- 
pressly for slaughter, in distinction bom. 

Black Cock, the heath cock, tetrao te- 
trix, Lin., named from its black plumage. 
In some places it is called black grouse, and 
in others black game. 

Black Dte, the principal ingredients 
of black dye are logwood, Aleppo galls, 
verdigris, and sulphate of iron or green 
vitriol, but the process is intricate, and 
varies with the stuff to be dyed. 

Black FisB.the tautog, a dark coloued 
species of labnu (q.T.). Fish nevly 




■pawned are in Scotland called black or 
foulfish ; and the practice of taking salmon 
in the rivers when thejr come up to 
spawn, is called black fishing. 

Black Flux, a mixture of carbonate of 
potash and charcoal, made by deflagrating 
tartar with half its weight of nitre. 

Black Iron, malleable iron, in contra- 
distinction to that which is tinned, called 
white iron. 

Black I,ead, the same with plumbago 
and graphite, a compound of carbon and 
a small proportion of iron and earthy 
matters. It takes its name from its 
leaden appearance, but contains no trace 
of lead. It is chiefly used in the manu- 
facture of black-lead pencils, the first 
specimens being procured from the cele- 
brated mine of liorrowdale in Cumberland, 
worked since the time of Queen Elizabeth. 
Black Lettek, tht old English alpha- 
bet. (ai5C abc.) 

Black'mail. In Scotland, a sort of 
yearly payment, formerly made for pro- 
tection to those bands of annedmen who, 
down to the middle of last century, laid 
many parts of the country under contri- 
bution. Mail means tax or rent. 

Black-Monks, a name of the Benedic- 

Black-Rod, the usher belonging to the 
Order of the Garter ; so called from the 
black rod which he carries. He is usher 
of Parliament. 

Black-spacl, a disease of cattle, called 
also blackleg and blackqxiarter. 

" The blackspaul is a species of pleu- 
risy , incident to young cattle, especially 
calves, which gives a black hue to the 
flesh. It is indicated by lameness in the 
forefoot {spaid or leg), and the common 
remedy is immediate bleeding." 
Black-thorn , the sloe [Fnmxis spinosa), 
in distinction from whitethorn or haw- 

Black-titt, tin ore -when dressed, 

stamped, and washed, ready for melting. 

Black-vomit, the yellow fever. 

Black-wadd, one of the ores of manga- 

uese, used as a drying ingredient in 


Black-watch, the designation given to 
the companies of loyal highlanders raised 
after the rebellion in Scotland, in 1715, 
for preserving peace in the highland dis- 
tricts. The black-watch formed the nu- 
cleus of the 42nd regiment, and received 
the denomination of black (Gal. dhu) from 
their dark tartan habiliments. 

Blad'der. Sax. blaber, of blaeS. 

A thin membranous substance, which 
serves as the receptacle of some fluid or 
secretion, as the urinary bladder and 
gall-bladder in animals. "When unre- 
stricted the name applies to the former. 
Bl^o'deii-nut, a name common to both 

species of the genus slaphylta (q. v.i. 
There is also a species of royena, called 
the African bladder-nut, and a species of 
ilex, holm, or holly, called the laurel- 
leaved bladder-nut. 

Bladder'wort, a name common to all 
the plants of the genus Utricularia. The 
British species are all aquatics, -wiiXx 
roots, stems, and leaves, furnished with 
numerous membranaceous reticulated ve - 
sides, which are filled with water till it 
is necessary that the plant should rise to 
the surface and expand its blossoms. The 
vesicles are then found to contain only 
air, by aid of which the plant floats ; this 
air, again, gives place to water, and the 
plant descends to ripen its seeds at the 

Blad'der-wrack, a sea-weed (the Fu- 
cus vesiculosus) called also the sea-oak and 

Blain, Per. blaen. 1. A watery vesicle 

of the skin. 2. A distemper incident 

to animals, being a bladder which grows 
at the root of the tongue to such a degree 
as to stop the breath. It answers to croup 
in the human subject. 

Blanchim'eter, from blanch andju,Er{«ii, 
measure. A measure of the bleaching 
power of chloride of lime (bleaching- 
powder) and potash. 

Blanch'ing, whitening, from Fr. 
blanchir, to whiten. Applied, 1. To an 
operation performed upon pieces of 
metal, as silver, to give them whiteness 

and lustre. 2. To the ^Oiitening of 

living plants, by making them grow in 
the dark. 

Blanch'-ferm, Blank-farm. In an- 
cient law, a white-farm. A farm, of which 
the rent was paid in silver, and not in 

Blanch'- HOLDING. Inlaw, a tenure by 
■which the tenant is bound to pay only an 
elusory yearly duty to his superior, as an 
acknowledgment of hLs right. 

Blandfo'rdia, a genus of New Holland 
plants, of the class hexatidtia, and order 
monogynia. Kamed from Blandford. 

Blank-bar. In late, a common bar, or 
a plea in bar, which in action of trespass 
is put in to oblige the pla-liuiflf to assign 
the place where the trespass was com- 

Blank'-door, a doorway which has 
been blocked up to prevent entrance 
Also a false door, placed in an apartmt nt 
opposite to the real door, for the sake of 

BLANK'F.T,Fr. blanchet. Among printers, 
woollen-cloth or white baize, to lay be- 
tween the tympans. 

Blank-window, a sash-frame, sashes 
and glass fixed into a recess corresponding 
with the real windows, to preserve the 
uniformity of an elevation. 

Blas'phext, from ^\aff^f*ui, to de- 




fame. Treason against the Deity: the 
denying the existence of God, assigninsr 
to him false attributes, or denying those 
which are true ; speaking irreverently of 
the mysteries of religion ; and, in Roman 
Catholic countries, speaking disrespect- 
fully of the Holy Virgin and of the saints. 
Ulasphemy was formerly punished by 
death, but the laws with respect to it are 
now modified in most countries. 

Blast, Sax. bluest, a puflf of wind; 
applied, 1. To the column of air forced 
into a fire, as in forges by bellows, or the 
blasting-machine, for the purpose of 
quickening the combustion. 2. To ery- 
sipelas which appears suddenly on the 
face in consequence of exposure to cold 

•wind or a blast. 3. To "the explosion 

of gunpowder in splitting rocks, and also 
the explosion of inflammable air in a 
mine, &c. 

Blaste'ma., in botany, the axis of 
growth of an embryo. In anatomy, the 
homogeneous, gelatinous, and granular 
basis of the ovum, in which the organic 
elements, which characterise the different 
tissues, are deposited in the early stages 
of development. 

Blastocar'pous, ISXattrrot, a germ, and 
Mot^vo;, fruit. That kind of fruit which 
germinates inside the pericarp, as the 

Bi,a.t'tx, the cockroach ; a genus of or- 
thopterous insects placed among the Cur- 
soria or Runners by Cuvier. " The blattje 
are very active nocturnal insects, some of 
which live in the interior of our houses, 
particularly the kitchen, in bake-houses 
and flour-Tnills, and others inhabit the 
country. They are extremely voracious, 
and consume all sorts of provisions," 
hence the name from jSXarro, to destroy; 

Bla'zoning. 1 In heraldry, the deci- 

Bla'zonrt. i phering of coats of arms, 
from Ger. blasen, Dut. blaazeii, to blow, 
because the herald blew a trumpet and 
called out the arms of a knight when he 
entered the lists at a tournament. 

BLEACHiNG-LiaciD, Fr., «a« de jttvelle, 
chlorine-water. When chlorine is con- 
densed in water, the result is called 
bleaching liquid, when condensed in qmck 
lime, it is called bUarhing powder. Bleach- 
ing liquid is prepared from the bleaching 
powder simply by solution. 

BLEAcniNo-PowDER, chloridc of lime, 
quick-lime saturated with chlorine. 

Blech'stm, a pemui of perennials. 
Cryptogamia — Filicet Mame ^kv,xvO¥, a 
fern. This genus is sometimes distin- 
gruished by the name of A<irrf-/(Prn,andthe 
British species (jB. boreale) by the names 
northern hard-fern and rough spleenwort. 

Blench'-ho'ldino, I a tenure of lands 

BLENCH'-iE'KcaE, J upou payment of a 

small sum in silver, blanch, i.e. white 

Blende, black-jack, a native sulphuret 
of zinc, named from Ger. blenden, to 
dazzle. There are several varieties of 
this one, as brown, yellow, and black; 
the primitive form of crystals is a rhom- 
boidal dodecahedron. 

Blennius, the blenny, a genus of 
acanthopterygious fishes, placed by Cu- 
vier among the gobrides.and by Linnsus 
among the juglares. The bleniiies live in 
small troops among the rocks on the 
coast, and take their name from /3a?»»«, 
mucus, a slimy mucus being smeared over 
their skin. 

Blennorrha'oia, a discharge of mucus, 
from fiXivvct, mucus, and ^yiyto/xi, to 
burst forth. 

Blennorrh(e'a, a flow of mucus, from 
jSA.6ni«, mucus, and ^iea, to flow, applied 
to an increased discharge of mucus from 
any mucous surface, but commonly re- 
stricted to tliat from the urethra and 

Blepharople'gia, the same with Me- 
pharoptosis (q.v.), from ^Xiipu^ov, the 
eyelid, and jrX»iyr. a stroke. The word 
trXviyvi was applied by the Greek physi- 
cians to paralysis. 

Blepharopt'osis, a prolapse of the 
upper eyelid, arising from a relaxed state 
of the common integuments of the eye- 
lids, or from paralysis of the levator 
muscle, from ^Xi<faoov, the eyelid, and 
ftrcaa-ii, a prolapse ; of virT-rai, to fall. 

Blet'me, from Teut. bleima. to hinder. 
In farriery, inflammation between the 
sole and bone of the foot. It usually 
arises from a bruise. 

Blight, a general name for various 
distempers of corn, fruit-trees, &c., by 
which the whole plant sometimes pe- 
rishes ; sometimes only the leaves and 
blossoms which become shrivelled as if 
scorched, from Sax. blaectha, leprosy. 

Blind, a skreen, a cover. In military 
affairs, and especially in operations 
against fortresses, all which tend to in- 
tercept the view of the enemy are called 
blinds. These are of several kinds : 1. A 
fascine placed across the embrasures to 
prevent the enemy from observing what 

passes near the canon. 2. Shutters 

made of strong planks placed before the 
port-holes as soon as the guns are dis- 
charged. 3. A screen consisting of 

three strong perpendicular posts, five 
feet in height, between which are planks 
covered with plates of iron on the out- 
side, and thus made shot proof, used to 
protect labourers in the trenches. Is 
called a single blind. A double blind is 
constructed of large wooden chests filled 
with earth or bags of sand. Both theat 

BtO 1 

kinds of blinds are furnished with bloek- 
•whcels or rollers to enahle the labour- 
ers in the trenches to push them for- 
ward. The kind of blinds called chan- 
deliers are constructed on the principle 
of the single blind, and are used for the 
same or similar purposes. 4 . The co- 
verings placed over the most exposed 
parts in ti.'* saps or the fortress, are also 
called blinds. These are made of beams 
over which hurdles or fascines are spread, 
and these receive a sufficiently thick layer 
of earth as a covering. 

Blind'-worm, a small reptile called 
also slow-wonn, and classed among the 
serpents, though quite harmless. It is 
covered with scales and has a forked 

Bunk, from Sax. blican, to shine. The 
blink of ice is the dazzling whiteness 
about the horizon occcasioned by the 
reflection of light from the fields of ice 
at sea. 

Blin'kehs, expansions of the sides of the 
bridles of horses, to prevent them from 
seeing on either side. 

Bi.ister-Flt, the musca hifpaniea, an 
insect found in Italy and France, and 
more or less throughout Europe, but par- 
ticularly common in Spain, and there- 
fore cailed the Spanish fly. It is about 
two-tlrirds of an inch in length, and one- 
fourth in breadth, of a somewhat oblong 
shape, and of a greenish gold shining co- 
lour, with soft elytra. It is much used in 
blistering. See C.iNXHAHis. 

B1.0CK, Fr. bloc. Germ, block. A piece of 
■wood in which one or more sheaves or 
pulleys are placed for the purpose of form- 
ing tackles in various operations in naval 
tactics and architectural constructions. 
Blocks are sini^le, double, treble, or four- 
fold, according as the number of sheaves 
is one, two, three, or four. The sheaves 
are grooved to receive the rope, and have 
in their centre a brass h<sh to receive the 
pin on which they revolve. The sides of 
the block are called cheeks. A running 
block is attached to the object to be moved, 
a standing block is flxed to some perman- 
ent support. See Pillf.t. 

Block'ade, the interception by one bel- 
ligerent of cmnmunicatiou with a place 
occupied by another, from Ital. bloccare, 
to inclose. A declaration of blockade or 
siege is an act of national sovereignty, 
■which claims as a right the power of 
declaring war, and the right which na- 
tions at war have, of destroying or captur- 
ing each others subjects or goods, imposes 
on neutral nations the obligation not to 
interfere with the exercise of this right 
■within the rules and limits prescribed by 
the law of nations. 

Bi-ock'hou9e, in fortification, a house 
made of beams,. joiucd together crossways, 
and often doubled, with a covering and 

4 B L O 

loopholes. It is usually large enough to 
contain from 50 to 100 men ; is sunk several 
feet beneath the surface ; is fitted up to 
receive cannon ; sometimes contains two 
stories, and is commonly rendered bomb 
and fire-proof. Its use is to afford a 
feeble garrison an opportunity of holding 
out against the cannonade of the enemy 
till relieved. Blockhouses are also made 
as places of last resort in the interior 01 
intrenchmentsand in the covered passages 
of fortresses. 

Blocking, 1 in moionry, a 

BLocK'iNo-corRsi!, ) coursc of stones 
placed on the top of a cornice crowning 
the walls. 

Block'ings, in joinery, small pieces of 
wood fitted and glued to the interior angle 
of two boards or other pieces, with a view 
to strengthen the joint. 

Block-tin, tin cast into blocks or in- 
gots ; it is generally less pur» than grain- 

Blom'art. Sf-e Bloom. 

Blood, Germ. bUit, Fr. sang. The red 
fluid contained in the blood-vessels of 
animal bodies. It is found in the mam- 
malia, in birds, in reptiles, and in fishes. 
In the last two classes of animals, the tem- 
perature of the blood is much lower than 
in the former, for which reason they are 
distinguished by the uimc of cold-blooded. 
while the others are termed warm-blooded 
animals. Insects and worms, instead of 
red blood.havea juice of a whitish colour, 
which is called tchile-blood. In the mam- 
malia the blood circulates in the arteries 
and veins: it is bright red in the former 
and purple in the latter. It consists: 
1st, of a colourless transparent solution of 
several substances in water; and 2nd, of 
red undissolved particles diffused through 
the solution. "VVhen fresh drawn from 
the vessels, it rapidly coagulates into a 
gelatinous mass called the evaculum or 
clot, from which, after some time, a pale 
yellow fluid oozes forth, called the serum. 
The coagulum may be divided into two 
parts — the crtior, or that part of the blood 
which is intrinsically red andcoagulable, 
and the lymph or Jibrine to which the 
coagulation of the blood is to be ascribed. 
The specific gravitv of the blood varies 
from 1053 to 1057 at 60°.— In law, a kins- 
man of the tvhole blood is one who descends 
from the same couple of ancestors ; of the 
half-blood, one who descends from either 
of them singly by a second marriage. 

Blood'-heat, '( a fluid raised to the t«m- 

Blood'-hot, j perature of the blood 
(98° Fah.), is blood-hot. 

Blood-hocnd, the crtMM wi(7aj-,Iiin.,and 
chien courant, ButJ'oii. A variety of the 
common dog, remarkable for the perfec- 
tion of its sense of smell. Owing to this 
circumstance, the blood-hound was an- 
ciently muct employed in purstdng cii- 




mmals, and tracing robbers and enemies, 
•whose course he invariably discovered if 
once placed upon their track. These dogs 
were in Scotland called sleuth-hounds, and 
any person refusing one of them entrance, 
in his pursuit of stolen goods, was by law 
deemed accessory to the theft. This va- 
riety of the hound is perhaps now extinct. 

Blood'-koot, 1 Names common to the 

Blood'-wort, f species of the genus san- 
guinaria (q. v.). These plants have also the 
names buccoon, turmeric, and red-root. 

Blood'-stone, the lapis hamatites. A 
species of calcedony, of a reddish colour, 
hard, ponderous, with fine striae or 
needles. It is used for trinkets, and by 
goldsmiths and gilders to polish their 
work. The best much resembles cinnabar. 

Blood'-vessel, any vessel or tube in 
which the blood flows or circiilates in an 
animal body, as an artery or vein. 

Blood'-wite. In ancient law, a fine or 
amercement paid as a composition for the 
shedding of blood. 

Bloody Hand, a hand stained with the 
blood of a deer, which in the old forest 
laws of England was sufficient evidence 
of a man's trespassing in the forest against 

Bloom, Bloomery. At iron-works, amass 
of iron, after having undergone the first 
hammering, is called a bloom, and the 

Srocess of forming blooms is called 
\ooinery, or hlomary. The term is Sax. 

bloma, a mass or limip. In botany, 

see Blossom. The word blooin is the 
Goth, bloma, Get. hlume, D. bloem. from 
the root of blow. The term blossom is 
a dialectical word from the same root 
through the Saxon. 

Blos'som, from Sax. blosma. The 
flower or corolla of a plant ; a general 
term applicable to every species of tree 
or plant, but more generally used than 
Aower or bloom when we have reference 
to the fruit which is to follow. Thus, we 
use flowers in speaking of shrubs culti- 
vated for ornament ; and bloom in a more 
general sense, as flowers in general or in 
reference to the beauty of flowers. The 
term blossom is used to denote the colour 
of a horse when the hair is white, but 
intermixed with sorrel and bay hairs, 
otherwise peach-coloured. 

Blowino-Machine, an engine employed 
at iron- works and other places for sup- 
plying the large furnaces with a regular 
and rapid volume of air. C is a hollow 
cylinder, furnished with a piston E,with 
its rod P working through a stuffing- 
box at the top of the cylinder, as in a 
common steam-engine. A and B are pipes 
leading into the cylinder, and furnished 
with valves opening inwards. F and G 
are valves opening outwards into two 
pipes, which lead into the upright pipe H. 

From this pipe, which is closed both at 
bottom and top, there proceeds a pipe, 
D O, giving off a branch at I into the 

iron chest, K, which has no bottom, but 
rests upon a cistern of water, a part of the 
stone-work of the sides of which is shown 
at M and N. Above this branch there is 
a species of safety-valve, L, opening up- 
wards, and loaded to a certain pressure. 
"When the piston is raised, the valves A. 
and F are shut, and the air contained in 
the cylinder is forced through the valve 
G ; at the same time the valve B opens to 
admit more air into the cylinder. When 
the piston begins to descend, the conden- 
sation of the air within the cylinder 
causes the valve B to shut, and F and A. 
to open : the first allows the air to pass 
into the pipe H, and the latter admits 
more air into the cylinder. The condensed 
air in H passes along the pipe D 0,but the 
branch I allows it a passage into the iron 
chest K, where it presses upon the sur- 
face of the water, and causes it to rise on 
the outside of the chest. By this contrl- 
vance; a perpetual pressure is obtained, 
equal to the height to which the water is 
raised, and thus the force with which the 
air passes through O into the furnace is 
equalised, notwithstanding those irregu- 
larities which unavoidably accompany 
the ascent and descent of the piston. 
From O two branches strike oflf to each 
side of the furnace. 

Blow'pipes, are instruments used by 
anatomists and chemists, enamellers, &c. 
The anatomical blowpipe is a silver or 
brass tube, by means of which parts are 
inflated in order to devolope their struc- 
ture more distinctly. It is usually pro- 
vided with a stopcock about its middle, 
by turning which, when the operator 
ceases to blow, the disagreeable effluvium 
from the parts in a state of putrefaction 
is avoided. The chemical blowpipe is 
usually made of brass ; it is about one- 
eighth of an inch in diamctCE at one ex- 
tremity, and tapers to a much smaller 
size at the other. The smaller end is bent 
to one side, and has a minute aperture, 
through which a stream of air is blown 
upon the flame of a candle, lamp, or gas- 
jet, producing thereby a fine conica) 
flame, possessing a very intense hest, 




The air is supplied from the lungs of the 
operator, or by bellows or bladders adapted 
to the purpose : but moditications of the 
blowpipe are made, whereby jets of oxy- 
gen, hydrogen, or the two gases mixed in 
the due proportions, are substituted for 
atmospheric air. When the two pases are 
used, the proper apparatus constitute 
■what is called the oxyhydroyen blowjnpe. 
The blowpipe is an invaluable instrument 
to jewellers, mineralogists, chemists, 
enamellers, glass-workers, &c., as it 
affords them instantaneously a heat equal 
to the strongest heat of a furnace. 

Blub'ber. 1. The fat of whales and 
other sea -animals, of which train-oil is 
made. The blubber is the adeps of the 
animal; it lies immediately under the 
skin, and over the muscular flesh ; it is 
about six inches thick, but about the 
upper lip it is from two to three feet in 

thickness. 2. The sea-nettle is also 

called the sea-blubber. See Medusa. 

Blue'-Bonnet. 1. A small bird common 
in Britain : so called from a blue spot on 

its head. 2. A species of ccntauria 

(q. V.) is so called from the colour and 
shape of its flower. 

Blle'-c.\.p, a speciesof the salmon tribe, 
so called from the blue spots on the head. 

Blue Dves are indigo, pmssian blue, 
logwood, bilberry {Vaccfiiiinii viyrtillus), 
elder-berries {Satiihtutts nigra), mulber- 
ries, privet-berries (Ligustrum vxdgare), 
and some other berries, whose juices 
become blue by the addition of a small 
portion of alkali, or of the salts of copper. 

Blue'ing, the process of heating iron 
and some other metals until they assume 
a blue colour. The blue colour depends 
on a film of sub-oxide. 

Blue-John, a name given by the mi- 
ners to fluor-spar, culled also Derbyshire- 

Blue Pigments. The blue pigments 
found in common are Pi-ussian-blue, 
mountain-blue, Bremen-blue or verditer, 
iron-blue, cobalt-blue, smalt, charcoal- 
blue, ultramarine, indigo, litmus, and 

blue-cake. The molybdates ofmercury 

and tin, the hydrosulpliuret and the prus- 
siate of tungsten, the ammonuret of cop- 
per, and the silicate of copper, may be 
useful in particular cases. 

Blue-stocking, a pedantic female : 
one who has sacrificed the characteristic 
excellencies of her sex to learning. The 
term originated with Mr. Stillingfleet, 
who constantly wore blue stockings, and 
whose conversations on literary subjects 
were highly prized in certain female 
evening assemblies afterwards denomi- 
iiAted blue-stocking cluhs. 

Blue Vitriol, sulphate of copper. 

Bluff, a high headland presenting a 
precipitous front. Hence a ship is said to 
be bluf -headed when her stem is upright 

or nearly so ; and bluff-bowed, when her 
bows and broad are flat. 

BLUN'DEREuss,Wu«der andD.6«s,a gun. 
A short gun with a large bore, so as to 
contain a number of small balls, and 
intended to do execution without exact 

Bluxk, a name in Scotland for calico, 
or that species of cotton cloth manufac- 
tured for being printed ; hence blunker, a 
calico-printer. The word is a trivial ap- 
plication of the word blutik, dull, this 
species of cloth being denominated by 
weavers " heavy work." 

Boa. 1. The Latin name of a popular 

eruption. 2. An old name of the lues 

venerea. 3. A boa-like ruflf worn by 

ladies. It takes its name from its great 
length.— —4. The name of a genus of rep- 
tiles belonging to Cuvier's tribe of ser- 
pentia or true serpents. It is in this genus 
that are found the largest serpents on the 
globe. Certain species attain a length of 
30 or 40 feet, prey on dogs, deer, and even 
oxen, which they manage to swallow 
entire, after having crushed them in their 
folds, and covered them with saliva. The 
species, of which the boa constrictor and 
the anaconda are the most celebrated, are 
natives of the hottest latitudes of South 
America. The great serpents of the old 
continent belong to the genus python, to 
which however, the name boa appears to 
belong as a matter of right, having been 
so named, according to Pliny, because 
they sucked the teats of cows (Soyj, 
a cow). Certain large Italian serpents 
appear to have been iSrst called boa, and 
subsequently the name came to signify 
any very large serpent, and was but te- 
cently restricted. 

Boar. In the manage, a horse is said tt 
boar when he shoots out his nose, raising 
it as high as his ears, and tossing it in the 

Board, Sax. Germ. Sw. hord, 1. In 
nautical language, the line over which a 
ship runs between tack and tack. — To 
make a good board, is to sail in a straight 
line when close hauled. — To make short 
boards, is to tack frequently. — To board, is 

to enter a ship by force in combat. 

2. A body of men constituting a quorum 
in session ; a court ; a council ; e. g. a board 
of trustees : a board of officers : a board of 

conmiissioners. 3. In carpentry. See 


BoARDiNo-joisTs, joists in naked flooring 
to which the boards are fixed. 

BoARDixG-piKE, a pike used by sailors 
in boarding an enemy's vessel. 

Boasting, in stone- cutting , the paring of 
a stone with a broad chissel and mallet. 

Boat, Sax. Sw. bat. Germ, bot, Sp. bote. 
A vessel propelled by oars, or rowing. 
Boats differ in construction and name ac- 
cording to the services in which they art 




employed ; e. g. the barge is a long, light, 
narrow boat, employed in harbours but 
unfit for sea : it never has less than ten 
oars. — The pinnace resembles a barge, but 
is smaller, having only eight oars. — The 
long-boat is the largest boat belonging to 
a ship, generally furnished with a mast 
and sails, and may be armed and equipped 
for cruising short distances.— The launch 
is more flat-bottomed than the long-boat, 
■which it has generally superseded. — ^The 
cutters of a ship are broader and deeper 
than the barge or pinnace, and are fitter 
for sailing : they have usually six oars. — 
Tawls are smaller than cutters, but have 
the same number of oars.— The jolly-boat 
is smaller than a yawl, and has usually 
four oars.— A gig is a long narrow boat, 
used for expedition, and rowed by six or 
eight oars. — A wherry is a light sharp boat 
used in rivers and harbours. — A skiff is a 
small boat like a yawl, used for passing 
rivers. — A pwU is a small flat-bottomed 
boat, usually propelled by one person. — A 
vwses is a flat-bottomed boat used in the 
West Indies for carrying hogsheads from 
the shore to ships in the roads. — A felucca 
is a strong passage-boat used in the Medi- 
terranean with from ten to sixteen banks 
of oars. — A scow is a large flat-bottomed 
heavy boat. In some parts of America it 
is called a gondola, in imitation of the 
gondola used at Venice, in Italy, on the 
canals • it is about 30 ft. long, and 12 wide. 
There are also canoes, perogues, galleys, 
ferry-boats, packet-boats, passage-boats, 
advice-boats, canal-boats, steam-boats, tow- 
ing-boats, &c., &c. 

BoA.T'-BiLL,the caticroma cochlearia, Lin. 
A bird of the grallic order : size of a hen : 
whitish, grey, or brown back, red belly, 
white forehead followed by a black ca- 
lotte; bill four inches in length, and not 
unlike a boat with the keel turned upper- 
most : inhabits the hot and marshy parts of 
South America. The boat-bill bears a close 
resemblance to the heron. 

BoAT'-ri.T, 1 a genus of hemipterous 

Boat'-insect, j insects known in ento- 
mology by the generic name notonecta. 
Their posterior legs are densely ciliated, 
and resemble oars. They swim or rather 
row with great swiftness, and frequently 
while on their back. 

Boatswain, pron. bos-n ; boat, and Sax. 
SWein, a servant. An officer on board of 
Bhips who has charge of the boats, sails, 
rixging, colours, anchors, cables, and 
cordage. His office is also to summon the 
crew to their duty, to relieve the watch, 
assist in the necessary business of the 
ship, seizing and punishing otfenders, &c. 
The boatswain's mate has charge of the 
long-boat, for setting forth and weighing 
anchors, warping, towing, and mooring. 

Bob. I. The ball of a pendulum: the 

metallic weight which is attached to 'the 

lower extremity of a pendulum- rod. 

2. A knot of worms on a string used lu 
fishing for eels. 

Bob'stays, ropes to confine the bowspti*; 
of a ship do>vnward to the stem. 

Bocar'do, an arbitrary name in logic for 
the fifth mode of the tliird figure of syllo- 
gism. The middle universal 
and affirmative, and the other two parti- 
cular and negative. 

Boc'conia, the tree celandine. A genus 
of arborescent plants of two species — Do- 
decandria — Monogynia. Natives of the 
West Indies and Peru. 

BocKLAN Ds, that is booklands. In ancient 
times lands held by charter or deed in 
writing, under certain rents and free ser- 
vices. This species of tenure has given 
rise to the modem freehold. 

Bod'y, from Sax. bodlj^, that which Is 
set or fixed. 1. In physics, the term body 
is often read in the same sense as matter, 
that is, to designate a substance which 
has length, breadth, and thickness; is 
divisible, impenetrable, and moveable. 
Bodies are called ponderable when they 
may act upon several of the senses, and 
when their materiality is thereby suffi- 
ciently established : of this kind are solids, 
fluids, and gases. They are called impon- 
derable when they give rise to phenomena 
which may be regarded merely as parti- 
cular states or affections of ordinary mat- 
ter, without being otherwise cognisable 
by the senses ; of this sort are caloric , light, 
electricity, and magnetism. Besides the 
common properties of matter, extension, 
divisibility, impenetrability, and mobility 
ponderable bodies possess secondary pro- 
perties which are variable, as hardness, 
porosity, elasticity, density, &c., by which 
their condition or state is infinitely modi- 
fied. Bodies are also sirnple and compound, 
simple when they consist of one element, 
and compound when they are composed 
of two or more elements. Animal bodies 
are composed of eight or ten elements, 
and have nitrogen for their base ; vege- 
tables consist of only fouror five elements, 

and have carbon for their base. 2. In 

geometry, the word body is used in the 
same sense as solid, that is, which has the 
three dimensions, length, breadth, and 
thickness. A regular or platonic body is 
one which has all its sides, angles, and 
planes, similar and equal. There are only- 
five bodies such, vi/.: (1.) Tetrahedron 
contained under 4 equilateral triangles; 
(2.) Hexahedron, 6 squares; (3.) Octa- 
hedron, 8 triangles ; (4.) Dodecahedron, 13 
pentagons ; (5.) Icosahcdron, 20 triangles. 
Bodies are said to be irregxdar when they 
are not bounded by equal and like surfaces 

3. \vaoii^ painters, the plirase "'lo Bear 

a body," is applied to any colour whea 
L 2 




capable of beinj? ground so fine, and to 
mix with the oil so entirely as to seem one 

thick oil of the same colour. The word 

body is frequently used to denote the main 
or principal part ; c. g. the body of a pump, 
■which is the thickest part of the barrel or 
pipe ; the body of a coach, &c. It is also 
used to designate a number of individuals 
or particulars united ; e. g. the legislative 
body. AVe also speak of bodies corporate, 
bodies politic, &c. 

Body Plan, in the language of naval 
draftsmen, an end view, showing the 
contour of the sides of the ship at certain 
points of her length ; and since the sides 
are exactly alike, the left half is made to 
represent the vertical sections of the 
after-part of the body, and the right half 
those of the forepart. The 
base of the projection is 
the midship section, called 
the dead-flat, and within 
this the other sections are 

Boo, an Irish word sig- 
nifying soft, and applied to 
a quagmire covered with 
herbage. It is defined by 
marsh and morass; but dif- 
fers from a marsh, as a part 
from a whole. Bogs are 
too soft to bear a man's 
weight : marshes are less 
soft, but very wet ; swamps 
are spongy grounds which 
are often mowed. 

or marsh whortleberry (vac- 
cinium oxycoccos) which is 
common in peat-bogs. 

Boo'-iBON-QRE, 1 an iron ore peculiar to 

Boo'-oRE, ] boggy land. " At the 

bottom of peat mosses there is sometimes 
found a cake or pan of oxide of iron," to 
which this name is given. It is probably 
derived from the decayed vegetables, of 
which most of the moss is composed. 

Bog'-rdsh. 1. A name common to all 
the plants of the genus Schcetixis, most of 
•which inhabit spongy grounds. Donn 

enumerates three British species. 2. 

A bird, a species of warbler of the size of 
a wren, common among the bog-rushes of 
Schonen in Sweden. 

Boo-sPAv'iN. In farriery, an encysted 
tumour on the inside of the hough, con- 
taining a gelatinous matter. 

Boo'-WHORT, the bilberry or whortle- 
berry, common in boggy grounds. 

Bohe'a, a species of black tea {see Tea), 
named, according to Grosier, from a 
mountain in China, called Vou-y or Voo-y. 

Boil, an inflammatory, circimiscribed, 
and very painful swelling immediately 
imder the skin, which always suppurates, 
and sooner or later discharges its con- 
tents. The word is perhaps from the 

troth, btiila, rage, madness, as its I-Atin 
synonym, furuncttlus, is from the verb 
furo, to rage. 

Boil'er, a large pan or vessel of iron, 
copper, or brass, used in distilleries, pot- 
ash works, and the like, for boiling large 
quantities of liquor at once. The same 
name is given to the vessel in which 
steam is generated for the supply of a 
steam-engine. This boiler is usually 
formed of plates of copper or malleable 
iron rivetted together, so as to be per- 
fectly air-tight, and in shape oblong, ita 
sides and bottom arched inwards, but its 
top curved outwards. The figure is a lon- 
gitudinal section : aa is the boiler, bb the 
flues, c, the chimney, d, the ash-pit, <, 
an opening to receive any ashes which 

may be carried over the furnace bars,/, 
the fire-place, g, the man-hole, in the 
cover of which there is a valve which 
opens inwards, h, steam-pipe leading to 
the engine, ijk, the safety-valve, with 
its lever and weight, I, a stone-float ba- 
lance by the weight m, both being at- 
tached to the lever nop, the fulcrum of 
which is at o. To the centre of this lever 
is also attached the small rod which works 
the small valve fixed in the bottom of the 
top part of the feed-pipe, qrs. The force 
of the steam in the boiler causes the 
water to rise in the pipe and act upon the 
float opposite t, connected by a chain 
passing over the pulleys, « c, to the dam- 
per w, which is capable of moving up^ 
and down in guides, and of closing and 
opening the passage, where the flue enter* 
the chimney, xy, are the guage-cocks for 
ascertaining the height of the water in 
the boiler. 

Boil'ino Point, the temperature at 
which a fluid begins to boil and assume 
the gaseous state in contradistinction to 
freezing-point. Both points are different 
in different fluids, but constant in eaoH 

BOL 1 

provided the pressure of tlii' atmosphere 
be the same. The boiling pjint of water 
is 2120, of mercury, 656". 

Boiti'apo, a Brazilian ssrpent of the 
most Tenomous kind, about eight feet 
long, covered with scales of a yellowish 

Bole, from I>at. boltis, a mass. An ar- 
gillaceous mineral, having a conchoidal 
fracture, a glimmering internal lustre, 
and a shining streak. Its colours vary 
from white through all the shades of yel- 
low and brown to black. The tente sigil- 
latce (sealed earths) were little cakes of 
bole stamped with certain impressions, 
and formerly in high repute as medicine. 
The Aiinenian hole of the shops is a red 
variety, the colour is due to an impregna- 
tion of peroxide of iron. It is used as a 
tooth powder. Bole of Blois is yellow; 
Bohemian bole is orange ; Treiich bole is 
pale red, variegated by white and yellow 
specks ; Lemnia7i bole is pale red ; Silesian 
bole is pale yellow. 

Bole'ko, a peculiar dance very popular 
in Spain, and so called after its inventor. 

Bolet'ic, pertaining to the boletus. The 
holeiic acid is obtained from the juice of 
the boletus pseudu-igniarius, a species of 

Bole'tus, ^eaXtrvji- 1. A fungus re- 
ferred to the genus Lycoperdon. 2. A 

genxis of mushrooms of the order Fungi. 
■"-ny of the species are poisonous, two 
of them afford amadoxt (q. v.), and the bo- 
letus sulphureus, on drying, evolves crys- 
tals of pure oxalic acid. 

Bolis, Lat. from fieXts, a dart, a fire- 
ball : a meteor seen darting through the 
air, followed by a train of light or sparks. 

BoLi.. 1. The pod or capsule of a plant, 
apericarp. 2. Ameasure of six bushels. 

Bol'la.rd8, large pots set in the ground 
at each side of docks ; to them are lashed 
large blocks through which are reeved 
the transporting hawsers for docking 
and undocking ships. 

Bol'lard Timbers, in a ship, are two 
timbers rising just within the stem, one 
on each side of the bowsprit, to secure 
its end. They are also called knight-heads. 

BoLOGjJESE ScuooL. In painting, some- 
times called the Lombard school, and the 
eclectic school. It was founded by the 
Caracci, and its object was to unite the 
excellencies of the preceding schools. 

BoLoo'siAN Stone, ) a pyropho- 

Bolog'nian Phosphobcs, ) rus obtained 
from sulphate of baryta by calcination 
and exposure to the sun's rays. This 
substance shines in the dark, a circum- 
stance which was accidentally discovered 
by one Vincenzio Casciarolo, a shoe- 
maker of Bologna, about the middle of the 
seventeenth century. 

BoL'sTzas. 1. in ttautical language, 

» BOM 

small bags filled with tarred canvas, 
rope-yarn, &c., to place under the shroud* 
and stays to prevent their chafing against 
the trestle-tree, by the motion of the 
mast, when the ship rocks. 2. In sad- 
dlery, the parts of a saddle raised upon 
the bows to hold the rider's thighs. 

Boj-T, a strong cylindrical pin of iron 
or other metal, used to fasten a door, 
plank, &c. Those used for fastening doors 
and windows, are plate-bolts, spring- 
bolts, and tiush-bolts. In shijis, bolts are 
used in the sides and decks, and have 
different names, as rag-bolts, eye-bolts, 
ring-bolts, chain-bolts, &c. In gutmery, 
there are prize-bolts, transom- bolts, tra- 
verse-bolts, and bracket-bolts. A. thunder- 
bolt is a stream of lightning. A bolt of 
canvas is 28 yards. 

Bolt'-Auger, an auger of a large size 
used in shlp-buildlng. 

Bot'tel. S«eBoi;LTiNE. 

Bolt-Head, a long, narrow-necked, 
chemical glass vessel, usually employed 
for digestions. It Is otherwise called a 

Bolting-Cloth, a linen or hair cloth of 
which bolters are made for sifting flour. 

Bolt-Rqpb, the rope to which the 
edges of sails are sewed to strengthen 
them. That part of it on the perpendi- 
cular side is called the luck-rope ; that at 
the bottom, the foot-rope; that at the 
top, head-rope. 

Bom, an American serpent of a harm- 
less nature, and remarkable for uttering 
a sound like bom. 

Bomb, from bomhus, a great noise. A 
large hollow iron-ball or shell with a hole 
in which a wooden fusee is cemented, and 
furnished with two handles. It is filled 
with powder and combustible matter, 
and the fusee being inserted, it is dis- 
charged from a mortar, in such a direc- 
tion as to fall into a fort, city, or enemy's 
camp, when it bursts with great vio- 
lence, and often with terrible effect. 
Bombs are tised in sieges; grenades in 
the field ; the first are thro^vn from mor- 
tars, the latter from howitzers. 

Bom'bard, a piece of short thick ord- 
nance with a large bore formerly used; 
called also a basilisk, and by the Butch a 
dotiderbuss or thunder-gun. Some bom- 
bards carried balls of 300 lbs. The name 
is found in the French, Spanish, and Ita- 
lian languages, and is composed of botnb 
and ard, kind, but such guns are no 
longer used. 

Bombardie'rs. I. Those who manage 

the mortars, which throw bombs. 2. 

A genus {Carabuj) of the beetle tribe of 

Bomba.r'do, a musical instrument of the 
wind kind ; it resembles the bassoon, and 
is used as a base to the hautboy. 

Bom BAST, a stuff of a loose texture fo» 

BON 1 

mprly used to swell garments. The word 
is now used to designate a fustian style of 

Bo.m'bax, the silk cotton-tree, a genus of 
arborescent plants of several species, na- 
tives of hot climates. Monadelphia — Po- 
lyandria. Named from ^ofjtSu^- 

Bombazi'n e, a worsted stuff sometimes 
mixed with silk, and sometimes crossed 
with cotton. 

BoM«'-CHrsT, a chest filled with com- 
bustible matter, placed imder ground to 
do mischief by its displosion. 

BoMEic Acid, acid of the silk-worm, 
hombyx, contained in a reservoir near the 

Bomb'-Ketch, ^ a strong vessel built for 

Bomb'- Vessel, / the purposes of bom- 
bardment. The modem bomb-vessels 
carry two 10-inch mortars, four sixty- 
eight pounders, and eighteen pouhd car- 
ronades, and are generally from 60 to 70 
feet from stem to stern. 

Bom'bus, Lat. from /3«,u.C0;> a humming 
noise, the name of a genus of aculeated 
hymenoptera, the species of which are 
recognised in this country as humble-bees 
or humming-bees. This name, however, 
is common also to the xylocopte, which 
include the larger species. Both genera 
belong to the great genus Apig. 

Bom'bycii/la, a genus of omnivorous 
paserine birds. 

Bom'btcites, a tribe of nocturnal lepi- 
doptera. The caterpillars live in the open 
air, feed on the tender parts of plants, 
and in general form a cocoon of pure silk. 
The genus Hombyx gives name to this 

Bombylie'rs, Latr. ) A genus of dipte- 

BoMBYi,'it,s, Linn, f rous insects placed 
by Cuvier among the tanystoma, and by 
"Wilson among the profcoscidw, named from 
^iuQoi, in allusion to the sharp humming 
soimd which they make in flying. Fifty 
European species are described. 

Bom'eyx, a genus of nocturnal lepido- 
ptera, the caterpillar of which is the silk- 
tcorm. The true silk-worm moth, S. mori, 
Xinn., is whitish, has a few transverse 
streaks, and a lunar spot on the superior 
wings. It feeds on the leaves of the mul- 
berry, and spins an oval cocoon of a close 
tissue, with very fine silk, usually yellow, 
but sometimes white. The variety which 
produces the Jatter are now preferred. 
The name /So.tfcbvJ, is derived from jSeuffof, 
a humming sound. 

Bon, the Egyptian name of the coffee- 

Bo:»a-fi'de, that is, good faith, meaning 
without fraud or subterfuge. Lat. 

BoNAs'scs, I a species of the bovine ge- 

Baj^A'scs, j nusof quadrupeds common 
to Asia and .Vfrica. 

Bono. Sax. bond from the same 


root as band. In law, an obligation cr 
deed by which a person binds himself, his 
heirs, ex»?cutors, and administrators, to 
pay a certain sura on or before a future 
day appointed. This is a single bond, but 
xisually a condition is added, that if the 
obligor sh.-vll do a certain act, or pay a 
certain sum of money, on or before a fu- 
ture time specitied, the obligation shall 
be void, otherwise it shall remain in full 
force. If the condition is not performed, 
the bond is forfeited, and the obligor and 
his heirs are liable to the payment of the 
whole sum. In carpentry, the binding of 
any two pieces together by tenanting, 
morticing, &c. In masonry, the disposi- 
tion of stones or bricks in building, so 
that they most aptly fit together. Stones 
which have their length placed in the 
thickness of the wall are called headers, 
and those which have their length ex- 
tended along in the length of the wall are 
called stretchers. English bond is that 
disposition of bricks in a wall where the 
courses are alternately composed of head- 
ers and stretchers. I'lemish bond is that 
in which the bricks in each course have 
headers and stretchers alternately. 

Bond'-Stoses, stones used in uncoursed 
rubble-walls, having their length placed 
in the thickness of the wall. "NVhen ftie 
length of a stone is equal to the whole 
thickness of the wall, it is called a per- 

Bond-Timbers, the horizontal timbers 
bedded in stone or brick walls to 
strengthen the masonry. 

Bonds. In building, includes all tim- 
bers disposed in the walls of a building, 
as bond-timbers, wall-plates, lentels, and 

Bonded Goods, those for the duties on 
which bonds are given at the Custom- 

Bon'duc. 1. The nickar-tree, a name 
common to both species of the genus Gui- 
landina, but especially to the yellow- 
seeded species common to both Indies. 
2. The gymnocladus canadensis, a Ca- 
nadian tree recently separated from the 
genus Guilandina. 

Bone, Lat. os, the substance of which 
the frame-work of animals is composed 
from Sax. binnan, to bind. Bone is 
composed of 333 cartilage; 5535 phos- 
phate of lime ; 3 fluate of lime ; 385 car- 
bonate of lime; 205 phosphate of magne- 
sia, and 2-45 soda, with a little common 

Bone'- ACE, a game at cards in which he 
who has the highest card turned up to 
him wins the bone, that is, one half the 

Bone-Black, the black carbonaceous 
matter into which bones are converted 
by calcination in close vessels. It is al»o 




ammal charcoal, and is used as a black 
pigment, and to deprive various solu- 
tions, particularly sjTups.of their colour- 
ing matters. 

Bone-lace, alace madeof linen thread, 
80 named from its being made with bob- 
bins of bone, or more probably in allu- 
sion to its stiffness. 

Bone'spavin, a bony excrescence or 
hard swelling on the inside of the hock 
of a horse's leg, usually cured by caustic 
blistei"s. See Spavin. 

Box'oRACE. 1. A large bonnet formerly 
worn by females to protect them from 
the Sim. 2. A fence of old ropes, can- 
vas, &c., laid at the bows, stern, and 
sides of a vessel sailing in high lati- 
tudes, to protect the mariners against 
flakes of ice, winds, &c. 

Bon'ino, the act of judging of or 
making a plane surface by the direc- 
tion of the eye. This term is of fre- 
quent use among surveyors and archi- 
tects, who perform the operation of bon- 
ing by means of poles set up at certain 
distances ; these are adjusted to the re- 
quired line by looking along their verti- 
cal surfaces. Joiners, &c., bone their 
TTork with two straight edges. 

Boni'to, a fish of the tunny tribe found 
on the American coast, and in tropical 
climates. It grows to three feet, has a 
greenish back and a silvery white belly. 

Bon'set, Ft. 6o?we«e, Sp. 6onc<e. 1. In 
fortification, an elevation of the parapet 
in the salient angles of a field retrench- 
ment, or of a fortification designed to 
prevent the enfilading of the front of the 
work, at the end of which it is situated. 
The bonnet & piitre, or priest's bonnet, is 
an outwork having at the head three sa- 
lient angles, and two inwards. 2. In 

nautical language, an addition to a sail, 
or an additional part laced to the foot of 
a sail, in small vessels and in moderate 

Bono'nian-Stone. See Bolognian- 

Bong'nian-Jars, ) small thick jars of 

Bono'nian -Bottles, ) unannealed glass, 
which break into a thousand pieces by 
the impulse of a single grain of sand. 

Bon'tia, the generic name of the wild 
olive of Barbadoes. Bidynamia — Angio- 
spermia. The tree is named in honour of 
James Bontiusof Lcydcn,a distinguished 
physician and naturalist. 

Bo'nvs, a Latin word meaning good, 
used to denote a premium given for a 
loan, right, or privilege, above its prime 
or original cost. 

Bonzes, a name given in oriental 
countries to the priests and devotees of 
the god Fo. They are distinguished by 
different names in the different countries 
where their superstition prevails. In 
Riam they are called Talapoins : in Tar- 

tary, Lamas i in China, Ho-chang ; in Ja- 
pan, Sonzes, in Mhich name all the others 
are comprehended among Kuropeans. 

Boo'by, a bird of the Pelican tribe. The 
boobies constitute the sub-genus Sula of 
Brisson, and take their name from the 
excessive stupidity with which they allow 
themselves to be attacked by other birds, 
particularly the frigate birds, which force 
them to yield up the fish they have cap- 
tured. The common booby (P'clecanus bas- 
sanus, Linn.), is found from the Tagus to 
the Gulf of Bothnia, and in great num- 
bers on the Bass Rock in the Frith of 
Forth. It is white, but the primary fea- 
thers of the wings and the feet are black ; 
the bill is six inches long, and of a beau- 
tiful bluish grey. 

Book, the general name given to a 
printed volume in contradistinction to 
pamphlet. Among printers five sheets 
and upwards make a book ; less than five 
sheets is a pamphlet. A quantity of un- 
printed paper, bound up or sewed in the 
manner of a printed volume, is oddly 
enough called a paper-book, sometimes 
more correctly a blank book. 

Books are divided into the following 
classes according to the mode in which 
the sheets of the paper on which they 
are printed or written are folded; vi;*., 
folio, when the sheet is folded into two 
leaves ; quarto, when folded into four; 
octavo, when folded into eight ; duode- 
cimo, when folded into twelve ; 18mo, 
when folded into eighteen ; and 24mo, 
when folded into twenty- four. These 
classifications have no reference to the 
size of the sheet. The word hook is 
derived from the Saxon boc. the root 
of which is the Gothic boka. a beech or 
service-tree, or more strictly the bark 
of such tree. This was the first mate- 
rial of which books were made. 
Book-Keepino, a mercantile term used 
to denote the method of keeping commer- 
cial accounts of all kinds, in such a sys- 
tematic manner, that the true state of any 
individual account, or of the whole af- 
fairs of the concern, may be ascertained 
with clearness and expedition. Book- 
keeping is practised by ningle and double 
entry. In the first tlie posts of debtor 
and creditor are separate, and entered in 
such away that each one appears singly; 
while in the latter, creditor and debtor 
are in continual mutual connexion, to 
which end all the posts are entered 
doubly, once on the debtor and once on 
the creditor side. This mode was first 
practised in Spain, but was introduced 
into this country from Italy ; hence it is 
with us called the Italian method. 

The books principally wanted are a 
waste-hook or blotter, in which all deal- 
ings are recorded without particular 




order ; a. journal, in which the contents 
of the waste-book are technically en- 
tered on the debtor and creditor sides ; 
and the ledger, in which the posts en- 
tered in the journal are placed undei 
particular acccunts. Besides these, 
some merchant* use a chase-book, a 
bill-book, a rec*ipt-book, a sales-book, 
an invoice-book, a letter- book, a stock- 
book, besides books of charges, house- 
hold expenses, &c. These are called 
subsidiary books. 

Boom, from Sax. boeme, a beam, a 
bar. In nautical language : 1. Along pole 
or spar run out from various parts of a 
ship or other vessel, for the purpose of 
extending the bottom of particular sails, 
as the jib-boom, studding-sail boom, main- 

boom, square-sail boom, &c. 2. A strong 

iron chain fastened to spars and extended 
across a river or the mouth of a harbour 
to prevent an enemy's ships from passing. 
——3. A pole set up as a mark to direct 
seamen to keep the channel in shallow 
water. 1 . To boom, to rush vtith vio- 
lence, as a ship iinder a press of sail. In 
this sense the word is, Dut. bom, the 
Bound given by an empty barrel when 
struck ; hence bomme, a drum, and bom- 
tnen, to drum. 

Boom'kin, dim. of boom, a short spar 
projecting from the bow of a ship to ex- 
tend one edge of the foresail to the 

Boops, the pike-headed whale, so 
named from its sharp-pointed nose. It 
has a double pipe in its snout, and a 
bony ridge on its back. 

Boor, a peasant (J), boer, a rustic), par- 
ticularly applied to the peasantry of Rus- 
sia. These are divided into two classes, 
free boors and vassal boors. The former 
cannot be sold ; the latter are mere slaves 
entirely at the disposal of their lords. The 
crown-boors, the mine-boors, and the pri- 
vate-boors, are all of this latter description. 
Boot, a covering for the leg, made of 
leather, and united to a shoe. In old law, 
the boot was a kind of rack for the leg, 
used for the purposes of tort\ire. It was 
made of boards bound fast to the legs by 
cords. Another kind was a small boot 
made of strong leather, which being 
made thoroughly wet and soft was 
drawn upon the leg, and then dried by 
the fire so as to contract and squeeze 
the leg. The boot of a coach is the space 
underneath, between the coachman and 
the body of the coach, in which the lug 
gage is stowed. The apron of a gig is 
also sometimes called, very improperly, 
the boot. 

BoStes, a northern constellation, called 
by the Greeks Arctophylax, and by the 
Bnglish Charles's Wain. Arcturus was 
placed by the anci* cts on his breast, and 

by the modems on the skirt of his coat. 
Fable relates that Ceres, as the reward of 
Philomelus for his invention of the art 
of ploughing, transferred him and his 
oxen to the heavens, under the name of 
Bootes (jSoainjf, a husbandman). In the 
Berlin Ubles this constellation contains 
64 stars. 

BooT-Toppiso, the operation of clean- 
ing a ship's bottom near the surface of 
the water, by scraping off the grass, 
shells, slime, &c., and daubing it over 
with a mixture of tallow, rosin, and 

B0RA.CIC, pertaining to borax. Boracic 
acid is obtained from borax by dissolv- 
ing the salt in hot water, filtering the 
solution, adding sulphuric acid till the 
liquid has become sensibly sour; then 
setting aside to cool, the boracic acid will 
be deposited in small white shining scaly 
crystals. It is composed of boron and 
orygen, in the proportion of eight parts 
of the former to sixteen of the latter. Its 
salts are called borates. 

BoRiCi'TE, a native borate of magnesia 
found embedded in gypsum in Hanover 
and Holstein. Its colours are white and 
greyish ; it is generally of a cubic form, 
and possesses, when heated, strong elec- 
trical properties. 

Bor'aoe, a name common to aU the 
plants of the genus Borago, but especially 
applied to the B. officitialis, an indigenous 
annual, much used as an ingredient in 
the summer beverage called cool tankard. 
It contains much nitrate of pot.ish. 

Boragin'e*, a tribe of dicotyledonous 
plants, of which the genus Borago is the 

Bo'rate, a salt formed by the combina- 
tion of the boracic acid with a salifiable 

Bo'rax, a biborate of soda which, in an 
impure state, is called tvu:al. This salt 
is found crystallised in certain lakes in 
Thibet ; in solution in many springs in 
Persia ; and may be procured of superior 
quality fiora China. It is purified by cal- 
cination, solution, and crystallisation. Its 
composition, according? to Kergman, is 
boracic acid, 34 ; soda, 17 ; water, 49. It 
is highly important in the arts as a flux. 
The word borax is latinised from the Per- 
sian word bourakon, from bordka, to shine, 

Bor'bonites, a sect of Gnostics of the 
second century. They denied the last 
judgment, and take their name from 
/SflgCe^sf, in allusion to their daubing 
themselves with filth. 

Borborto'mds, the name given by me- 
dical practitioners to the rumbling noise 
occasioned by flatus in the intestines, 
from ^oeQ, fvy/M)( , intestinal noise. 

Bor'der. The term is from the sanM 




root as board. In heraldry, it is an ho- 
nourable ordinary, according to French 
heralds, which should occupy a third part 
of the shield. It surrounds the field, is of 
equal breadth on every part, and in Eng- 
lish blazonry, it occupies one-fifth of the 

Bord'la.nd, in old law, the domain land 
which the lord kept in his own hand for 
the maintenance of his bord (board) or 
table ; sometimes called hordage. 

Bord'- LODE, that is, board-load, the ser- 
vice required of a tenant to carry timber 
from the woods to his lord's house ; also 
the quantity of provisions paid by a bord- 
man for bordland. 

Bord' , the tenant of bordland, who 
supplied his lord with provisions. 

Bord'-Service, the tenure by which 
bordland was held, which -was the pay- 
ment of a certain quantity of provisions 
to the lord. In lieu of this the tenant 
now pays sixpence an acre. 

Boa'DURE. In heraldry, a tract or com- 
pass of metal, colour or fur, within the 
escutcheon, and around it. 

Bore, from Sax. boflian, to perforate, 
expresses the sudden rise of the tide in 
certain estuaries. To bore: in the manige, 
a horse is said to bore when he carries 
his nose to the ground. 

Boree', the French name of a dance, in 
common time of four crotchets in a bar, 
always beginning in the last quaver or 
last crotchet of the measure. 

Bor'ino, a species of circular cutting in 
which a cylindrical portion of the sub- 
stance is removed. Among miners, boring 
is performed for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the nature of the subjacent strata 
without digging. The instruments used 
are scooping irons, which, being with- 
drawn from time to time, bring up sam- 
ples of the strata through which they 
have passed. 

Bo'ron, the basis of horacic acid. It 
may be obtained by heating in a copper 
tube two parts of potassium and one of 
boracic acid, previously fused and pow- 
dered. It is classed among the metals by 

Bor'ough, from Sax. DO|thoe, surety. 
In Saxon times this word denoted a mani- 
pledge (hand-pledge) or association of 
men, who were sureties or free pledges to 
the king for the good behaviour of each 
other, and if any offence was committed 
in their district, they were bound to have 
the offenders forthcouMng. The asso- 
ciating of ten men was called a tything or 
decenary; the head man was called the 
tything-man, or head-borough, and in some 
places borsholder and borough's ealiUr, and 
the society /r»6M/-j, that is, free-burgh or 
frank-pledge. Ten tytbings formed an 
, a denomination still retained to 

the districts comprehended in the asso- 
ciation. It is probable that the applica- 
tion of the word borough to towns sprung 
from these associations, when their pri- 
mary objects were somewhat merged- in 
the rights and privileges of the burghs, 
wliich denoted originally fortified towns. 
This name, however, was early restricted 
to those towns which sent burgesses to 
parliament. In this sense the term is Sax. 
boufij^, a fortified place. Some boroughs 
are incorporated, but others are not. In 
Scotland, the terra is applied to a body 
corporate, erected by charter of the Sove- 
reign, having a certain jurisdiction. Bo- 
roughs, when erected to be held of the 
Sovereign, are called royal bo)-oughs ; when 
erected to be held of the Sovereign simply 
as superior of the land, they are called 
borottghs of regality ; when erected to be 
held of the lord baron, they are called 
boroughs of barony. 

Bor'ough-Courts, certain courts of pri- 
vate and special jurisdiction, held in 
diflferent cities, boroughs, and corpora- 
tions, throughout the kingdom, by pre- 
scription, charter, or act of parliament. 
Of this character are the Sheriff's court 
and court of Hustings in Loudon. 

Bor'ouoh-English, a customary descent 
of lands and tenements to the youngest 
son instead of the eldest ; or, there being 
no sons, to the youngest brother. 

Bor'relists, a sect of Christians in Hol- 
land, so called from Borrel, their founder. 
They reject the use of the Sacraments and 
all external worship, but lead an austere 

Bos, the ox: a well known genus of 
ruminant animals of the tribe of Bovidi's. 
The name is Lat. from jSofj , an ox. Tie 
chief species are the common ox, the 
aurochs, bison, buffalo, yack, and musk ox. 
Bo'sA, an inebriating preparation used 
by the Egyptians, made of the meal of 
darnel, hempseed, and water. 

Bo,'cAOE, a French term, now written 
ftoco^e, a grove. 1. Underwood and some- 
times lands covered with underwood. 

2. In painting, a landscape representing 

thickets and woodlands. 3. In oUl law, 

food for cattle which is yielded by bushes 
and trees. 
Bos'ket, Eng. ) Ital. boschetto, a grove, 
Bos'quet, Fr. ) from bosco. In girden- 
ing, a compartment formed by branches 
of trees, disposed according to fancy. 

Bossaoe, from boss. In architeAnre : — 
1. A projecting stone laid rough in build- 
ing, to be afterwards carved into mould- 
ings, capitals, arms, &c. 2. Kustic 

work used chiefly in the corners of build- 
ings, and thence called rustic quoim. 

Boswei.'lia., a genus of plants. Vecan- 
dria — Monogynia. The B. senata is sup- 
posed to yield the olibanuui of commerce 




KoTANo'GRArHy, ^orav/i, a plant, and 
>{<x^>!, description. Description of plants, 
their habits and geographical distribu- 

Bot'ant, from /Sot«»»5, a plant. That 
branch of natural history which relates to 
the vcpetahle kingdom. It has been 
divided into the following heads: — 1. Or- 
ganoyraphy, or the organization of plants ; 
2. Physiology, or the department which 
treats of the vital actions of plants; 3. 
Taxonomy, or the principles of classifica- 
tion; 4. Terminology, or the terms em- 
ployed in the science ; 5. Phytography, or 
the rules to be observed in describing and 
naming plants; and, 6, the Practice of 
Botany, or, the application of the preced- 
ing subjects to the art of discriminating 

The only two botanical arrangements 
now in use are the Linniean and the 
Natural. The former is a classification of 
plants according to their agreement in 
some single characters; the latter is a 
scheme for placing next to each other all 
those plants which have the greatest re- 
semblance. For a more full explanation 
of these two kinds of classification, the 
reader is referred to the various works 
that have been published on the subject, 
as space can only be afforded here for a 
■very general account of these. As the 
Linna^an system is rapidly falling into 
disuse, and* has been already so often ex- 
plained, a very brief description of the 
combination of the stamens and styles 
may suffice in this place Class I. (sta- 
men, 1), Monandria ; II. (stamens, 2), 
Diandria; III. (stamens, 3), Triandria; 
IV. (stamens, 4), Tetrandria;V. (stamens, 
5), Pentandria; VI. (stamens, 6), Hexan- 
dria ; VII. (stamens, 7), Heptandria ; 
VIII. (stamens, 8), Octandi-ia; IX. (sta- 
mens, 9), Enneandria; X. (stamens, 10), 
Decandria; XI. (stamens, 12 — 19), Dode- 
candria; XII. (stamens, 20 or^more, in- 
serted into the calyx), Icosandria; XIII. 
(stamens, 20 or more, inserted into the 
receptacle), Polyandria; XIV. (stam ns, 
2 long and 2 short), Didynamia ; XV. 
(stamens, 4 long and 2 short), Tetradyna- 
mia; XVI. (stamens united by their fila- 
ments intoatube),Monadelphia; XVII. 
(stamens united by their filaments into 
two parcels), Diadelphia; XVIII. 'sta- 
mens united by their filaments into se- 
veral parcels), I'olyadelphia; XIX. (sta- 
mens united by their anthers into a 
tube), Sj-ngenesia; XX. (stamens united 
with the pistil), GjTiandi-ia ; XXI. (sta- 
mens and pistils in separate flowers, but 
both growing on the same plant), Monoe- 
cia; XXII. (stamens and pistils not only 
in separate flowers, but those flowers si- 
tuated upon twodilferent plants), Dicecia ; 
XXIII. (stamens and pistils separate in 

some flowers, united in others, either on 
the same plant, or two or three different 
ones), Polygamia; XXIV. (stamens and 
pistils, either not ascertained, or not to 
be discovered, with any certainty, inso- 
much that the plants cannot be referred 
to any of the foregoing classes), Crypto- 
gamia. The number of styles, or stigmas 
if there be no styles, characterises the 
orders of the first thirteen classes, which 
are thus named : — Monogynia, style 1 ; 
Digynia, 2; Trigynia, 3; Tctragynia, 4 ; 
Pentagynia, 5 ; Hexagynia, 6 ; Heptagy- 
nia, 7 ; Octogynia, 8 ; Enneagynia, 9 ; 
Decagynia, 10; Dodecagynia, 12; Poly- 
gynia, more than 12. In the 14tli class, 
Didynamia, the orders depend upon the 
ovary; in the loth class, Tetradynamia, 
the orders are characterised by the form 
of the fruit. The orders of the 16th, 17th, 
and 18th classes, Monadelphia, Diadel- 
phia, and Polyadelphia, depend upon the 
number of stamens, and have the same 
nomenclature as the first thirteen classes. 
Syngenesiae arc determined by the ar- 
rangement of their flowers, and by the 
sex of their florets. Polygamia has flowers 
crowded together in heads. Monogamia 
has the flowers separate, not crowded in 
heads; and the last class, Cryptogamia, 
is divided into orders according to the 
principles of the Xatural System, viz. 
Filices, Musci, Hcpaticae, Algae, Fungi. 

The Natural System of botany is based 
upon that formed by Jussieu out of the 
views of Ray, Toumefort, and others, iu 
combination with numerous observations 
of his own, and may be thus classified:— 
Divisions formed by the Organs of Frttctiji- 
cation or of Nutrition. — I. Phaneroga- 
Mocs or Vascular. Class 1. Dicotyle- 
dons or Exogens; 2. Monocotyledons or 
Endogens. 11. Cryptooamous or Cellu- 
lar. 3. ^theogamous or Semivascular ; 
4. Amphigamous or Cellular. Or thus : — 
I. Sexual, being furnished with sexual 
organs, or having vessels and stomates at 
some period of their existence. Class 1. 
Dicotyledons or Exogens ; 2. Monocoty- 
ledons or Endogens ; 3. jEtheogamous or 
Semivascular. II. "Without distinct sexes, 
or without either vessels or stomates at 
any age. 4. Amphigamous or Cellular. 

A more recent author has, however, 
proposed a material modification, which 
may be expressed as follows: — Plants. — 
According to their Fructification. I. Hav- 
ing flowers and sexes (Phanerogamous), 
or According to their Vegetation. 1. Their 
axis increasing symmetrically in density 
and breadth, as well as length (Pleuro- 
gens). (a) Minimum of Cotyledons, 2, or 
(a) Stem in concentric layers (Exogens). 
Class 1. Dicotyledons, or veins of leaves 
netted ; Class 2. Gymnospenns, or veins of 
leaves netted or forked. (6) Minimum of 
Cotyledons, 1, or (6) Stem, a confused 





mass of wood and cellular tissue. Class 3. 
Monocotyleduiis, or veins of leaves parallel, 
tmd not netted, (c) Acotyledons, or (c) Ve- 
getation fungoid. Class 4. Rhizanths. — 
II. Having neither Jiowerk nor sexes, or 
II. Their axis increasing by simple elon- 
fration, or irregular expansion. Class 5. 
Cryptogamic plants, or Class 6. Acrogens. 

Botar'go, a sausajre made of the roe of 
the mullet, on the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean and Black Sea. It is called bo- 
nargues in Provence. 

Bote, a Saxon word meaning repara- 
tion, compensation, allowance, and the 
like, and retained in law in composition. 
Thus, manbote, compensation for killing a 
man ;^re-6o<e, allowance of wood for fuel. 

Botel'to, a small Mexican fish, the 
liver of which is a deadly poison. It is 
about eight inches long, has a flat belly 
and a convex back. 

Botha'gh'm, duty paid to the lord of 
the manor for pitcliing booths. Latin 
from Celtic [bothng, a cot, a booth, botha). 

Bothriocepha'lus, the tape-worm (see 
T^nia), thus named from /Sofl^MK, a little 
pit, and ;!!£(?aA») a head; there being 
certain depressions about the head. 

Botrtchic'm, the moon-wort, a genus 
of hardy perennials. Cryptogamea — Fili- 
ces. Named from jSor^vs, a bunch of 
jrrapes, in allusion to the appearance of 
the branched clusters of capsules. There 
Is only one British species, the -B. lunaria, 
Sw., or Osmunda lunaria, Lin. & E. Bot., 
found in dry mountain pastures. 

Botrtlla'rians, ( In geology, a family 

Botryi-la'ri-e. ) of compound Tuni- 
caries, in which several individuals are 
arranged in a ring round a central aper- 
ture common to the rectum of each, the 
mouths being at the circumference. 

Bot'rtoid, I from /Sergt/f, a bunch of 

Botryoi'dal, i grapes, and uios, form; 
having the form of a bunch of grapes; 
clustered ; applied to minerals, &c. 

Botrtoli'te, grape-stone, a variety of 
prismatic datolite occurring in mamil- 
lary concretions, from /Sor^yj , a bunch of 
grapes, and XvSof , a stone. It occurs plen- 
tifully in Xorway. 

Bots, a species of worms found chiefly 
in the intestines of horses. They are the 
larvas of a species of breeze or gad-fly 
(the G(Js<r«se9f/»,Meig.),which deposits its 
eggs on the tips of the hairs, generally of 
the fore-leg and mane, whence they are 
taken into the mouth and swallowed. 
The same name is also given to the larvaj 
of other species of the Gastrus (CEitrus, 
Lin.), found under the hides of most ani- 
mals of the bovine genus, and sometimes 
tn the nostrils of sheep, de sr, &c. 

Bot'tle. Sp. botella, dim. of bota, a 
leathern bag for wine. The bottles of the 
tncienta were made of skins and leather. 

In modern times they are made chiefly of 
thick glass of the cheapest sorts. 

Bot'tle-glass is composed of sand and 
lime, and sometimes clay and alkaline 
ashes of any kind, such as kelp, barilla, 
soap-boilers' waste, and even wood ashes. 
The green colour is in part owing to the 
impurities of the ashes, but chiefly to 
oxide of iron contained in the sand. 

Bot'tom. 1. In commercial language, a 
ship; e.g. "The goods were imported in 

British bottoms." 2. In the language oj 

jockeys, stamina, native strength ; e. g. 
" The horse has good bottom." 

Bottom-heat, applied to the artificial 
temperature produced in hot-houses. 

Bot'tomrt, in commercial affairs, is the 
hypothecation or pledge of a ship for the 
payment of a debt. The owner of a ship 
and the captain, under certain circum- 
stances, is autliorised to borrow money, 
either to fit her out so as to enable her to 
proceed on her voyage, or to purchase a 
cargo for the voyage, pledging the keel 
or bottom of the ship (a part for the whole) 
in security for payment. If the ship is 
lost, the lender loses his money ; but if 
she arrives in safety at her destination, 
the lender is then entitled to get back his 
principal and the interest agreed on, how- 
ever much that interest may exceed the 
legal rate. 

Bot'toxt. In heraldry, a cross bottony 
terminates at each end in three buds, 
knots, or buttons, resembling in some 
measure the trefoil ; hence called croix 
treffli. The tei-m bottony is from the same 
root as button. 

BoccHE, a French word signifying 
mouth, used anciently to denote the pri- 
vilege of having meat and drink at court 
"scot free." The word is also written 
botcge, bouge, and budge. 

Bou'doir, a small room destined for re- 
tirement. The name is Fr., fi-om bonder, 
to be sulky. 

Bou'get, Water Budget, or Dosser. In 
heraldry, the representation of a vessel 
for carrying water. 

Eou'gie, a French term for a wax candle 
[candelacerea), and used as the name of a 
smooth, fiexible, elastic, slender cylinder, 
introduced into the urethra, rectum, or 
oesophagus, for opening or dilating it in 
cases of stricture or other diseases. Some 
are solid and some hollow, some corrosive 
and some mollifying. When the bougie 
has some escharotic substance attached 
to the end of it, it is said to be armed. 

Bori'LLoN. In the manige,B.n excres- 
cence of (lesh causing the frush to shoot 
out, which makes the horse to halt. The 
word is Fr., from bouillir, to boil. 

Bocld'ek, from Fr. boxde, 1 A bale. 

Bowlder, from Eng. bowl. ) This name 
is used to designate those masses of rocks 
found lying on the surface, or Imbedded 




in the soil, and differing from the rocks 
about where they are found. These frag- 
ments or outlying boulders are of no de- 
terminate size ; they are supposed to have 
been ti-ansported by water, and are occa- 
sionally found at great distances from 
their parent rocks. 

Bould'er-walls are those built of 
boulders or rounded fragnienu of rocks, 
laid in strong mortar, used where the sea 
has a beach cast up. 

BouL'iMY, Lat. ioM/tmta, voracious appe- 
tite, from Sevi, great, and Xjfjus, hunger. 

Bool'tine. In ari-hitecture, the work- 
man's term for a convex moulding, whose 
periphery is just a quarter of a circle, 
next below the plinth in the Tuscan and 
Doric capitals. It is called also a boltel, 
but is not at present in use. 

Bound. In cUinHng, a spring from one 
foot to the other, in distinction from hop, 
w^hich is a spring from one foot to the 
same. Bound is used in composition, as 
in ice-bound, wind-hormd, w^hen a ship is 
prevented from sailing by ice or contrary 
winds ; and in the sense of destined, when 
we say that a ship is hoxind for Cadiz. 

Bocn'tt. Lat. bonitas, Vr.honti. A term 
used in commerce and the arts, to signify 
a premium paid by govenmient, 1. To 
producers, exporters, and importers of 

certain articles ; 2. To owners of ves- 

selfl engaged in certain trades. Most of 
the bounties have now happily ceased. 
The term is still retained to designate the 
premium offered to induce men to enlist 
in the public service. 

Bour'done'e. In heraldry, the same 
with pom^e (q. v.). 

BocROEOis, the name used to designate 
that sort of printing types in size between 
long-primer and brevier. The word is 

Boustrophe'don, a sort of writing 
found on Greek coins and inscriptions of 
the remotest antiquity ; so called from 
^cui and a-T^ot,^tat, because the lines are 
60 disposed as to succeed each other like 
furrows in a ploughed held. 

Bout, in agriculture, is one turn or 
course of a plough in ploughing a ridge. 

Bou'tast. In architecture, an arc bou- 
tant is an arch or buttress serving to sus- 
tain a vault, and which is itself sustained 
by some strong wall or massive pile. The 
word is Fr., from 6out«r, to abut. A pillar 
hmttant is a large chain or pile of stone 
made to support a wall, terrace, or vault. 

Boute', I'r. for bouted or abuted. In the 
manege, a horse is said to be bouti, when 
his legs are in a straight line from the 
knee to the coronet. 

Bou'vATE, an ox-gate,or as much land 
as an ox can plough in a year (Cowell says 
28 acres). "Written in law Latin, bovata, 
&om bot, bovis, an ox. 

BovET COAL, a name given to wood-coal, 
from its having been found abundantly at 
Bovey Heathficld, near Exeter. It is 
also allied brown coal and brown lignite. 

Bovi'd.b, a tribe of ruminantia,of which 
the genus Bos is the type. 

Bo'tisb, Lat. bovinus, pertaining to 
oxen, cows, &c. The epithet is applied 
to all the quadrupeds of the genus Jios, 
called accordingly the bovine genus. 

Bow, from Teut. boghen, to bend. 1. An 
ancient instrument of war and hunting, 
made of wood or other elastic matter, 
with a string fastened to each end. It is 
of two kinds : the long-bow and the cross- 
bow, arbalet or arbalest. The use of the 

bow is called archery. 2. A well-known 

implement, by means of which the tone 
is produced from viols, vloUns, and other 
mtisical instruments of that sort. It is 
made of a thin staff of elastic wood, ta- 
pering slightly till it reaches the lower 
end, to which fi-om 50 to 100 horse-hairs 
are fastened, and with which the bow is 
strung. At the upper end is an orna- 
mented piece of wood or ivory, called the 
nut, fastened with a screw, which serves 

to regulate the tension of the hairs. 

3. A beam of wood or brass, with three 
screws, that governs or directs a lath of 
wood or steel to any arc ; chiefly used 
wherever it is requisite to draw large 

arcs. i. An instrument formerly in use 

for taking the sun's altitude at sea. 5. 

An instrument used : 1. By smiths to 
turn a drill ; 2. By turners for turning 
small articles of wood ; 3. By hatters, &c. 
for breaking fur, wool, and cotton. It re- 
sembles the archer's bow. {See Drill- 
Bow). 6. The rounded part of a ship's 

side forward, beginning M-here the planks 
arch inwards, and terminating where 
they close at the stem or prow. Hence, 
among seamen, that arc of the horizon 
(not exceeding 45°) intercepted between 
some distant object and that point of the 
compass which is right ahead is said to 
be on the bow. This is applicable to any 

object within that arc. -1. The bows of a 

saddle are the two pieces of wood laid arch- 
wise to receive the upper part of a horse's 
back, to give the saddle its due form, and 

keep it tight. 8. That part of some 

buildings which projects from a straight 
wall, most commonly of the form of a 
segment of a cylinder, though it has 
sometimes three, four, or five vertical 
sides, raised from a polygonal plan, or a 
prism so disposed, when it is called a 
canted bow. 

Bow-coMPASsEs are used for drawing 
small circles with great exactness. 

Bow'er, in nautical language, an anchor 
carried at the bow of a ship. There are 
generally two bowers, called thejirst and 
second, great and little, or best and $nuM. 
See Anchor. 




Bow'-ORACE, in nautical lanytuige, a 
frame or composition of junk laid out at 
The sides, stems, or bows of ships, to se- 
cure them from injury by ice. 

Bo-w'line, in nautical language, a rope 
fastened near the middle of the leech or 
perpendicular edge of the square-sails, by 
subordinate parts called bridles, and used 
to keep the weather edge of the sail tight 
forward when the ship is close-hauled. 
The term may be Armoric houline, "a 
slanting sail to receive a side wind;" or 
Fr. houline, a tack, from houliner. 

Bow'line-bridles, the ropes by which 
the bowline is fastened to the leech of the 

Bow'-NET, a machine for catching lob- 
sters and crawfish, called also a bow-wheel. 
It consists of two round wicker baskets, 
pointed at the end, one of which is thrust 
into the other, and at the mouth is a 
little rim bent inwards. 

Bow'spRiT {how and sprit, q. v.), D. hoeg- 
fpriet, Dan. boug-sprid. A large spar 
•which projects over the stem of a ship 
to carry forward. It rests obliquely on 
the head of the main-stem, and has its 
lower end fastened to the partners of the 

Box'-DRAiN, an underground drain built 
of brick and stone, and possessing a rect- 
angular section. 

Box'-HAut,, to veer a ship in a particular 
manner when it is impossible to tack. 

BoxiNo-orr, throwing the head sails 
aback, to force the ship's head rapidly off 
the wind. 

Boxing the Compass, repeating all the 
points in their regular order. 

Box-tree, the JBuxt<s«empe>TiVen«, which 
grows wild in several parts of Britain. 
The wood is yellow, close-grained, very 
hard, and heavy ; it cuts better than any 
other wood, and is susceptible of a very 
line polish. Wood-cuts are engraved on 
it. It is mostly imported at a duty of 51. 
per ton. 

Box- WOOD, properly the wood of the 
hox-trce (q. v.), but applied popularly as a 
name for all the species of the genus 
Bums. There is properly only one species 
native of Britain, but there are at least 
six varieties of that species. See Buxtjs. 
BoTAc', in fortijication, a ditch covered 
■with a parapet, serving as a communica- 
tion between two trenches. The term is 
Fr., boyau, a gut. 

BoTt'NA, a large but harmless American 
serpent. It is black and slender, and has 
an intolerable smell. 
Br., an abbreviation of the word bishop. 
B QCADRo, a figure in written music 
called in French B quarri, from its figure 
U, and in Engli«li B natural or sharp, in 
distinction from S mol, or flat. 
B. R., as abbreviation of the words I 

Bancus Begince, the Court of Queen's 

Bbac'cats (hracca, breeches), when the 
feet of birds arc concealed by long feathers 
descending from the tibiae. 

Brace, from Cel. braic, brae, the arm. 
1. In architecture, a piece of wood framed 
in with bevel joints, serving to keep the 
building from swerving either way. It 
extends like an arm from the post or main 

timber. 2. In mustc, a double curve at 

the beginning of a stave. 3. A thick 

strap which supports a carriage on wheels. 

4. A crooked line in printing, '\ 

connecting two or more lines or > 

words. It is xised to connect triplets ) 

in poetry. 5. In nautical language, to 

brace about is to turn the yards round for 
the contrary tack ; to brace sharp is to 
cause the yards to have the smallest pos- 
sible angle with the keel ; to brace to is to 
check or ease off the lee braces, and round 
in the weather ones, to assist in tacking. 

Braces, plural of brace (q. v.). 1. Nar- 
row fiJlets or bands of leather, or textile 
fabric, which pass over the shoulders, and 

support the pantaloons. 2. In nautical 

language, ropes belonging to all the yards 
of a ship, except the mizzen, two to each 
yard, reeved through blocks which are 
fastened to pendants, seized to the yard- 
arms, to square or traverse the yards. 
The name is also given to pieces of iron 
which are used as supports, such as of the 

poop-lanterns, &c. 3. The braces of a 

drum are the cords on the sides of it, for 
tightening the heads and snares. 

Brachely'tra, a family of pentamerous 
coleoptera, having only a single palpus on 
each maxilla, or four in all, including the 
labial pair. The name is composed of 
(2?*/C''f ' s'lort, and iXiiT^ov, a sheath. 
Brach'iate, Lat. brachiatus, four-ranked, 
applied to stems, &c. of plants when 
they divide and spread in four directions, 
crossing each other alternately in pairs. 

Bra'chio is used in compoimding the 
names of muscles, &c. of the arm (bra- 

Bra'chioltim, a member of an instru- 
ment used upon astrolabes, &c., some- 
times called the creeping index. It is 
usually made of brass, with several joints, 
that the end or point may be set to any 
degree of the astrolabe. 

Brachiopo'da, a class of moUusca pro- 
vided with two fleshy arms instead of 
feet; hence the name, ^^ccx'enf, an arm, 
and ireut, a foot. The brachiopoda aro 
all bivalves, and, like the acephala, have 
an open bilobe mantle. 

Bra'chmans, a sect of ancient Indian 
philosophers. The brachmans were a 
branch of the gymnosophists. The word 
is also written Brachmins and Brahmin*. 
They took their Utle from Abraham, ^ 




they called Brachma and Brama, and pre- 
tended to imitate the life of the patri- 
arch toy living in deserts. 

BRA'cHycATALEPTic, /Sga^uf, shoTt.and 
xocToiXriirrtxei, deficient. In Greek and 
Latin poetry, a verse wanting two sylla- 
bles to complete its length. 

Brachyg'raphy, stenography, ^^ot^Sy 
short, and y^afu, to write. 

Brachtpo'dium, the /a/se hrome-grass, a 
genus of plants. Triandria — JHgynia. 
Named from ^^cc.x"S> short, and jreuf , a 
foot, from the sessile, or nearly sessile, 
spikelets, which, with the terminal awn, 
distinguish this genus from Broinus, where 
tjie two British plants of this genus had 
been placed. 

Brachyp'ter-i, a family of birds of the 
Palmipede order, having the legs placed 
farther back than in any other birds, 
which renders walking painful to them ; 
and having but feeble powers of flight, 
which renders them almost exclusively 
attached to the surface of the water. The 
divers, auks, and pensuins are examples. 
The name is from ^^tt^s, short, and 
jTTEgoK, a wing. 

BRACHYP'TERors, short-wingcd, be- 
longing to the Brachyptera family of birds. 

Brachy'stochkone, /Soa%yj, short, and 
X{e»«f » time. The name given by John 
Bemdolli to the curve which possesses 
this property, that a body setting out 
from a given point, and impelled merely 
by the force of gravity, will arrive at 
another point in a shorter time by mov- 
ing in this curve, than if it followed any 
other direction. It was first proposed by 
Bernoulli as a challenge to other mathe- 
maticians in 1696. The brachystochrone, 
or curve of quickest descent, as it is 
otherwise termed, is found to be the com- 
mon cycloid. 

Brachttj'ra, a family of crustaceans, 
placed by Cuvier in the order Decapoda, 
and constituting the genus Cancer, Lin. 
Name from jS^ax"!' short, and ov^», a 
taU, the tail being shorter than the trunk, 
in which the Brachyura differ from the 

Brac'tea, a Latin word meaning a leaf 
of gold or other metal, and used in 60- 
tany to denote a little leaf- like appendage 
in some flowers, lying under or inter- 
spersed in the flower, but generally difi'er- 
ent in colour from the true leaves of the 
plant. It is otherwise called a floral leaf. 
The term is sometimes anglicised, and 
written bract. 

Brac'teate, furnished with bracteae, 

Brac'teates, thin coins of gold or sil- 
ver, and latterly of copper, with irregu- 
lar figures stamped upon one surface, so 
that the impression is raised upon one 

side and depressed on the other. They 
were circulated in great quantities under 
Otho I. of Germany. The real names at 
the time they were in circulation were, 
denarius, moneta, obolus, patmiiii/us. 

Brad, a slender sort of nail, used in 
joinery, having no spreading head, as 
other nails have, but a small projection 
on one side. Of this sort are joiners' brads, 
used for hard wainscots , batten-brads, for 
soft wainscots ; bill-brads, or quarter brads, 
used in floors. "When brads are used, it 
is customai-y to drive them beneath the 
surface of the wood with a punch and 
hammer, and till up the hole with putty, 
that the nailing may not be visible. The 
term is from Sax. blteban, to join, knit. 

Brad-awl, that is, a broad-auL (See 
Awl.) This awl is used cliiefly for piercing 
holes for brads. 

BradvpVda, an order of slow-moving 
animals of class Mammalia, and including 
the Bradypus (sloth), Mermecophaga (ant- 
eaters), Manis (scaly-lizard or bangolin), 
Dasypus (armadillo) , Omithorhynchus 
(duck-bill). Name from ^eahh;,s\ow, and 
fT6ui, foot. The Brady poda, Lin. are 
mostly comprehended among the Eden- 
tata, Cuv. 

Bradypus, the sloth. An American 
genus of animals of the order Bradypoda 
and class 3fnmmaita. Named from ii^athlsf 
slow, and frev;, a foot. They are placed 
by Cuvier in his order Edentata and divi- 
sion tardigrada. There are several species, 
of which the al {B. tridactylus, Lin.) is 
the most celebrated; F. Cuvier applies 
the name bradypus to those species only 
which have two nails to the fore-feet : the 
CholcBpus, IlUg., of which there is only 
one species known, the unau (U. didac- 
tylus, Lin.), larger than the al. 

Brah'mans, the highest of the fotir 
castes of Hindoos : they form the learned 
or sacerdotal class. Their chief privileges 
are, reading theVedas or sacred writings, 
instituting sacrifices, imparting religious 
instruction, asking alms, and exemption 
from capital punishment. 

Braid, a sort of narrow textile band or 
tape formed by plaiting (Sax. bjieban, 
to plait) several strands together. There 
must be at least 3 strands, but as many 
as 29 (and perhaps more) are sometimes 
employed. Braid, stay-laces, and up- 
holsterers' cord are worked by means of 
a machine of very ingenious construc- 
tion, called the braiding -machine or frame . 

Braik, 1 An instrument used in flax- 

Brake. ) dressing, to brake (break) the 
wood or boon of the stems, and loosen it 
from the harl. The bott-hammer (q. v.) 
is generally employed on the Continent 
instead of the brake, and the brake- 
machine has iu Britain superseded the 




hand-brake. The essentia! part of such 
machine consists in several deeply fluted 
rollers of wood or iron, whose teeth work 
into each other, and while they stretch 
out the flaxen stalks between them, they 
comminate the woody parts, and eflec- 
tually loosen the liarl. 

Brail, Fr. hrayer, a truss. In naviga- 
tion, brails are ropes passing throujfh 
pulleys on the mi/zen-mast and yard, and 
fastejied to the aftmost leech of the sail 
in different places, to truss It up close. 
Also, all ropes employed to haul up the 
bottoms, lower corners, and skirts of the 
other great sails, for the more ready 
furling of them. To brail up is to haul 
up into the brails, or to truss up with the 

Brain, from Sax. Dfteync, fervour. 
The soft whitish mass or Aiscus inclosed 
in the cranium. It is composed of a 
cortical substance, Mhich is external, and 
a medullary substance, which is internal. 
The first is reddish, the latter wliite. It 
Is divided below into six lobes, and above 
into two hemispheres, whose volumes are 
in proportion to the extent of the intelli- 
gence. It is moreover divided by anato- 
mists into two principal parts — the cere- 
brum, which occupies in man the higher 
part of the head, and is seven or eight 
times larger than the cerebellum, lying 
behind and below it. 

Brake. 1 . A machine used in dressing 

flax (See BiiAiK.) 2. A name common 

to all the plants of the genus Pteris (q. v.) 

3. A baker's kneading-trough. 4. A 

sharp bit or snaftie. 5. A machine for 

confining refractory horses while the 

smith is shoeing them. 6. A heavy 

harrow, called also a di-ag, and used only 

on rough ground. 7. That part of the 

carriage of a moveable battery or engine 

which enables it to turn (Fairfax). 

8. The handle of a pump : in this sense, 
from Celtic, braic, the arm. 

Bra'ma, a genus of acanthopterygious 
fishes, placed by Cuvier among the squam- 
ipcnnes. There is only one species known, 
the Spams raii, Bl., which inhabits the 
Mediterranean. It attains a large size, is 
of a burnished steel colour, and is excel- 
lent food. 

Bra'mah, the first person in the Trinity 
(Trimurti) of the Hindus.— Bramo/i, the 
creator, Vishnu, the redeemer, and Siva, 
the destroyer. Bramah means " know- 
ledge of laws." 

Bra'mah's Press. See Hydrostatic 

Bram'blEjSrx. Dttsembel, a name com- 
mon to all the species of the genus Ruhus. 
There are 13 British species, of which the 
blackberry or common bramble, raspberry, 
dewlK-rry, stone-bramble and cloud-berry, 
ue w«U known. 

Branch, from Celtic, iraic, the arm, a 

shoot. 1. A shoot of a tree. 2. Any 

part extending from the main body of a 

thing, as a branch of an artery. 3. The 

branches of a bridle are the two pieces ot 
bent iron which bear the bit, the cross 

chains and the cuib. 4. The branches oj 

ogives are the arches of Gothic vaults 
traversing from one angle to another 
diagonally, and forming a cross between 
the other arches, which makes the sides 
of the square of which these arches are 

Branch'er, in falconry, a young hawk 
when it begins to leave the nest and take 
to the branches. 

Branch'ia, the gill of a fish (^^ayx'f)- 
The branchia; of fishes are filamentous 
organs for breathing in water. The term 
is generally used in the plural, like lungs. 

Branchios'tegi, an order of fishes in 
some systems of ichthyology, the charac- 
teristic of which is that the rays of the 
fins are of a bony substance. Name from 
^^ay^ict, gills, and irnycu, to cover. The 
pipe-fish and sucker are examples. 

Branchios'tegi, gill-covered, belong- 
ing to the order Branchiostegi. 

Branch'ipus, the Cancer stagnalis, Lin., 
an animal belonging to the crustaceans, 
having the legs reduced to soft paddles, 
which perform the double office of lungs 
and feet ; hence the name, from ^^ot-yx^ot, 
gills, and ^ov;, a foot. 

Bran'dt, an ardent spirit distilled from 
wine and the husks of grapes, hence 
called by the Germans branteweiyi, by 
the French, brandevin, by the Dutch, 
brandewyn, the root of which words is 
Teut. branden, to boil, distil. Brandy is 
prepared in most of the wine countiles, 
but the French brandy is the best. 

Brankur'sine, the herb bear's breech. 
The name is applicable to all the species 
of the genus Acanthus. 

Bran'lin, a species of fish of the sal- 
mon tribe, called in some places the 
Jingry, from certain black marks on each 
side resembling fingers. 

Brant, a bird, the Anas bernicla, Gm., 
distinguished from the common geese by 
a shorter and slenderer bill, the edges of 
which conceal the extremities of the la- 
minte. It is thus named from the colour 
of the mantle, which is brownish grey, as 
if brant, brent, or brint (Sax. b|iennan, 
to burn.) 

Brass, an alloy of copper and zinc. 
Fine brass is nearly two parts of copper 
to one of zinc ; but the proportions are 
variable. The varieties are Prince's or 
Prince Rupert's metal. Mosaic gold, Bath* 
metal, button metal (platin), red brass 
(the Tombak of some), Dutch foil, pinch- 
beck, siniilor, Manheim gold. The tem 




«s Sax. bnaer, but the root is uncer- 

Bra^ss Colour, for staining glass, is 
prepared by exposing tliin plates of brass 
upon tiles in the annealing arch (leer) of 
a glass-house, till they be thoroughly 
oxidised into a black powder. This pow- 
der being mixed with glass in fusion, 
communicates to it greens of various 
tints, passing into turquoise. Glass- 
maker's red colour is similarly prepared 
in a reverberatory furnace, and the yel- 
low by interstratifying the plates with 
sulphur. Colourmen use a powdered 
brass imported from Germany, to imi- 
tate clear or gilt brass ; and mix copper 
filings with red ochre or bole, to produce 
their bronze tint. 

Bras'sage, anciently a sum levied to 
defray the expense of coinage, taken from 
the real value of the coin. 

Br.vs'sart, the piece of metal which 
protected the upper arm, between the 
shoulder-piece and elbow. 

Brassed. Copper plates and rods are 
often brassed externally by exposure at a 
high temperature to the fumes of zinc, 
and afterwards laminated or drawn. 

Brass Foil, Dutch leaf, called knitter 
and rauschgold in Germany, is made from 
very thin sheet-brass (rather thin plates 
of copper brassed) beat out under a ham- 
mer, worked by water power at the rate 
of from 300 to 400 strokes per minute, 
from 40 to 80 leaves being laid over each 

Bras'sica, a genus of plants, mostly 
biennials, but some annuals. Tetradyrm- 
mia — Siliqxw&a. Name latinized from 
Celtic bresic, a cabbage. There are six 
British species, of which the Navew, 
rape or cole-seed, turnip. Savoy, and gar- 
den cabbage, are well known. The B. 
oleracea, found on cliffs by the sea, in 
many parts of England and Scotland, is 
the origin of our garden cabbage. 

Bravura Air, an air composed to en- 
able the singer to show his skill in exe- 
cution by additional embellishments. Bra- 
vura is sometimes used for the style of 

Brazed, a term used in heraldry to de- 
note three cheverons clasping one another. 

Bra'zen-dish, among miners, the stan- 
dard by which the other dishes are 

BRAziLET' inferior species of Bra- 
zil wood brought from Jamaica. 

Brazil' NUTS, or chestnuts of Brazil, the 
fruit of the Ju^na (BerthoUetia ercelsa), a 
majestic tree abounding on the banks of 
the Oronoco, and in the northern parts of 
Brazil. The nuts are triangular, the shell 
rough and hard, and of a brownish ash 
colour. The kernel resembles the almond, 
but tastes like the common hazel nut, 
and coatains much oil, wlileh may be ob- 

tained by mere expression. The nuts 
grow in clusters of from 20 to 50, in great 
ligneous pericarps, generally of the size 
of a child's head. 

Brazil'-wood. This name is commoa 
to the wood of every species of the genus 
Ceesalpinia. The best is that afforded by 
the C. echinata, called Femambuco-wood. 
It grows in the Brazils, the Isle of France, 
Japan, and elsewhere. The C. crista af- 
fords wood of the second quality, and the 
C. sappan, of the third. This last is found 
in Siam and Amboyna. The wood of all 
the species is hard, crooked, and full of 
knots; susceptible of a fine polish, and 
sinks in water. It is pale when newly cut, 
but becomes red by exposure to the air. 
It is valuable in dyeing. Its price in Lon- 
don, exclusive of duty, 5J., is from Zbl. to 
40/. per ton. 

It has been commonly supposed that 
this wood derived its name from the 
coimtry in which it is chiefly produced ; 
but Dr. Bancroft {Philosophy of Colours, 
vol. ii., p. 316), has shown that woods 
yielding a red dye were called Brazil 
woods long previous to the discovery 
of America, and that the early voy- 
ageirs gave the name of Brazil to that 
part of that continent, to which it is 
still applied, from their having ascer- 
tained that it abounded in such woods. 
Braz'ino, the soldering together of 
edges of iron, copper, brass, &c. with an 
alloy consisting of brass and zinc ; some- 
times with a little tin or silver. 

Breach-battery. (The term breach is 
from Sax. btxecan, to break.) A battery 
raised against a face or salient angle of a 
bastion or ravelin, for the purpose of 
making an accessible breach. See Ba.ttbrt. 
Bread, the principal article in the food 
of most civilised nations. It is a spongy 
mass, formed of the flour or meal of dif- 
ferent sorts of grain, mixed with water 
and yeast, and baked. Dough baked 
without being fermented constitutes 
cakes or biscuits, or unleavened bread. 
The term is Sax. bfieob, from b|iebaD, 
to feed. 

Bread'- fruit, the fruit of the Artoear- 
ptts incis», a large tree which grows wild 
in Otaheite and other South- Sea Islands. 
The fruit is a globular berry, of a pale 
green colour, about the size of a child's 
head. It contains a white fibrous pulp, 
which is baked by the natives, and eaten 
as bread. See Artocarpus. 

Break, from Sax. bfiaecan, frango. 
1. In nautical language, when a ship at 
anchor is in a position to keep clear of 
the anchor, but is forced by wind or cur- 
rent out of that position, she is said to 
break her sheer. The break of a deck is 
the part where it terminates, and the de- 

B R K 



scent to the next deck below commences. 

2. Break is the name given to a light 

but strong-built carriage, used for train- 
ing horses to gentle draught. 3. In 

architecture, a break is a recess or shrink- 
ing back of a part behind its ordinary 
range. 4. In printing, the »hort lines 
•which end paragraphs are called breaks. 

Break'ers. In marine langvage, rocks 
which lie immediately under the surface, 
and break the waves as they pass over 
them; also the billows which break 
against the rocks. 

Breaking Bulk, the act of beginning 
to unlade a vessel, or of discharging the 
first part of the cargo. 

Breaking Ground, a military term for 
opening the trenches, and beginning the 
works for a siege. 

Break-joint. Among masons, one 
stone placed on the joint of two stones in 
the course below, to bind the work. 

Breaking the Line. A naval ma- 
noeuvre, by which the assailant cuts 
asunder the enemy's order of battle, and 
places one part of the hostile fleet be- 
tween two fires. 

Break'water. 1. A mole at the en- 
trance of a harbour, to diminish the force 
of the waves ; it is often formed by sink- 
ing the hull of an old vessel. 2. A small 

buoy fastened to a large one, when the 
rope of the latter is not long enough to 
reach the surface of the water. 

Bream'isg, burning oflf the filth, such 
as grass, ooze, shells, and sea-weed, 
from a ship's bottom. It is performed by 
kindling furze, &c. nnder the bottom, 
which loosens and melts the pitch, and 
brings it off, with whatever filth may be 

Breast-casket, one of the largest and 
longest of the caskets or strings on the 
middle of the yard of a ship. 

Breast'tast, a large rope to confine a 
ship sidewise to a wharf or quay. 

Breast- hooks, thick pieces of timber 
placed directly across the stem of a ship, 
to strengthen the fore part, and unite the 
bows on each side. 

Breast'plate. 1. A strap that runs 
across a horse's breast, from one side of 

the saddle to the other. 2. Armour for 

the breast. 3. A part of the vestment 

of the Jewish high-priest, consisting of a 
folded piece of richly embroidered stuff, of 
which the ephod was made. 

Breast-plough, a turf-spade driven 
forward by the hands, placed opposite the 

Breast-ropis- In ships, those ropes 
used to fasten the yards to the parrels, 
and with the parrels to hold the yards fast 
to the mast ; more commonly called 

Bhea't-scxxek. See BaEssuMMCR. 

Bk]ust-wheei„ a water-wheel whicb 

receives the water at about half it» 
height, or at the level of the axis. 

Breast-work, a military term for 
works thrown up to afford protection 
against the shot of the enemy. Breast- 
works are usually made of earth. 

Brec'cia, an Italian term used by mine- 
ralogists, &c. to designate such rocky- 
masses as consist of angular fragments 
united by a common cement. When the 
fragments are rounded, the conglomerate 
is called pudding-stone, from a fancied re- 
semblance to plum-pudding. Concrete is 
a factitious breccia or pudding-stone. 

Breech. 1. The hinder part of a gun, 

from the cascabel to the bore. 2. The 

knee-timber in a ship. 

Breech'ing, a rope used to secure the 
cannon of a ship-of-war, and prevent 
them from recoiling too much when dis- 
charged. Named from its being passed 
round the breech or hinder part of the gun. 

Breeze, Fr. brise, Bel. breeze. 1. A 
shifting wind that blows from the sea 
and land alternately for a certain time, 
and is in some degree regular in its alter- 
nations. The wind from the sea is called 
a sea-breeze, that from the land is a land- 
breeze. The first blows during day, ano 

the latter during night. -2. Small ashes 

and cinders made use of instead of coals 

in the burning of bricks. 3. The name 

of the horse , gad , or breeze fly. The latter 
has been supposed to arise from the sound 
made by its wings. It is from Sax. briose, 
from Gothic bry, a point or sting. 

BRE'HON,an ancient Irish magistrate. 
Each tribe had one brehon, whose judg- 
ments were given in the open air on the 
tops of hills. This ac^unts for the many 
brehon-chairs throughout the r;ourtry. The 
office was abolished under Edwaiti III. 

Bre'hon-laws, the ancient wiwritten 
laws of Ireland, administere<l by the 

Bren'nage, from bran. In old law, a 
tribute paid by tenants in lieu of bran, 
which they were required to furnish for 
their lords' hounds. 

Bres'summer, ) A lentel beam in the 

Brest'-summer. i exterior wall of a 
building, principally over shop- windows, 
to sustain the superincumbent part of the 
wall. Bressummers are commonly sup- 
ported by iron or wooden pillars. Sea 

Bretes'se, in heraldry, a line embattled 
on both sides. 

Bret'tices, in coal mines, wooden planks 
to prevent the falling in of the strata. 

Breve, from brevis, short. The name 
of a note in music of the third degree ot 
Ipngth, and formerly of a square form, as 
gj ; but now of an oval form, with a per- 
pendicular line on each side to the stave, 
tli<u> lo|< Tbo breve without a dot 

B R I 



t-.iter it is equal to 4 minims and is caHed 
tmperfect; but when dotted, it is equal to 
6 minims, and is called perfect, this being 
threc-eij?hth8 of a large, and the greatest 
length it can assume. 

Beev'et, a term borrowed from the 
Trench, in which it signifles a royal act 
granting some favour or privilege, and 
applied in Britain and America to nominal 
rank in the anny higher than that for 
which pay is received. 

Mre'viary, the book containing the 
daily service of the Romish Church ; 
matins, lauds, prime, third, sixth, nones, 
and vespers. Named breviarum, of brevis, 

liREvi'ATOR. See Abbreviator. 
Brevi'er, a size of types for letter-press 
printing, smaller than bourgeois and 
larger than minion. 

Brbv'iped, a fowl having short legs — 
hrevU and pes. The martinet is an ex- 

Brevipen'nes (hrevis maApenna). The 
name given by Cuvier to a family of birds 
of the grallic order, distinguished by the 
shortness of the winais which renders 
eight impossible. The ostrich and casso- 
■wary are examples. 

Bbjcia'ni, a military order instituted 
ty St. Bridget, Qnecn of Sweden; also 
the members of this order. 

Brick, Teut. brike. A sort of factitious 
Bt<jne, composed of an argillaceous earth 
t>!mpered and formed in moulds, dried in 
I'le sun, and finally burnt to a proper 
degree of hardness in a clamp or kiln. 
"he different kinds of bricks made in 
Fagland are principally place bricks and 
Btjoks, gray and red bricks, marl-facing 
bricks, and cutting bricks. The place 
Ixicks and stocks are used in common 
vailing. The marls, which are su- 
p-;rior to the stocks, are of a fine yellow 
olour, and are used in the outside of 
tidldings. The cutting bricks are the 
t/iCst kind of the marl and red bricks, 
aud are used in arches over windows 
a,-a door», being rubbed to a centre and 
gt^iged to a height. 

■3rick-nog'ging, brick-work carried up 
and filled in between timber-framing. 

'Brick-trimmer, an arch abutting 
against the wooden-trimmer in front of a 
fire place, to guard against accidents by 

Bridge, Sax. hrxgge. A structure of 
masonry, carpentry, or iron-work, built 
over a river, canal, or valley, for the con- 
venience of passing from one side to the 
other. The extreme supports of a bridge, 
whether it have one arch or a series of ] 
arches {see Arch), are called abxitmeiits or | 
butments; the parts between the arches 
arcB called piers or pillars ; and the fences 
or the oide of the bridge-way, for pre- 
▼eutinj; the pit^sengen from falling over 

the bridge, are called parapets. Bridges 
have various names according to the monc- 
of structure, materials composing them, 
and the particular tises for which they 
are designed. A d^aw-bridge is one made 
with hinges, and may be raised, or opened 
and lowered, or shut at pleasure. A^j/- 
bridge is made of pontoons, light-boats, 
hollow-beams, empty casks, and the like, 
for the passage of armies. This name is 
also given to a kind of ferry-boat con- 
structed so as to resemble above the road- 
way of a bridge, and in such a manner as 
to be readily moved from one side of a 
river to the other by means of a chain- 
cable. Pendent - bridges or suspension 
bridges, are supported on strong iron 
chains or rods, hanging in the form of an 
inverted arch from one point of support 
to another. Floating-bridyes are stationary 
rafts of timber extending from one shore 
to the other, and may either be perman- 
ent, or, like the military fly-bridge, may 

be erected for the special occasion. 

Bridge is also the name of several things 
similar in figure to a bridge, as the bridg* 
of the nose, the cartilage which separates 
tte nostrils; the bridge of a violin, the 
perpendicular piece of board which sup • 
ports the strings. Gunners also use the 
word bridge, to denote the two pieces of 
wood which go between the transums of a 
gim-carriage, on which the bed rests. 

Bridge-over, in carpentry, when any 
number of parallel timbers have anothef 
piece of timber fixed over them in a trans- 
verse direction, then the transverse piece 
is said to bridge-oter the pieces which are 
parallel ; e. g. the common rafters, in 
framed roofing, bridge-over the purlins. 

Bridge'-stone, a stone laid in a hori- 
zontal direction over an area, extending 
from the pavement to the entrance-door 
of a house, and not supported by an arch. 
Bridg'ing- FLOORS, floors in which 
bridging-joists are used. See Naked- 

Bridg'ing-joi=ts, pieces of timber or 
joists in naked-flooring, extending in a 
direction parallel to the girder, and sup- 
ported by beams called binding-joists. It 
is to the bridging-joists that the flooring 
is nailed. 

Bridg'ing - PIECES. See Strjlining- 
piECEs and Struttino-pieces. 

Bri'dle, Sax. bridel. 1. Thatpart of thfi 
furniture of a horse's head whir.h s»;rves 
to guide the animal. The principal parts 
are the bit or snaffle which goes into tho 
horse's mouth; the headstall, which is 
the leather that goes round the head; 
the fillet, that lies over the forehead; 
the throat-band, which buttons under the 
throat ; the reins which the rider holds . 
the nose-band, buckled under the cheeks : 
the trench, the caveson,\hi martingrd. nii'' . 
the chaff-halter. 3. A short piece of 




cable well served attached to a swivel or 
a chain, laid in a harbour, and the upper 
end drawn into a ship and secured to the 
bitts. The use is to enable a ship when 
moored to veer with the wind and tide. 

Brief, Fr. bref, from Lat brevis, short. 
In law, a client's case made out for the 
instruction of coxmsel on a trial. Also a 
writ summoning a person to answer to 
an action. — In Scots law, a writ from the 
Chancery, directed to any .judge ordinary, 
commanding and authorising that judge 
to call a jury to inquire, and upon their 
verdict to pronounce sentence — An apos- 
tolical brief is a written message of the 
Pope addressed to a prince or other magis- 
trate respecting matters of public con- 
cern. Such briefs {brcvia) are written on 
paper, and sealed with the fisher's ring 
in red wax. A frwiHs more formal, being 
written on parchment, and sealed with 
lead or green wax, and subscribed with 
the Pope's name, whereas the name of 
the secretary only is appended to the 

Brio, Brig'antine, a square-rigged 
vessel with two masts. The term is dif- 
ferently applied by the mariners of differ- 
ent countries. The uncontracted term 
brigantine is used, especially in the Medi- 
terranean, to denote a light, flat, open 
Tessel, with 10 or 15 oars on a side, having 
also sails, and carrying upwards of 100 
men. Such vessels have been much used 
for piracy ; whence the name, from bri- 
gand, a freebooter. 

Brig'ade, a division of troops of any 
kind, commanded by a brigadier. A bri- 
gade of horse consists of eight or ten 
Bquadrons ; a brigade of infantry of four, 
five, or six battalions. The term appears 
to have been introduced into Europe by 
theMoors,but the root is not ascertained. 

Kbioade'-ma'jor, an officer appointed by 
a brigadier to assist in the management 
of his brigade. 

Brioadi'er, the general officer who has 
command of a brigade. He is in rank 
next below a major-general. 

Brig'a.ndine, a kind of defensive ar- 
mour, consisting of thin, jointed scales of 
plate, pliant and easy to the body. It is 
not now used. 

Bril'lante, an Italian term, from hril- 
lare. Used in musical compositions, to 
signify that the notes are to be played in 
a lively or sprightly manner. 

Bril'liant. a diamond cut so as to re- 
fract the light, and display great brilli- 
ancy. Fr. firom briller, to sparkle. 

Brined. In conchology, streaked. 

Brino-to. In nautical language, to c^cc\i 
a vessel's course when advancing, by 
arranging the sails so that they shall 
counteract each other, and keep her 
newly stetionary. She is then said to 

Bris'tlz-orass, a name common to all 
the grasses of the genus SetaHa. 

Bris'tles, the strong hairs growing on 
the back of the boar, extensively used 
by brushmakers, shoemakers, &c. Thd 
tennis Sax. bristl or byrst, primarily a 
Bris'tol-stone, I rock-crystal, fine 
Bris'tol-di'amond, ] specimens of which 
are found in the rocks near Bristol. They 
are pure silica, crystallised in six-sided 
prisms, and terminated by six-sided 

Bris'tol-water, the water of a thermal 
and slightly acidulous spring situated 
about a mile below Bristol. 

Brit'ish Gum, starch altered by a slight 
calcination, whereby it assumes the ap- 
pearance, and acquires the properties of 
gum. Made into a paste with water, it is 
used by calico-printers to thicken their 

Bri'za, the quaking-grass. A genus of 
European grasses. Triandria — JDigynia, 
Name, /3^<^a, some kind of com some- 
what like spelt. There are two British, 
species, the great and small. 

Brize, an agricultural name for ground 
that h£is been long untilled. 

Broach. To broach, among masons, 
means to rough-hew. Sroached-stones are 
thus distingtiished from ashlar or polished 

Broach-to. In navigation, to incline 
suddenly to windward of the ship's 
course, when she sails with a large wind : 
or, when she sails directly before the 
wind, to deviate suddenly from the ship's 
line of course, and bring her side to wind- 
ward, and thereby expose her to the 
danger of oversetting. 

Broad-cast. Among farmers, when 
seed is sown by casting it athwart the 
ridges or grounds, it is said to be sown 
broad-cast, in distinction from the mode 
of sowing in drills. 

Broad'piece, a denomination of some 
English gold pieces, broader than a 
guinea, especially Caroluses and Jaco- 

Broad'-seal, the Great Seal of England. 

Broad'-side. 1. In a tiaval engagemefit, 
a discharge of all the guns of one side of 
a ship, above and below, at the same 

instant. 2. The side of a ship above 

the water, from the bow to the quarter. 

3. In printing, a sheet of paper 

printed on one side only, and that side 
making a single page. 

Broca'de, a silk stuff variegated with 
gold and silver, or raised and enriched 
with flowers, foliage, and other orna- 
ments. The name is Spanish, brocado, as 
the manufacture originally M-as. The root 
is probably broche, the instrumen* used in 

M 2 




Broc'ard, an old Scotch forensic term, 
denoting the fli"st elements or maxims of 
the law. Sp. brocardico, a maxim of 

Broc'coi.1, a species of cabbaRC (lira.i- 
liea Italica). The name is Fr., from Ital. 
broccolo, sprout. 

Broche, a narrow-pointed chisel, used 
■by masons in hewing stones. The term 

is tisually written broach. 2. A fish, a 

species of lutjan. 

Brock'et, a hart of the third rear . a 
hind of the same year is termed a brocket's 
tister. The word is dim. of Sax. broc, 
"Wildling, and is sometimes written brock. 
The French WTite brocard. 

BRoa, a pointed steel instrument fixed 
into a handle, used by joiners to make 
holes for nails in soft wood. Boot, brog, 
to pierce. 

Bro'kenbacked, the state of a ship 
■when so weakened in her frame as to 
droop at each end. 

Bao'KEN-wiyuED, a disease in horses 
Often accompanied with a preternatural 
enlargement of the lungs and heart. 

Bro'KEH, a person employed as a mid- 
dleman to transact business between mer- 
chants or individuals. Brokers are di- 
Tided into classes ; as bill or exchange 
brokers, stock-brokers, ship and insur- 
ance brokers, pawn-brokers, and brokers 
limply BO called, or those who sell or ap- 
praise household furniture distrained for 
lent. The term is from bax. brticatk, 
Oerm. Irauchen, to employ. 

Baoa'ERAGE, the commission, reward, 
or per centage paid to brokers on the sale 
or purchase of bills, stock, merchandisa, 
for effecting insurance, or doing otkor 

BaoMr-GRASs, a name common to all 
the plants of the genus Bromus. 

EkoME'LrA, a genus of American peren- 
nials. Hexandria — Monogynia. Numed 
in honour of O. Bromel. The pine ;;pple 
■was formerly placed in this genus under 
the name of B. anatias, bu» ii is now re- 
ferred to the new genus Ananassa. 

Bhomelia'ce^, a natural family of 
monocotyledonous plants, of which the 
genus Bromelia is the type. 

Bro'mic Acid, an acid analogous to the 
chloric and iodic acids. 

Bromide, a combination of bromine 
■with a metallic base ; e. g., bromide of 

Bro'mine, one of the archKal elements, 
■vrhich being developed from its combi- 
nations at the positive pole of the voltaic 
circle, has been therefore deemed to be 
idio-electro-positive, like oxygen and 
chlorine, which last it somewhat resem- 
bles in smell, hence its name from /3ja,a«f , 
fator. At ordinary temperatures it is a 
Uqoid of a dark brown colour in s) 

but of a hyacinth red in layers. It occurt 
in various saline springs on the continent 
of Europe, but is usually prepared from 
bittern. It congeals at 4" Fahrenheit. 

Bko'mi;s, the bronie-grass, a genus, Tri- 
ondria — hxgynia. Name , ^aiJ^f , a spe- 
cies of oat (^^al/x», food). There are 12 
British species of Brome-grass. 

Briis'chia, the tubes of the throat into 
which the trachea divides. jS^cy^of , the 

Bkonchi'tis, inflammation of the mu- 
cous lining of the frronc^ji (bronchial tubes). 

Bron'chius Mr'scuLus, the sterno-thy- 
roideus muscle. 

Bronchoce'le, goitre, Berbyshire-neck; 
called also tracheocele and bronchial 
hernia ; a tumour on the fore part of the 
nock, formed by an indolent enlargement 
of the thyroid gland ; fieoy^oi, the wind- 
pipe, and xYiX'/i, a tumour. 

BRONCopH'oN'Y,from/S<'oy;t*» '*^^ wind- 
pipe, and ^tuiitj, the voice ; the sound of 
the voice as heard by applying the ste- 
thoscope over a large bronchial tube. 

BRON'cH(i-PxErMo'NiA,aform of inflam- 
mation of the lungs which commences in 
the bronchial membrane, and afterwards 
involves the parenchyma of the lungs. 

BBONCHOT'oMT,from /S{«y;t9j, the wind- 
pipe, and Tifj-vu, to cut. A surgical ope- 
ration, in which an incision is made into 
the larynx or trachea, to afford a passage 
for the air into and out of the lungs, when 
any obstruction is offered to the same of 
passing by the mouth and nostrils, as 
when any foreign body has fallen into 
the trachea. The operation is called Tra- 
cheotomy when the opening is made into 
the trachea, and Laryngotomy when the 
opening is made into the larynx. 

Bbon'tolite, thunder-stone (/SjavTij, 
thunder, and XtOo;, stone). 

Bronze, an alloy of copper, -^^ith a small 
proportion of tin : a little zinc and lead 
are sometimes added. It is harder ihan 
copper, and is chiefly used for statues, 
cannon, bells, and other articles, in all of 
which the proportions of the ingredients 
vary. The primary meaning of the word 

is browned. 2. A colour prepared for 

the purpose of imitating bronze. 3. 

Among archaologists, a bronze is any work 
of art cast in broB«e; at present, any 

bronze statue. 1. Among medallists, 

any copper medal. 

Bros'zino, the art of giving to objects 
of wood, plaster, &c., such a surface as 
makes them appear as if made of bronze, 
The term is sometimes extended to the 
production of a metallic appearance of 
any kind upon such objects. 

Bron'zino Salt, chloride or butter of 
antimony, is so called from its being em- 
ployed in the process of brovming. 




HioocH, a painting all of one colour. 

B&ooM. The common broom, a well- 
known shrub in Britain, is the Cytisus 
tcoparitu, De Cand., or the Spartium sco- 
parium, Eng. Bot. The Spanish broom, &n 
ornamental flowering shrub, common in 
English gardens, and exceedingly plenti- 
ful in some parts of Spain, where many 
articles are manufactured from its twigs 
•nd bark, is the Spartium junceum of bo- 
tanists. The word broom is Sax. brum, 
the root of bramble, and is now the name 
of a besom for sweeping floors ; besoms 
being originally made, as they still are 
for various coarser uses, of the broom- 
plant, though heath is now often used 
for the purpose. 

Eboom'-Coon, the yellow-seeded Indian 
millet (Holcus saccharatvs), an annual 
plant peculiar to warm climatt's. It bears 
a head of which brooms are made. 

Broom'-Rape, a name common to all 
the plants of the genus Orobanche, be- 
cause the roots, being often attached to 
broom and furze, and other leguminosae, 
are supposed to injure them. 

Bros'imum, a genus of arborescent 
plants common in the West Indies and 
^outh America. IHoecia — Monandria. 
Named from fi^ua-tfMi, eatable. The 
Bread-nut tree, the Milk- wood tree, and 
the Cow-tree are species of this genus. 

Brotherhood or God, an association 
formed in the 12th century in Guienne, 
for the purpose of abolishing war. The 
members took an oath to be reconciled to 
their enemies, and to attack all who should 
refuse to lay down their arms. 

Bhow'-antler. 1. The flrst start that 

grows on a deer's head. 2. The branch 

of a deer's horn next the tail. 

Brown, Sax. brun. A dusky colour 
inclining to redness ; but the shades are 
various, as Spanish -brown, London- 
brown, clove-brown, and tawny-brown. 
Brown is obtained by admixture of red, 
bUck, and yellow. 

Brown-bill, a weapon formerly used 
by English foot soldiers. 

Brown'ea., a genus of plants. Monadel- 
phia — Decandria. 

Brown iNO, a process by which the sur- 
face of several articles of iron acquires a 
shining brown lustre. It is chiefly em- 
ployed for the barrels of fowling-pieces 
and soldiers' rifles, to conceal the flre- 
arms from the game and the enemy. The 
material commonly employed to produce 
this colour is the chloride (bxitter) of an- 
timony, called, from Its uses in purposes 
of this kind, bronzing salt. 

Brown'ists, a religious sect, the Inde- 
pendetUs, so called from their founder 
Bobert Bro^vn. 

Brown-spar, a magncsian carbonate of 
lime, tinged by oxide of iron and man- 

Brow-post, a name given by builder* 
to a beasi that goes across a building. 

Brl'cea, a genus of shrubby trees. 
Dioecia — Tetrandria. There are two spe- 
cies, natives of Abyssinia and Sumatra, 
The genus is named in honour of Mr. 
Bruce, the traveller in Abyssinia, who 
flrst brought the seeds of the Abyssinian 
species (JB. ferruginea) into Europe. 

Brc'cia, 1 a vegetable alkali obtained 

Bru'cine, ] from the false Angustura 
bark (^the bark of the Brucea psexido-fer- 
ruginea) ; hence its name. 

Bru'cite, a mineral of a pale brown 
colour (often) , and called also chondrodite 
and hemiprismatic chrysolite. It was 
named Brucite, after Mr. Bruce, an 
American mineralogist. It consists chiefly 
of magnesia and silica, coloured with 
oxide of iron. 

Bruis'er, a concave tool used in grind- 
ing the specula of telescopes. 

Brcis'wort, a species of soapwort. the 
Saponaria officinalis, supposed to be bene- 
flcial in the cure of bruises of the flesh. 

Brcmai're, in the French revolutionary- 
calendar, the foggy month (November;, 
— brume, fog. 

Bruns'wick-green, a pigment composed 
of carbonate of copper, with chalk or 
lime, and sometimes a little magnesia or 
ammonia. It may be prepared by adding 
ammonia to sulphate of copper and alum. 
It is called also Bretnen. 

Brush'-wheels, wheels sometimes used 
in light machinery, to turn each other by 
means of bristles or brushes fixed to their 

Bbu'ta, the second order of Mammalia 
in the Linnaean system of zoology, com- 
prehending those animals which have no 
front teeth in either jaw, as the elephant, 
rhinoceros, walrus, sloth, &c. 

Brute'-weight, gross- weight, in con- 
tradistinction to net-weight. 

Bryo'nia, the Bryony: an extensive 
genus of plants. Monoecia — Syngentata. 
Name from ^^vat to shoot, in alius ioti to 
its rapid growth. The B. dioica, Jacq., a 
perennial found in thickets, is the ouly 
English spocies. Flowers dioecious ; ber- 
ries red. 

Bc'bo, a swelling of a lymphatic gland, 
particularly of the groin i^ovZu*) or 
axilla. The root of the word Is Hob. 
bobo, which is a reduplicate of the vexb 
boe, to swell. 

Bc'bon , a genus of umbelliferous plants. 
Pentandria — JHgynia. Name from fSouSair, 
the groin, because one of its species, the 
Macedonian parsley (<;cdoHict«m;, was 
supposed to cure swellings (bubos) there. 
Bubonoce'le, inguinal hernia, from. 
^6'Aoiy, the groin, and Kr.Kvi, a tumour. 

BcBONOREx'is, \ from ;2«£/S&(»,thogroin, 

BcBoNOEix':;, ) nnd ^r,ii;, a rupturn. 




A bubonocele, accompanied with a divi- 
sion of the peritoneum. 

Brcxo, a species of owl of the Philip- 
pine isles. It resembles the peacock in 
size, has beautiful plumage, and utters a 
hideous nocturnal scream. 

Bcc'c* Loric'at.e, mailed - cheeks. A 
family of Acanthopterygious fishes, to 
"Which the singular appearance of the 
bead, variously mailed and protected, 
gives a peculiar aspect, that has always 
caused them to be arranged in special 
genera, although they have many close 
affinities with the perches. The flying- 
fishes are examples of this tribe. 

Bcc'ca.nee'rs, Fr. houcanier The pirates 
"Who infested the coasts of the West In- 
dies and South America in the 17th and 
18th centuries. 

Bcccel'la, an old name for a polypus in 
th s » nse, formerly believed to grow from 
tit «'.«* k {bucca). 

B7:,.tr.L.K.'Tioi>,buccellaiio. A mode of 
»»/;;» ;>l'g ha?morrhagc, by applying lint 
u^a 'ne vein or artery. 

i* cciNA, an ancient musical instru- 
meiit of the trumpet kind, the sound of 
which was called buccimts, and the player 

BccciNATOR, a trumpeter (/Savxafov, 
a trumpet). The Latin name of the trum- 
peter's muscle ; a large flat muscle, which 
forms, in a manner, the walls of the 

BncciNi'NiE, the whelks. A sub-family 
of Testacea, of the order Gasteropoda. 
Type, Buccinum. 

Buc'ci SITES, fossil remains of the whelk- 
genus of shells {bticcinum). 

Buc'ciNCM, the whelk. A genus of Tes- 
tacea, of the Buceinoid family, Cuv. This 
genms comprises all the shells furnished 
with an emargination, and in which the 
columella is destitute of plicae. Brugncir 
has divided them into four genera; the 
Mutcinum, the Purpura, the Cassis, and 
the Terebra ; and Lamaick has divided the 
latter two into the five genera, Xassa, 
£hHnta, Ancillaria, Dolium, and Harpn. 

Buc'co, the barbet. A genus of birds of 
the order Scansorice. The barbets have a 
thick conical beak, inflated on the sides of 
its base, from which they take their 
generic name {bucco, to inflate the cheeks). 
They are natives of hot climates, live on 
insects, and build in the hollows of trees. 

Bucekta'cr, the great-centaur (/3cy, 
great, and Mvretvpoi, centaur). The 
splendid galley in which the Doge of 
Venice annually sailed on Ascension-day, 
to wed the Adriatic, by dropping a ring 
into it, was thus nanuid. 

BucEPH'ALOjj,a plant (the Trophis Ame- 
ricyina), which produces a red, coarse, 
edible fruit, eaten in Jamaica. Named 
from 0ev, great, and «if aXij, head. 

BicEfB'ALcs. the famous horse of Alex- 
ander th* Orcat, which co»t a500/. Named 
from ficu, great, and xtCecXyi, head, in 
allusion to the great size of his head. The 
name is now given to an animal of the 
gazelle tribe, of the size of a hind. 

Br'CERos, the horn-bill. A genus of 
omnivorous birds of Africa and India, 
whose enormous dentated beak is studded 
with excrescences which sometimes equal 
in size the beak itself. This allies them 
to the Toucans, but their habits approx- 
imate them to the Crows, and their feet 
to the Bee-eaters and Kingfishers. The 
Hombills are placed by Cuvier in the 
order Passerinee, and family Teiiuirostres 
Name, jSovxi^aif, of fievi, an ox, and 
x(eai, a horn. 

BrcH'ANiTES, a set of enthusiasts who 
sprung up at Irvine, in the West of Scot- 
land, about 1783. They take their name 
from Elizabeth Buchan, the wife of a 
painter near Glasgow, who styled herself 
the woman of the 12th of Revelation ! 

BrcHU, the name given by the natives 
of the Cape of Good Hope to the Diosma 
crenata, a shrubby plant, the leaves of 
which are much used in medicine. 

Brc'KA, a medicinal leaf imported from 
the Cape of Good Hope, and used as an 

Bcck.'bea>-, a corruption of bog-bean. 
The Menyanthus trifoliata, which grows 
not unlike a bean, and in boggy places. 

Buckets, in water-wheels, are ^ series 
of cavities placed on the circumference of 
the wheel, into which the water is deli- 
vered to set the wheel in motion. By the 
revolution of the wheel, the buckets are 
alternately placed so as to receive the 
water, and inverted so as to discharge it, 
the loaded side always descending. See 

Buc'ketv, paste used by weavers to 
dress their webs. Corrupted from Buck- 

Bcck'ino, the process of soaking cloth 
in ley {buck) for the purpose of 

Buck'le, Fr. bouiie. In coats of arms 
buckles are tokens of surety, fsuth, and 
service of the bearer. 

Bcck'ler, Fr. boiiclier. A kind of shield 
or defensive piece of armour, anciently 
used in war. It was often made of wicker- 
work, fortified with plates of brass or 
other metal, and borne on the left arm. 

BrcKMAST, the mast or fruit of the 
beech-tree. — Buck, beech, and mast. 

BiCK'RAM,Fr. botigrain. Asort of coarse 
cloth, made of hemp, gummed, calen- 
dered, and dyed several colours. It is 
used to stiffen garments, &c. 

BucK's-HORN. 1. the Plantago cnro 

nopus, a British annuul plant. 2. Tha 

Cotula coronopifolia , an annual of the Cap* 
of Good Hope. 3. The warted htJc'tr 




/Mwj is a species of Cochlcaria or scurvy- 
Bvck'stall, a toil or net to take deer. 
Buck'thorn, a name common to all the 
plants of the genus Hhamnus. The bicck- 
thom of the shops is the expressed juice of 
the berries of the R. catharticus, or purg- 
inff buckthorn, a shrub common in Bri- 
tain. It is employed as a drastic purgative. 
The berries of the common alder {R. fran- 
gula) are often used for the same purpose. A 
decoction of this tree (alder) is extensively 
used in medicine. It is most astringent. 

Buck'-ivheat, the Polygonum fago- 
oyrum, an annual plant which grows well 
•n all parts of Britain. It is extensively 
Tilrivatcd, in order that it may, when 
young and green, be employed as fodder 
for cattle: when allowed to ripen, the 
(jrain is chiefly employed to feed poultry. 
)t is known in some parts by the names of 
)fretich-icheat and brank Its native place 
i^ supposed to be Asia. The Eastern 
buck- wheat is the Polygonum divaricatum, 
i\ perennial of Siberia. 

BccNEMiA, fram ^ov, great, and xvyifjt^, 
the leg. The generic name of a disease 
characterieed by a tense, diffuse, inflam- 
matory swelling of a lower extremity, 
usually commencing at the inguinal 
glands, and extending in the course of the 
iymphatics. The puerperal swelled leg, 
OJid the Barbadoes leg, are species of this 

BrcsA'siow, the snap-dragon plant, a 
cpecies of Antirrhinum, so named from 
fSst/ff, an ox, and x^atiov, the head, in al- 
lusion to a supposed resemblance of its 
flower to the head of an ox. 

BvD, from Sax. btidan or boudan, to 
proffer. 1. In botany, a small protuber- 
ance on the stem or branches of a plant, 
containing the rudiments of future leaves 
or a flower. Shrubs in general have no 
buds, neither have the trees of hot cli- 
mates. See Gemma. 2. In horticulture, 

to bud is to inoculate a plant, that is, to 
insert the bud of a plant under the bark 
of another tree, for the purpose of raising 
upon any stock a species of fruit different 
from that of the stock. 

BtDD'HisM, the doctrine of the Budd- 
hists in Asia. 

BtiD'Di.E, in mining, alarge square frame 
ot boards, in which tin ores are washed; 
hence to btiddle is to wash ore.s. 

BuDOE Bachelors, a company of men 
dressed in long gowns lined with lamb's 
fur, who accompany the Lord Mayor of 
London at his inauguration. 

Bddgb-babrel, a small barrel with 
only one head, and on the other end a 
Viece of leather is nailed, which is drawn 
together with strings like a purse. It is 
used for carrying powd«r with a gun or 

Bcd'gf.t, Fr. bongette, from Norm, bouge, 
a bag. The budget, in the parliamentary 
language of Britain, means the Minis- 
ters' proposed plan of taxation for the 
ensuing year, and comprehends a general 
view of the national debt, incorne, and 
expenditure, ways and means, &c., with 
a general view of the actual product of 
the preceding budget. It is brought for- 
ward in parliament by the Chancellor of 
the Exchequer. 

Bdff, contracted from Buffalo. 1. Buff- 
skin, a sort of leather prepared from che 
skin of the buffalo, dressed with oil, like 
shammy. It is used for making bando- 
liers, belts, pouches, gloves, and other 
similar articles. The skins of oxen, elks, 
and other animals, dressed in like raan- 
ner, are also called iujfs. •.'. The co- 
lour of buff; a light yellow, with a slight 
reddish shade. — —3. A yellow viscid sub- 
stance formed on the surface of blood 
drawn in inflammatory diseases. 

BcFrALo,the bos bubalti,s,lAnn. A ru- 
minant animal, originally of India. It is 
larger and less docile than the common . 
ox, and inhabits marshy places, and cats 
coarse plants on which the ox could not 
live. Its milk is good, its hide strong, 
but its flesh is not esteemed. The name 
is also applied to wild oxen, generally and 
especially to the Bison of America {Hot 
bison, Linn.) See Bison. 

Buf'fon, the Numidian crane, an Afri- 
can fowl, named in honour of Count Buf- 
fon, the naturalist. 

Buf'fonia, the generic name of a 
British biennial. Tetrandria — Digynia. 
Named in honour of Count Buffon. 

Bu'fo, the toad, a well known genus of 
Batrachian animals. Their bite, saliva, 
&c., are erroneously considered poison- 
ous ; but their appearance is against 

Bc'fonites, from bufo. The Bufonis 
lapis, or toad-stone. The teeth of sevenil 
species of fossil fish, which appear to be- 
long chiefly to the genera Anarrhicas and 
Spartis, got the name of bufonites because 
they were formerly believed to have been 
generated in the head of ine toad, or vo- 
mited by that animal ; chelonites, be- 
cause they were believed to be petrlfled 
tortoises' eggs, and various other names 
for equally good reasons, as serpents' 
eyes, Batrachites, Crapaudines, &c. They 
were formerly believed to possess great 
alexipharmic virtues, and changed colour 
on the approach of poison. They occur 
in great abundance througliout the oolite 

Bug, in common language, the name of 
a vast number of insects which infest 
liouscs and plants. By entomologists 
the word is applied to those insects ar- 
ranged in the genus Cini^x. They are 
furnished with a rostrum or beak, with 

BUL 1 

antennae longer than the thorax, and the 
■wings are folded together crosswise, but 
some species have no wings, as the 
house-bug or bed-bug, which is a trouble- 
some and disgusting insect. 

Bu'oLE. Probably from Fr. hmgl^, 
•whence higU, a beagle. 1. Originally the 
huntsr's horn ; now used to denote a mili- 
tary musical instrument of the horn kind 

(S*« Horn). 'i. A name common to all 

the plants of the genus Ajuga, in allusion 
to the form of the flower of most species. 

3. The Prunella vulgaris, or common 

Bclf-heal, a British perennial. 

Bu'oLoss, a name common to all the 
plants of the genus Aticfttisa, from Lat. 
buglossus, of fiovi, an ox, and yXoiff-o-a, 

Bcg'-Wort, a name common to all the 
plants of the genus Cimicifuga. 

Buhl, ornamented furniture, in which 
tortoise-shell and various woods are in- 
laid with brass. The name is derived 
from the inventor. 

Build'ing, a mass formed by the junc- 
tion of materials arranged according to 
some plan. In common language, an edi- 
fice of large dimensions; technically, a 
piece of masonry ; also the art of con- 
necting stones, &c. together, either vrith 
or without cement. The building of 
beams is the uniting of several pieces of 
timber together by means of bolts, so as 
to form a beam of greater length or thick- 
ness than could be obtained from a single 
piece of timber. 

BcLB, from Lat. bulbus,a. globular body. 
This name is given to many objects be- 
cause of their shape ; but the tei-m is es- 
pecially used in botany to denote a pyri- 
form coated body, solid or formed of 
fleshy scales or layers, constituting the 
lower part of some plants, and frequently 
giving off radicals from the circum- 
ference of the flattened basis. A bulb 
differs from a tuber, which is a farina- 
ceous root and sends off radicals in every 

Bulbif'erous, Lat. bvlbiferui, bulb- 
bearing ; having one or more bulbs. 

Bulbocas'tanum, the earth-chesnut or 
pig-nut, a species of Bunixim. Named 
from PoXSo;, a bulb, and xoKTravon, a 
chesnut, because of its bulbous root, 
-which has somewhat the flavour of the 

BcLBocAVERNo'scs. The accelerator 
urinae muscle is so called from its origin 
and insertion. 

Bulboco'dium, the mountain saffron; & 
genus of plants of one species common in 
Spain. Hexandria — Monogynia. Isamed 
from jioXSos, a bulb, and xuhot, a head, 
in allusion to the form of its flower. 

Bulbogem'ma, bulbs which grow on the 
gte:i» of plants. 

8 BUL 

Bi'l'bose, ) Lat. bulbosus (from bulbut); 

Bul'bous, /applied in botany, to the 
roots of plants which are bulbed, and in 
anatomy, to soft parts that are naturally en- 
larged, as the bulbose part of the urethra. 

Bulbotu'ber, a round, solid, under- 
ground stem, producing buds on its sur- 
face, and clothed with the decayed re- 
mains of leaves. 

Bul'bule, Lat. btdbulus, a little buib. 

BcLE, /3o»X»j, a council; the Athenian 

Bu'limt, Lat. bxdimia, insatiable hun- 
ger {fiov, great, and X<,u.ej, hunger). This 
is a vice rather than a disease ; but there 
is a morbid state of the system, in which 
the appetite becomes so excessive that 
it is no longer under the moral control ot 
the individual, and the quantity eaten is 
in some case* so great as to be scarcely 

Bulk, the whole contents of a ship's 

Bulk'heads, partitions built up in se- 
veral places of a ship between two decks, 
either lengthwise or across, to form and 
separate the various apartments. Bid^ 
in this word has the sense of bulker or 
beam. Dan. bielcher. 

Bull. I. The male of the bovine genas 
of quadrupeds, of which cow is the female. 
Icel. baula, to bellow. By the custom of 
some places the parson is required to 
keep a hxdl and a boar for the \ise of his 
parishioners. 2. A letter, edict, or re- 
script of the Pope, published or trans- 
mitted to the churches over which he is 
head, containing a decree, order, or 
decision. The bull is written on parch- 
ment, and provided with a leaden seal. 
The word was originally the name of the 
seal. A collection of bulls is called bullary. 
Certain ordinances of the German empe- 
rors are also called htdls. The golden bull, 
emphatically so called from the seal at- 
tached to it being in a gold box, is that 
fundamental law of the German empire 
enacted by the Emperor Charles IV. in 
two diets held in succession, in 1356, at 
Nuremberg and Metz. Its chief object 
was to flx the manner of electing the em- 
peror. Leaden btdls were sent by the 
emperors of Constantinople to patriarchs 
and princes; and by the grandees of 
France, Sicily, &c.; and by patriarchs and 
bishops. Waxen Indls were in frequent use 
with the Greek emperors, who thus sealed 
letters to their relations, and persons in 
high favour. 

Bul'la, a bubble. 1. In surgery, a bleb ; 
a vesicle containing a watery humour, 
which arises from burns, scalds, or other 

causes. 2. In malacology, a sub-genus 

of Bulllnae. Example, B. lignaria. Sow., 
a cylindrical univalve. The Bullce, Lam. 
corresponds w ith B. asperta. Sow. Th« 




buUo? take their name from the form of 
the sh<;ll, which is ovate and gibbose. The 
shell occurs fossil iji the tertiary for- 

JIul'l^,, in Roman archeeology, little 
liolJow ornaments of gold made in the 
form of a heart, and suspended round the 
Eti;ks of the children of the nobles until 
tbey attained the age of 14 years, when 
they were taken off and hung up as sacred 
tc the Lares. 

Jicx,i,AN'Tic,a term designating certain 
ornamental capital letters used in apos- 
tjlic bulls {bulla!). 

Bl^'l*.te, bttllatus, blistered; ap- 
pUid to the leaves of plants when the 
vein* arc so tight that the intermediate 
epucc appears blistered : e. g. cabbage. 

Bill'doo, a variety of the common 
dog. The cants molossiis of naturalists, 
remarkable for its short broad muzzle 
aJid the projecture of its under jaw, which 
causes the lower teeth to protrude be- 
yond the upper. 

Hul'len nails, nails with round heads 
and short shanks, tinned and lackered. 
These nails are principally used in the 
liangings of rooms. 

Bul'letin, in France, an official report 
giving an account of the actual condition 
of some important affair; e. g. bulletin of 
the army. Le BtilMiji des Sciences et de 
I'Industrie is published monthly at Paris 
ny the French Society for the Promotion of 
Vseful Knowledge. The term bulletin is 
dun. of bulk, a bull or written instrument. 

Bdll'-fights, one of the favourite diver- 
sions of the Spaniards, exhibited at Ma- 
drid twice a week, for the benefit of the 
general hospital! At those disgraceful 
exhibitions all the spectators are dressed 
in their best ; the combatants, who make 
bull-fighting their business, march into 
the arena with some magistrate at their 
head: the corregidor gives the signal, 
and the bull is let in, and the attack is 
commenced. If the bull is too inactive, 
dogs are set upon him ; if he is too active, 
he kills a few horses before he is himself 
killed by the sword of the matador (killer) . 

BuLL'riNCH, the Loxia pyrrhola, a well- 
known European bird which has a short, 
rounded, robust bill, a black-cap (hence 
called blttck-cap) , and plumage on the back 
of a dark blue-gray colour: the inferior 
parts of the body are reddish. 

BcLt-'raoo, the Bana ocellata, a large 
species of frog found in North America, 
of a dusky brown colour, mixed with 
yellowish green, and spotted black. 

Bull'-head. 1. The Cottus, a. genua of 
fishes with a head broader than the body. 
Whence the name. This fish is known in 
some places by the name of the Miller s 
thuMih. 2. A small black water-insect. 

Bdl'lin*, a subfamily of Mollusca, of 
Which the genus bulla is the type. 

Bul'lion, uncoined gold or silver in th« 
mass. The precious metals are called 
bullion when smelted and not perfectly 
refined, or when refined and cast into 
bars, ingots, or plates. Foreign coin is 
bought and sold under the name of bul- 
lion in this country. 

BcLL's'-EVE, a little skylight in the 
covering or roof, designed to admit light 
to a granary or the like. The centre of a 
target, when used as a mark to shoot at. 

Bull's nose, the external angle of a 
polygon, or of two lines meeting at an 
obtuse angle. 

BuLL-TuocT, the sea-trout or salmon- 
trout ; a large species of trout thicker in 
its proportions than the common trout. 
Weight 3 lbs. 

Bul'rush, a large species of rush. The 
Juncus globulosus, a native of Egypt. The 
name is applied popularly to any large 
species of rush. 

Bul'wark, in ancient fortifications, is 
nearly the same with bastion in the mo- 
dern. The term is Tent, bolle, round, and 
u^erk, work, i. e. a round or spherical 
fabric. -See Rampart and Torus. 

Bum'bailiff, an under bailiff, or sub- 
ordinate civil officer, appointed to serve 
writs, and to make arrests and executions, 
and bound with sureties for a faithful 
discharge of his trust. The term is a cor- 
ruption of bound-bailiff. See Bailiff. 

Bum'-bee. ) These popular names 

Bum'ble-bee. ) are common to all the 
species. The genera Xylocopa and Bomhus, 
Latr. and Fabr.,the humble-bee, M'bich 
are large and particularly characterised 
by the humming sound which they make. 

Bcm'boat, a small boat used to carry 
provisions to vessels lying at a distance 
from shore. Bum is Welsh, boti, mean, 

Bumel'ia, the bastard bully tree. A 
genus of eight species, trees and shrubs • 
natives of America and the "VVcst Indies. 
Pentattdria — Monogynia. Name ^ouf/JtXict, 
a species of ash-trce, mentioned by Pliny, 
Ub. 16. c. 13. 

Bdnch'osia, a genus comprehending sic 
species, trees, and shrubs: natives of 
America and West Indies. Decandria — 

BcNOAt.ow', an East Indian term for a 
house with a thatched roof. 

Bu'nias, a genus of European plants of 
three species. Tetradynamia — SiliaUvtu. 
The name was anciently applied to the 
turnip (Plin. 20. 4). 

Bu'nium, the earth-nut, pig-nut, kipper- 
nut, hawk-nut, &c. A genus of pereniual 
plants of two species, both found in Bri- 
tain. Pentandrin — IHgynia. The name 
was applied by the ancients to the tuitiip 
(SflWMfly) , but it has been used at different 
times to denote different plants. Th« 

i> Li O 



; hulbocastanum , to which the popumr 
lames above noted are particularly ap- 
.)lieQ, has a tuberous aid whitish rot uf 
'he size of a nutmeg. It is nutritious, 
--rd has a sweetish ta?ie v>A flavour not 
•ir.likp the chesnut, espuMully when 
'03»:t-tJ: honcc called t)ic ecrth-chrinut. 

Bun'di.e-i>illar, in CcChie r.rcitiA.'ture, 
'. column consisting of a number of trc»\l 
Mll?.rs round its circunif.-rence : it L; thai 
Jie reverse of fluted. 

Bus i'EK. In ScotUtnd, a seat in a rrin- 
low, TThich also serves for a chest, opcr.- 
'ng with a hinged lid. Dan. bunker; 
joth. batick, a bench. 

BuNN. In Scotland, a loaf; Ir. bunna, 

BcNs'iNG, an animal peculiar to the 
C»3r>e of Good Hope,resen:bling the feiTft 
10 .ts proportions, but twice as larpe. 
" ptirgued it emits an intolerable 

HzAT. I In nau^'uil languagt, the 

juddle pi»rt or cavit/ of the principal 

square sai'is, as the mainsail, foresail, &c. 

2. In cor.chology, an increasing cavity, 

a tunnel. 

The term hunt is also used as a verb, 
meaning to swell out or bilge, and ir. po- 
pular language it has sometimes the 
sense of butt. 

Bust'ing. 1. A thin woollen stuff, of 
which the colours and signads oi ^. ship 

are usually formed. 2. In cnithclogy, 

a name common to all the species cf the 
genus Emhzriza, Lin. Also £. common 
name of th-; Alauda calandra, Lin. 

Bdnt'lis'ss. In ships, small lines made 
fast to the bottoms of square sails, to 
draw them up to their yards. They are 
fastened to the middle of the bolt-rope. 

BuoT, Fr. boufe. A piece of wood, cork, 
or other light substance, moored and 
floating on the surface of the water. 
Buoys of wood are sometimes solid, and 
sometimes hollow like a cask, and strongly 
hooped. They are made of various shapes 
and sizes, and are either private or public. 
The private buoys are such as belocg to 
,.rivate individuals, and are chiefly em- 
ployed to mark the place of a ship's 
anchor. The public buoys are scaticned 
by the competent authorities. They are 
usually of a large size, and painted so as 
to be readily recognised by the descrip- 
tions of them in the charts. Iheir uses 
are to point out dangers, and to direct 
navigators into the safest chanrelg. The 
life or safety buoy is suspended trora the 
stem of the ship, and ready to r.e let go 
(with a light attached to u f-t lugni) in 
the event of any person fallinii overboard. 
Its use is to keep the person tJioat till 
taken out of the water. To itream the 
bxioy, is a nautical phrase meardng to let 
the buoy fjUi fxom the sideol the snip into 
the water before letting go the an<:}ior. 

Biot'-rope, the rope whl'^h fastens the 
buoy to the c-.chor. It ehrald be strong 
enough to rr^se the anchor by in case the 
cable should break. 

Bu'PHiOA, the ox-eater, or heef-eater. 
A genus of African Wrds of one species 
{B. Afncana) , be^mg^ng to the order Pa*- 
serince, and family Conirostres. Xamt-d 
from ^ovs, an ox, and ifayca to eat. This 
bird is about the size of a thrush, and has 
obtained the alarming names which it 
bears, from its lighting on the backs of 
cattle, and compressing the skin with its 
inflated and blunt pointed mandibles, to 
force out the larv;^- of the crstrus or gad- 
fly, lodged in it, and on which it feeds. 

Bupho'nia, an Athenian festival in 
honour of Jupiter, from fioui, an ox, and 
^Stfi, slaughter, an ox being immolated 
with much quaint ceremony. 

Bt-PLEu'RVM, the hare's -ear, or 
thorough-wax. A genus of plants of 
many species. Pentandria — Bigynia. 
Namp xtom. ,Bou, (iteav, and rXttif ev, a rib, 
in alli ;iop to the birge ribs or viHns upon 
its le?-->v.8. The three British spt^cies aje 

Bn7>..*s'Tis, a genus of coleopteious in- 
sects zf xhe Serricorne family, remark- 
able foi theit brilliant colours ; some 
species having a brilliant polished gold 
colour on an emerald ground ; in others, 
an azure blue glistens over the gold, and 
in m&ry species there is a union of several 
metilMc colours. The generic appellation 
Jticnurd was given to these insects by 
GtOTfroy. to denote the richness of their 
livery. The name, /Soi«rg^a-T/j, was given 
anciently ',ri. 30, 4,) to an insect noxious 
to cattle. 0aui, a cow, and T^iidai, to in- 
flame ; perhaps the Bum-cou>, which causes 
inflammation in the mouths of cattle 
when feeding. 

BupTHAi'xi.*., ) the ox-eye, /S6Uf,anox. 

BurTHAL'Mcs, i and oada>.fjtoi, an eye. 
A disnase regarded by most writers as the 
hrst etige of hydroihaimia, or dropsy of 
the eye. 

BcrrH*L'MUM, the ox-eye. A genus of 
plants of 13 species ; some shrubs, some 
annuals, and some perennials. Syngenesta 
— Pol. tuper/lua. Named from ^ou(, an 
ox, and o^aX/xes, an eye, from a sup- 
posed resemblance of tlie flowers of some 
of the species to an ox's- eye. 

Bur'bot, the Gadus lota a fish shaped 
like an eel, but shorter in its proportions, 
with a broad head, and in its nose two 
small beards, and another on its chin. It 
is disgusting in its appearance but i» exc«i- 
lent food. In some localities it hno the 
name of eel-pmtt. 

Bl- b'ca, a term among the Turin *>i l> • 

1 rich covering of the door of the tx^'u's il 

Mecca. It is 10 feet long, and 6 f»fi i<ld„ 




and has several flgiiies and Arabic cha- 
racters on it, richly embroidered in gold. 
This is carried round in their solemn pro- 
cessions, and is often made to stop that 
the people may touch it. 

Burden of a Sono, the return of the 
theme at the end of each verse. In this 
sense the word is Fr. bourdon, a drone or 
base. A chord which is to be divided to 
perform the intervals of music, when 
open and undivided is also called the 

Bur'dock, or Clot-Bur, names common 
to both species of the genus Arctium. 
They are troublesome weeds, but have 
their uses in medicine. The name is bur 
and dock (bur is Goth, biorn, a bear), in 
allusion to the shaggy rouglmess of the 
involucres of the plant. 

Buk'don, a pilgrim's staff which was 
commonly of an inconveniently large size. 

Bureau', a French word from bure, cloth, 
used first to denote a desk, afterwards 
the chamber of an officer of government, 
and later, the body of subordinate offi- 
cers who act under the direction of a 
chief. In Spanish this word bttreo is a 
court of justice for the trial of persons 
belonging to the royal household. 

BunEv.u' System, I terms designating 

BuREAu'cRACY, j govcmments in 
which the business of administration is 
carried on in departments, each under 
the control of a chief, and is opposed to 
those in which the officers of government 
have a co-ordinate authority. According 
to the parliamentary usage of France, 
the Chamber of Deputies is divided into 
nine bureaus or committees, composed of 
an equal number of deputies, designated 
by lot. Each bureau appoints its own 
presiitnt, and discusses separately all 
maf.»-T inferred to it by the chamber. 

Bcketie', an instnmient of measure 
for U,'v.d.'J;g a given portion of any liquid 
into ! GO ar 1000 equal parts. 

(B.ja.o'AGE. In Enylish law, tenure in 
burgage, or burgage tenure, is tenure in 
socage, applied to towns and cities, or 
where houses or lands which were for- 
merly the sites of houses in an ancient 
borough, are held in common socage by 
a certain established rent ; a remnant of 
Saxon liberty. 

Buroanet', ) a kind of helmet; the 

Buroonet', j Spanish murrion. The 
word is Fr. bmiryuignote, from burg in the 
sense of guarding or covering. 

BcRGFO'is, a French word meaning 6«r- 
jesi, and pronounced boorzhwd, from 
bourg, a borough. The same word is 
used in Britain to denote a species of 
type or printing letter, smaller than long 
primer and larger than brevier; in this 
sense pronounced sometimes burjois and 
sometimes burjo. 

BoBOEON , in Fr. bourgeon ; a term tised 

to denote the button or bud put forth by 
the branch of a tree in spring. 

Bur'oess, in England, the holder of a 
tenement in a borough ; in a parliamen- 
tary sense, the representative of a bo- 
rough ; in Scotland, a member of the cor- 
poration of a borough. 

Bcrg'grave. > In some countries, espe- 

Burg'rave. ] cially Germany, the 
hereditary governor of a castle, from burg 
and grave or graf, a governor. 

Bttrgh, a borough. Originally a forti- 
fied town. -See Borough. 

Burgh'-bote, in ancient times, a con- 
tribution (bote) towards the building oi 
repairing of castles, walls, &c., for the 
defence of the burgh. 

Burghers and Anti-bcrohers, a 
body of seceders from the Church of Scot- 
land, who separated in the year 1733, 
in consequence of an undue exercise of 
patronage in the church. They pre- 
served a distinct existence till 1820, when 
they joined in one. Out of their body 
sprung a large and respectable denomi- 
nation of Christians, distinguished by 
their hostility to the church, and in 
favour of what is now termed volun- 

Burgh'-Mail, formerly a" yearly pay- 
ment to the crown in Scotland, resembling 
the fee-farm- rent of English boroughs. 

Burgh'mote, the court of a burgh, 
mote, a court. 

Burglary, from Ger. hurg, a house, 
and Arm. laer, a thief (whence Fr. larron). 
The breaking and entering the house of 
another by night with the intent to com- 
mit some felony, whether such felonious 
intention be executed or not. To consti- 
tute this crime, the act must be com- 
mitted in the night, and in a dwelling- 
house or in an adjoining building which 
is part and parcel of the same. There 
must be an actual breaking and an entry ; 
but the opening of a door or window, 
picking a lock or unlocking it with a key, 
raising a latch or loosing any fastenings, 
constitutes a breaking ; and a putting in of 
the hand after such breaking, is an entry. 

Burgomaster, \ a magistrate, or one 

BuRoH-MASTER, ) employed in the go- 
vernment of a city. The burgomasters are 
the chief magistrates of the great towns 
of Holland, Flanders, and Germany. The 
same officer in France is called maire ; in 
England and North America, mayor ; and 
in Scotland, provost. 

BuKGouT (pron. burgoo), the French 
name of a dish much cooked at sea. It 
consists of groats boiled in water till they 
burst, with a little butter. ' 

Burgundy, a province of France, in 
which the wine so called is made. In 
richness of flavour and porfime, and in 
all the more delicate qualities of the jui>'# 
of the grape, the wine* of Burgundy ub- 




<jiiestionably rank as the first in the 

HuRouNDY Pitch, a resin, the produce 
of the Pinus abies, or spruce flr. It takes 
ita name from Burgundy in France, where 
It was first prepared. A fictitious resin is 
made in England under the name of com- 
mon Burfftmdy pitch, and the Norway 
spruce fir yields a resin which H often 
called Burgundy pitch ; it is the Abietas 
resina or thtis (common frankincense) of 
the London pharmacopoeias. 

BuRo'wARD, a bulwark. Latinised by 
the writers of the middle a.ges,btirgu:ardtts 
or burguardium. The name has been 
used to designate the town, and even the 
country about such a fortress. 

Burin (Fr.fcurtn), a graver. An instru- 
ment of tempered steel used for engraving 
on copper, &c. It is of a prismatic form, 
having one end inserted in a short wooden 
handle, and the other ground oflf obliquely 
eo as to produce a point. 

Jicrl'er, a dresser of cloth. 

RuRLEs'tttE, Fr. from It. burlesco, from 
b%rlare, to ridicule, burla, mockery. £ur- 
leiiiue signifies the low comic arising from 
a ludicrous mixture of things high and 
low, as when Hudibras describes the 
glorious sun rising from his bed in the 
morning like a boiled lobster. In good 
builesque composition there is a well 
maintained contrast between the manner 
and the subject. 

Burlet'ta, a light, comic species of mu- 
sical drama, which derives its name from 
It. burla, raillery. It originated in Italy. 

Bur'net, a name common to all the 
plants of the genus Poterium, from Celtic 
bume, moist, the only British species, 
P. sanguisorba, or common burnet, in- 
habiting moist places. 

Bcr'net-saxifr.^ge, a name common 
to all the plants of the genus Pimpinelln, 
of which there are four British species, 
all perennials. 

Bi.kN'iNG-GLASs. ) A glasslens, which 

BrRN'iNG-MiR'KOR. i bciug exposcd di- 
rectly to the sun, refracts the rays which 
fall upon it into a focus, is called a btirn- 
ing-gliii/i. If the solar rays be similarly 
collected by reflection from the surface of 
a concave mirror, this is then called a 
bttmituf-mirror. The burning glass is the 
most; convenient instrument, but its power 
is on:j about a fourth of that of a concave 
niirio/ or reflector of equal extent and 
curvat' This reflects more heat than 
the feiass allows to pass through it, has a 
less 'ocal distance, and is free from the 
dissipation of rays which takes place in 
the baming-glass, since it reflects them 
all nearly to the same point, whereas the 
buinmg-glass refracts them to dilTeieat 

Bur'nisher, a blunt, smooth tool used 
for amoothing and polishing a rough sur- 

face by pressure, and not by removing 
any part of the body. Agates, polished 
steel, ivory, dogs' teeth, &c., are usea for 

Burr. 1. The lobe of the ear. 2. 

The round knob of a deer's horn, next the 
head. 3. The sweetbread. 

Bcr'rel-flt, the ox-fly, gad-bee or 
breeze. Fr. bourreler, to torment. 

Bur'rel-shot, small shot, nails, pieces 
of old iron, small stones, &c., put into 
cases to be discharged among the enemy. 
Fr. bourreler, to torment. 

Burrh'-stone, mill-stone which is al- 
most pure silex : it has generally a red- 
dish or yellowish tinge, but the best is 
nearly white. It is full of pores ami 
cavities, which give it a corroded and 
cellular appearance. The name is some- 
times written buhr-stone. 

Bur'ro' k, a small weir or dam where 
wheels are laid in a river for catching fish. 

BcRR-poMP, a bilge-jmmp (q. v.). This 
term is a corruption of bar -pump, this kind 
of pump having a staff of six or eight feet 
long, with a bar of wood, to which the 
leather which serves instead of a box is 
nailed. This staff is worked by men, who 
pull it up and down by a rope fastened tot 
the middle of it. 

BcR'sA.Lat. from jSv^trot, a bag, a purse. 
Used by writers of the middle ages to 
denote a little college or hall in a univer- 
sity for the residence of students. 

Bursal'ogt, Lat. bursalogia. The doc- 
trine of the bursiE mucosae. 

Bcr'sa Mucosa, in anatomy, a small 
sac lined with synovial membrane, vihich 
secretes an oily fluid to lubricate the sur- 
faces over which the tendons of muscles 
play. The bursfe mucosa; are of different 
sizes, and are situated near the joints, 
particularly the large joints of the ex- 

Bur'sar a student to whom a stipend is 
paid out of a bttrse or fund appropriated 
for the maintenance of poor students. 
The exhibitioners sent to the universities 
of Scotland by the presbyteries are bursars, 
and the annual stipend paid to each is a 

Bursary. 1. The treasury of a collepe. 
2. In Scotlatid, an exhibition or foun- 
dation for the maintenance of poor stu- 
dents (bursarii). 

Burse, a public edifice in some cities 
for the meeting of merchants to consult 
on matters of trade and money, and to 
negotiate bills of exchange. This is the 
name used ta many cities of Europe, but 
in Britain and America the building is 
called an Exchange. The term is a mo 
dern application of the word bursa (q. v. 

BuRs'cBEN, the name given to one an 
other by the students of the German uni 
versities; from l/unarii, the name whioh 




the students bore in the middle ages, 
from the buildings {inmsa) in which they 
lived in common. 

Bur'schens(;ha.ft, a secret association 
of students, formed in 1815, for the poli- 
tical reformation of Germany ; afterwardsi 
suppressed by government order. 

BuBSCHEN Comment, the code of laws 
adopted by the students for their internal 

Burse'ra, a genus of "West India plants 
of two species, one of which is the Ja- 
maica birch {B.gummifern), which yields 
the gum elemi. Hexandria — Monogynia. 
Jiamed from ^v^tra, and ffu^iai, to drain. 

Burton, in a ship, a small tackle con- 
sisting of two single blocks. Named from 
the inventor 

Bush, a circTilar piece of iron or other 
metal let into the sheaves of such blocks 
as have iron pins, to prevent their wear- 
ing. In America, the bush in the nave of 
a cart or coach- wheel is called a 60a;. 

Bush'el, an English dry measure of 8 
gallons or 4 pecks. The standard English 
bushel (12 Henry VII.), contains 8 galls, 
wheat , each 8 lbs. troy , each of 1 2 oz ., each 
of 20 dwts., each of 32 corns of wheat that 
grew in the middle of the ear. In 1696 
the capacity of the Winchester bushel 
was fixed at 21or7 cubic inches of pure 
water, equivalent to 1131 oz., 13 dwts. 
troy. The capacity of the imperial bushel, 
prescribed by act of uniformity (5 Geo. 
IV., c. 74), is for coal, potatoes, fruits, 
and other goods sold by heaped meastire, 
2815 cubic inches, the goods to be heaped 
up in the form of a cone, to a height 
above the brim of the measure of at least 
three-fourths its depth. The Irish bushel 
for all liquids, and for corn and other dry 
goods, not heaped, contains 22182 cubic 
inches, and holds 80 lbs. avoirdupois of 
pure water. — The word bushel is low Lat. 
buuellus, dim. of &t(za. 

Bush-harrow, an implement of hus- 
bandry for harrowing grass-lands and 
covering grass and clover-seeds. It con- 
sists of a frame with three or more bars, 
among which bushes are interwoven. A 
ight harrow with small tines serves 

Bush'men, Dut. hosjesmannen, men of 
the wood. A name given by the Dutch 
colonists to some roaming tribes akin to 
the Hottentou, in the vicinity of the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

Bcs'kin, in Lat. cothumut. A kind of 
high shoe or boot worn by the ancient 
tragedians upon the stage, to give them a 
more heroic appearance. In classic au- 
thors the word is used for tragedy, and 
for a lofty and elevated style. The buskin 
was also worn by both sexes, especiaUy 
by the ladies, for ornament. Hunters 
and soldiers use n buskin much rmembling 
a half boot. 

Buss, Dut. hnis, Ger. Inise, Iluss. hut%. 
A small sea-vessel used by the English 
and Dutch in the herring fishery, com- 
monly from 50 to 60 tons burden, and 
sometimes more. A buss has two small 
sheds or cabins, one at the prow and the 
other at the stem: that at the prow serves 
for a kitchen. 

Bust, that part of the human figure 
which comprises the head, neck, breast, 
and shoulders. By this term, hxisto is ap- 
plied to the human figure as low as the 
hips, With or without the head and arms ; 
which definition agrees with that speciee 
of sculpture which represents the por- 
traits of illustrious Romans, either"en- 
tirely round and mounted on pedestals, 
or in alto relievo on the sides of sarco- 
phagi or other sepulchral monuments. 
The Italian biisto is probably from Lat. 
htistum, a figurative expression for any 
kind of tomb, but originally applied to 
the pile on which a dead body had been 
burned, as the btistum in the Campui 
Martius, on which the bodies of the em- 
peror Augustus and his successors were 

Bus'tard, a name common to all the 
birds of the genus Otis, Lin. The great 
bustard (O. tarda, Lin.), is the largest of 
European land birds, the male weighing 
on an average 23 lbs. It is 4 feet bi 
length, and sometimes measures 9 fCft 
from tip to tip of the wings. 

Butcher-bird, a species of shrike. The 
Lanius collurio, Germ., which destroys 
small birds, young frogs, and great num- 
bers of insects, which it, butcher-like, 
sticks upon the thorns of bushes in order 
to devour them at leisure, or to find them 
again when wanted. 

Butch'ersbroom , a name common to all 
the plants of the genus Snsais, but parti- 
cularly applied to the R. andeatus, an 
evergreen shrub which grows in woods 
and thickets in this country , and is kno'wn 
also by the names knee- holly, Alexan- 
drian laurel, and wild myrtle. It is used 
by butchers for brooms to sweep their 

Bdtio, the buzzard: a subgenus of birds 
of the order Aecipitres and family Diurr.r. 
The buzzard is ranked among the ignoble 
birds of prey, and is called in some parts 
of America the hen-hawk, from its depie- 
dations among the poultry. Name ori;;i- 
nally applied to a species of the falco tnbe 
(Pliny 10. 8). 

But'ments, supports or props by which 
the feet of arches or any other bodies 
pressing in an oblique directiijn to the 
horizon are sustained in their places. Set 

But'mbnt-cheeks, in earpentn/, the two 
solid parts on each side of a mortise : the 
thickness of each cheek is commonly 
equal to the thickness of the mortijte. 




BcTT. 1 . Fr. hout, extremity. The hutt end 
«f a piecf, of timber is that end of a plant 
which was nearest the root of the tree; a 
butt-joint in a hand-rail is a joint at right- 
angles to the curve of the rail. A hxUt, 
among ploughmen in Scotland, is a piece 
of ground which does not form a proper 
ridge. In archery, a mark to be shot at. 

2. Sax. butte, a measure, a vessel or 

measure of wine containing two hogs- 
heads or 126 wine gallons, that is 106 
imperial gallons. Etymon, ^ovttis, a 
vessel for holding wine. 

BcTTEE, from Sax. buter. An oily, in- 
flammable part of milk, separated by 
churning, and used as an article of diet in 
most civilised countries. Butter differs 
from the common animal fats in contain- 
ing a peculiar fluid oleaginous matter, 
called btityrine. This substance, when 
saponified, yields in addition to the usual 
products, three volatile odoriferous sub- 
stances, called the butyric, caproic, and 
cnprtc acids. The Latin etymon of the 
term butter is butyrum, from (Sovtv^ov, 
of which /S«yf , a cow, is the root. 

But'ter of Antimony, the sesqui- 
chloride of antimony. 

But'ter of Arsenic, a sublimated 
chloride of arsenic. 

But'ter of Bismuth, a sublimated 
Chloride of bismuth 

But'ter of Cacao, an oily, concrete 
matter, obtained from the cacao nut by 
fcruisingand boiling it in water, when the 
imcombined oil is liquefied, and rises to 
tJie surface, where it swims. 

But'ter of Tin, a sublimated chloride 
of tin. 

But'ter of "Wax, the oleaginous part 
of wax, obtained by distillation. 

But'ter of Zinc, chloride of zinc, ob- 
tained by burning zinc in chlorine gas. 
It is called also muriate of zinc. 

BuTTBR-FLT, & uamc common to all 
those lepidopterous insects of the genus 
Fcpilio, from the yellow colour of a com- 
mon species. That which seenis to be a 
pa w^der upon the wings of the butterfly 
tribe, is an innumerable quantity of 
plumes, which are only to be observed 
dijtinctly with a good microscope. The 
irjsect appears in the state of a caterpillar, 
and afterwards in that of a chrysalis, 
from which it comes forth perfect. 

But'terflt-shaped, papilionaceous. 
Applied to the corolla of plants, when 
thf y are irregular and spreading. 

But'teris, an instrument of steel set in 
a wooden handle, used by farriers for 
paring the hoof of a horse. 

But'ter-nut, the fruit of the Juglans 
cinerea, an American tree. The fruit bears 
& resemblance to the black walnut, and is 
oamed from the oil it contains. 

Butt»b8, mineraL A name formerly 

given to some of the chlorides, on account 
of their soft butyraceous texture, when 
recently prepared ; such as butter of 

Butters, vegetable. The concrete 
fixed oils, scad at the ordinary tempera- 
ture, such as those of the cocoa and cho- 
colate nuts. 

Butter-tree, a remarkable plant found 
by Park in the interior of Africa, yielding 
from its kernels, by pressure, a white, 
firm, rich butter, which kept well for a 
year without salt. 

But'ter-wort, a name common to all 
the plants of the genus Pingtiictda, but 
especially applied to the Yorkshire sanicle 
(P. vulgaris), which grows in soft grounds. 
Its leaves are covered with soft, pellucid 
prickles, which secrete an unctuous fluid, 
to such a degree as causes them to be 
applied to cbaps, and as a pomatum for 
the hair. 

But'tery, a store-room for provisions. 
The name is given, in some colleges, to a 
room where refreshments are kept for 
sale to the students. 

But'ting-joint, a joint formed by the 
surfaces of two pieces of wood, the sur- 
face of one piece being parallel with the 
fibres, and that of the other, either in 
the same or in an oblique direction to 
them. The joints which the struts and 
braces form with the truss-posts, in car- 
pentry, are of this description. 

Button, from the same root as bud. 
Buttons are manufactured of an endless 
variety of forms and materials — wood, 
horn, bone, steel, copper, brass, &c. The 
non-metallic buttons, called also moulds, 
are made of the substances first men- 
tioned, by sawing them into little slips 
of the thickness of the button to be made ; 
these slips are then cut into the form re- 
quired' by <tn instrument adapted to the 
purpose. Metallic buttons are cast in 

moulds, or cut with a fiy-press. 2. The 

buttoti of the reins of a bridle is a ring of 
leather, with the reins passed through, 
and which runs along the length of the 

reins. 3. A small piece of wood or 

metal, turning on a centre (usually a 
round nail with a smooth head) , for fas- 
tening a door, window, or other closure. 
The button of a lock is a round head serv- 
ing to move the bolt. 4. The round 

mass of metal collected at the bottom of a 
crucible after fusion. 

Bct'ton-wood. 1. The Cephalanthus 

occidentalis, an American shrub. 2. 

The Platanus occidentalis, or western 
plane-tree, a large American tree, the 
wood of which is very hard, and is highly 

valuable in turnery. 3. The button- 


But'tress, butt and truss. A mass of 
masonry, to support the side of a wall 
that is very high, or that is pressed oatii* 



opposite side by an adventitious force, as 
a bank of earth, or body of water. In 
those structures improperly called Grothic, 
buttresses are placed around the exterior 
Bides of the building, one in the inter- 
mediate space between every two win- 
dows, and one or two at each of the 
angles, in order to support the vaulting. 
In pointed architecture two kinds of but- 
tresses are used ; the one fomied of ver- 
tical planes, and attached to the walls, is 
called pillared buttresses ; the Other, which 
arises from the pillared buttresses upon 
the sides of the aisle, with an arch- 
formed intrados or top, is called flying- 
bttttresses or arc-boutants. 

Bcttra'ceous, having the appearance 
or properties of butter (btityrum.) 

Buttr'ic Acid, a volatile odoriferous 
substance having acid properties, ob- 
tained from butter. See Butter. 

Bc'ttrine, a substance which exists 
inl)utter(6u<!/r«m), combined with oleine, 
etearine, and a very small quantity of 
butyric acid; Sp. Gr. 0822. Butyrine 
saponifies easily, and is then transformed 
into butyric, caproic and capric acids ; 
into glycerine, and margaric and oleic 

Bux'iNE, an alkaline substance disco- 
vered by M. Faure in the Buxus semper- 

Bux'ns, the box-tree, a genus of plants. 
MoiuBcia — Triandria. Name from ffvxocZ<u, 
to become hard. Of this plant there is 
only one British species, but of this there 
are several varieties, the extremes of 
which are the tree and the dwarf-edging, 
common in forming the edging of garden 

B0z'zARD. I. The Vultur awrff, "Wils.; 
Cathartes aura, Illig. ; commonly called 
txirkey -buzzard and turkcy-vtiUure, a bird 
found over a vast extent of territory on 
the American continent, in the "West In- 
dia Islands, and in the southern parts of 

Europe and Asia (See Vultcke). 2. A 

name common to two sub-genera of the 
kite tribe. See Bcteo and Pern is. 

Bczzabdet', a species of kite resemb- 
ling the buzzard in most respects, except 
that its legs are in proportion rather 

By'ard, a piece of leather across the 
breast, used by those who drag the 
sledges in coal-pits. 

By'ar0s, a plexus of blood-vessels in 
the brain. 

Bt-Law, a particular law made by a 
corporation, or by any other distinct por- 
tion of the community, for the regulation 
of the affairs of its members in such of 
their relations as are not reached by the 
general law of the land. By-laws must 
not involve the infraction of any public 

Btssifers, Byssifera, a fittiUy -I 
Lamellibranchiate acephalous mnUdiVji ' 

Bys'solite, from ^ua-fos, fai, a.t.i 
XiBoi, stone, a rare massive mineral, in 
short and somewhat stiff filaments, of ivn 
olive-green colour, implanted perpendi- 
cularly like moss on the surface of cer- 
tain stones. It has been found at the 
foot of Mont Blanc, and also near Olsons. 

Bts'sus, ^•jirtro;- 1- A variety of fine 
flax much prized by the ancients (Orig. 
I. xix., c. 27), also the cloth manufactured 

from this flax, Egyptian linen. 2. A 

genus of lichens. 3. A name of Asbes- 
tos. i. The hairy appendage by which 

some of the bival>'« mollusca attach 
themselves to rocks and other objects; 
the byssus or silky bejird of the Pinna 
marina is used in Sicily to make stock- 
ings and gloves, but only as objects of 

Byzant', a gold coin of the value of 
lot. sterling, so called from its being 
struck at Byzantium, the present Con- 


C, the third letter of the alphabet in 
most European dialects. It is probably 
the Hebrew Caph (3) inverted for the 
facility of writing, or the Greek kappa 
(») with the upright stroke, left out for 
the same reason. Some suppose that it 
was originally the Greek gamma {<y), as 
the earlier Romans used it in many 
words which at a later date were written 
with a jT, as leciones for legimies. Qi and 
C are often interchanged on old mo- 
numents ; thus qom for crnn. In the 
Roman calendars and fasti, C denoted the 
days on which the comitia might be held. 
In trials the imfavourable opinions of 
the judges were given by writing on a 
little tube {tessei-a) the initial letter C 
for condemno, as A was written for ab- 
solvo, or N. L. for no}i liquet. On medals 
C stands for many names of persons, as 
Casar, Caius, Cassius, &c. ; of oflBces, as 
Censor, Consul; of cities, as Carthage. As 
an abbreviation, it stands for Christ, as 
A.C. for Anno Christi or ante Christum , 
and for companion, as C.B., Companion 
of the Bath. As a numeral it denotes 
100, being the initial letter of centum. 
C, in music, the name of the note in the 
natural major mode to which Guido ap- 
plied the syllable ut, but which the Ita- 
lians have since relinqviished for do, as 
softer and more vocal. "When placed at 
the clef, it stands for common time, and 
with a line rxm through it perpendicu- 
larly, for cut- time or a quicker kind of 
movement. In Italian music C is some- 
times written for canto, as C 1, OoMio 

CAB 176 

Ca'a-a'pia, the Brazilian name of the 
JOorstenia braziliensis, the root of which 
is chewed by the natives; it has tht 
same effect as ipecacuanha. 

Ca'aba, a square stone edifice in the 
temple of Mecca, being the part princi- 
pally reverenced by the Mohammedans, 
and to which they always direct them- 
selves in prayer. The direction is ascer- 
iHined in distant parts by a little pocket 
compass called a kiblet or director. 

Ca'a-eo, the Brazilian name of two spe- 
cies of acacia, vi/., the 3Iimosa sensitiva, 
and Mimosa piidica. 

Caapi'ba, the Brazilian name of the Pa- 
r'Ara hrata, called by the Portuguese 
Cipodaa cobras. 

Cab. 1. A Hebrew measure (3^ kab) 
equal to the sixth part of a seak or satum, 
and containing about 2| imperial pints. 

—^2. An alchemical name of gold. 

3. An abbreviation of the word cabriolet. 
Caba'l. 1. In British history, one of the 
cabinets of Charles II., which consisted of 
Ave men famous for their intrigues:- 
Clifford, .Ashley, Buckingham, .Arlingto 
and Xauderdale; the initial letters of 
Whose names form this word. 2. A be- 
verage made in Portugal by bruising 
20 lbs. of raisins, and saturating them 
■with white wine during three months. 
The mixture is rich, clear, and agreeable. 
Cae'ala, i Terms derived from the 
Cabbala, I oriental word kibd, which 
Cab'alia, >• in Hebrew means to re- 
Cabal'la, j ceive ; Chal. to obscure; in 
Ca'bula, / Syr. to accuse ; and applied 
to a mystical interpretation of the Pen- 
tateuch, alleged to have been received 
from the Deity by Moses, and transmitted 
by an uninterrupted tradition through 
Joshua and the seventy elders to the Kab- 
binical doctors. In a general way the 
term cabala is applied to the whole sys- 
tem of occult philosophy of the Rabbins, 
wliich chiefly consisted in understanding 
the combinations of certain letters, words, 
and numbers. Every letter, word, num- 
ber, and accent of the law is supposed to 
contain a mystery, and the cabalists pre- 
tended to foretell events by the study of 
this science. 

Cab'alist. 1. One who professes the 
study of the cabala. 2. In French com- 
merce, a factor or agent. 

Cab'ai,line Aloes, horse-aloes ; a coarse 
sort of aloe, so called becatise it is given 
only to horses. 

Cab'baoe, a name common to all the 
plants of the genus Brassica (q. v.). Of 
the garden cabbage there are many va- 
rieties: the chief are the drttmhiad, the 
savoy, the catdijlower, the broccoli, the 
Brussels-sprouts, the sugar-loaf, the cole- 
wort, and the early-market. 

Cab'saoe-treb. 1. The CacaXia Kleinia, 
•raich hau a compound shrubby sUiik re- 


sembling that of a cab\ ge. It grows 
naturally in the Canary Islands, and has 
long been cultivated in English gardens, 
where it is more commonly called the 
carnation-t)-ee, from the shape of its leaves 

and the colour of its flowers. 2. The 

Andira inermis or Geoffroya inermis, Lin., 
a lofty tree (from 170 to 200 feet) of the 
East and West Indies, and other hot cli- 
mates. It bears on the top a substance 
called cabbage, lying in thin, snow-white, 
brittle flakes, in taste resembling an 
almond, but sweeter: this is boiled. and 
eaten with flesh like other vegetat^les. 
The fibres of the leaves, which somewhat 
resemble those of our common garden- 
cabbage, are used to make cordage and 
nets ; and the internal bark of the tree is 
much tised in this country in medicine. 
The tree is also called the cabbage-palm. 

Cab'bala. See Cabala. 

Cabe'ca, a name given to the finest silks 
of the East Indies : the inferior qualities 
are called barina. 

Cab'ezon , in Spain, a register of the dif- 
ferent taxes paid to government, and of 
the names of the contributors: cabeza, 
head, person. 

Cab'is, an apartment in a ship for of- 
ficers and passengers. The bed-places in 
ships are sometimes also calk d cabins, but 
more commonly berths. Berth is used like- 
wise for the room where a number of 
men mess and reside. The same name is 
also applied to the huts and cottages of 
poor people and savager, from the Celtic 
word cab, a hut or booth. 

Cab'inet, dim. of cabin. 1. A small 

apartment adjoining a larger one. 2. 

The most retired part of a private dwell- 
ing, designed for work study, amuse- 
ment, or for collections of valuable arti- 
cles. 3. In the abode of a prince, the 

cabinet is a room set apart for the ruler's 
particular use ; also the apartment where 
he transacts government business, advises 
with his counsellors, and issues his de- 
crees: hence, in political language, the 
cabinet is put for the government, as the 
Cabinet of London, &c. &c. 4. A ca- 
binet is any part of a building, or one or 
more whole buildings, where are pre- 
served valuable collections of paintings 
and other curiosities, making up the 
contents of a museum, and by metonymy, 
the name is applied to the collections 
themselves. 5. A little insulated build- 
ing in a garden, serving as a place of 
retirement, and to enjoy the fresh air 
under cover. 

Cab'inet -Coun'cil, the confidential 
coimcil of a prince or executive magis- 

Cab'iei («aof/fw). Sacred priests or 
deified heroes, venerated by the Pagans 
as the authors of religion and the founders 
of the human race. The mime ))•• raly 





■iKTiines the mighty ones, and seems to have 
beta applied to the supposed beinsrs that 
preside over the striking operations of 

Oabi'ria, the mysteries of theCabirl: 
thoie celebrated at Samothrace were the 

Ca'ble, Fr. and Sp. cable, Teut. knhel. 
1. A large rope or chain used to retain a 
vessel at anchor. Rope cables are prin- 
cipally manufactured of hemp : each cable 
has three strands, every strand has three 
ropes, and every rope consists of three 
twists. The twists have more or fewer 
threads according to the greater or less 
thickness of the cable. All vessels have 
ready for service three cables : the s7i»et 
cable, the best bouer cable, and the small 
lower cable. Iron cables are strong iron 
chains constructed in various ways : they 
have in a great measure, and deservedly, 
replaced the hempen cables. 2. In ar- 
chitecture, wreathed circular mouldings 
resembling a rope ; also the staff which 
is left in the lower part of the tiutings of 
some examples of the Corinthian and 
Composite orders. 

CVbled, tied with a cable. A heraldic 
term applied to a cross formed of the ends 
of a cable in representation. 

Ca'bled Columns are such as have the 
flutings of the shaft filled with astragals 
to about one-third of the height : called 
also rudented columns. 

Ca'bled Flutes, in architecture, are such 
flutes as are filled with cables. 

CA'BLE's-LEjiGTH, the mcasure of 120 
fathoms, the usual length of a ship's cable. 
Ca'ble-tier, the place where the cables 
are colled away. 

Ca'bling, the filling of the flutes of 

columns with cables, or the cables so 


Cabo'ched, ) Fr. cabochie. In heraldry, 

Cabo'shed, i having the head cut close 

go as to have no part of the neck left. 

Cabom'be^. In botany, the name given 
to the order now called Hydropeltidea. 

CABoo'sE,Ger. kabuse, a little room. The 
cook-room or kitchen of a ship. In 
smaller vessels it Is an Inclosed fireplace, 
hearth or stove, for cooking on the main- 
deck. In a ship of war, the cook-room is 
called the galley. Caboose also signifies 
the box that covers the chimney in a ship. 
The term appears to be formed of cabin 
and house. 

Cab'riolet, a two-wheeled vehicle 
drawn by one horse, and carrying two 
passengers and a driver; frequently con- 
tracted cab. The word is French, from 
cabriuU, a goat-leap. Lat. capra, a goat. 
Cabc'ekb, small lines made of spun 
yam, to bind cables, seize tackles, and 

Caca lix xa.y.!x}.,oi A > -nus of plants. 

Sijngencsia — Polyg. aqualis. There Is no 
British species. The cabbage or carna- 
tion-tree, sow-thistle, &c. are, however, 
cultivated in our gardens, and several 
of the species are used in medicine. 
Ca'cao. ( 1. Chocolate, a kind of hard 
Ca'coa. ) paste formed into a cake, the 
basis of which is the pulp of the cacao or 
chocolate nut, a production of the West 

Indies and South America. 2. The 

seed or nuts of the cacao tree. 3. The 

cacao tree. 

Ca'cao-nct, the fruit of the cacao-tree. 
It somewhat resembles a cucumber in 
shape, but is furrowed deeper on the 
sides. Its colour while growing is green, 
but as it ripens this changes to a fine 
bluish-red, almost purple, with pink 
veins ; or, in some varieties, to a fine 
yellow or lemon colour. Each pod con- 
tains from 20 to 30 nuts or kernels, which 
in shape are not unlike almonds, and con- 
sist of a white and sweetish pulpy-Uke 
substance, enveloped in a parchment- 
Like shell. 

Ca'cao-tree, the Theobroma cacac, 
which both in shape and size somewhat 
resembles a young cherry-tree, but sepa- 
rates, near the ground, into four or five 
stems. The leaves are about four inches 
long, of a dull green colour ; the flowers 
are safl"ron coloured, and very beautiful. 
The fruit is the eacao-nut. The cacao- 
tree grows plentifully in the West Indies 
and South America. 

Cac'atort Fever, a species of intermit- 
tent fever, accompanied with diarrhoea, 
and sometimes with tormina. Cacare, to 
go to stool. 

Ca'chalot, the physeter or spermaceti 
whale. Physeter, as well as physalus, 
signifies blower. Cachalot is the name 
used by the Biscayans, from cachan, 
which in the Cantabrian dialect means 
tooth. The head of the cachalot is enor- 
mously large; the under-jaw is armed 
with a range of cylindrical teeth; the 
superior portion of the head consists of 
large cavities, filled with an oil which 
becomes fixed as it cools, and is known in 
commerce by the name spermaceti, a sub- 
stance for which the cachalot is princi- 
pally sought. The odorous substance 
ambergris is a concretion formed in the 
intestines of the cachalot. 

Cache't, Lettres de, under the ancient 
French government, letters signed with 
the kings private seal, for the detention 
of private citizens. Previous to the 17th 
century they were seldom employed, but 
in the reign of Louis XIV. they were 
very common. In the reigns of Louis XV. 
and XVI. 69 were issued against the 
Mirabeau family. They were finally abt>- 
lished in 1790. 

Ca'cholong, a milk-white variety of 
quartz, having a pearly or gli*tenuig 




lustre, a flat, conchoidal fracture, and 
perfect opacity. It is found in the river 
Cach, in Hucharia, and obtains its name 
from that river, and cholotig, the Calniuc 
word for stone. 

Cachc'kde, a medicine highly cele- 
brated among the Chinese and Indians. 
It is made of several aromatic iugre- 
dients, perfumes, medicinal earths, and 
precious stones, fonned into a stiff paste, 
fashioned into various fantastic forms, 
and dried for use It is reckoned a pro- 
longer of life, and a provocative to 
■"enery, the two great intentions of most 
of the medicines used in the East. 

Ca'cique, a title borne by some of the 
native chiefs of America at the time of 
the Spanish conquest. This is a French 
form of the word ; it was pronounced 
cnsic or kniik, and denoted the dignity of 
a ruler. 

CACocHOLT,in Lat. cncochoUa, a vitiated 
state of the bile ; xotxei, bad, and j;^oX>j, 

Cacochyl't, in Lat. racochylia, depraved 
Cbylification ; xKXOi, bad, and %j;A6j, 

C-».coe'thes, xaxorOr.s- Bad custom, 
condition, or habit ; e. g. cacoethes scri- 

Cacol'ogy, in Lat. cacologia, bad choice 
of words in writing or speaking, xaxoi, 
bad, and Aeyoj , word. 

Cacop'athy, in Lat. cacopatfiia, ill- 
feeling, whether physical or moral ; 
)ucx6i, bad, and vetOo;, feeling. 

Cacoph'oxt, in Lat. cacophonia, dis- 
agreeable utterance; xcixo;, bad, and 
9m*ri, sound. 1. Defective articulation of 

words. 2. A fault of style consisting 

in harsh and disagreeable sound pro- 
duced by the meeting of two letters or 
two syllables, or by the too frequent re- 
petition of the same letters or syllables. 

Cacop'haoy, in Lat. cacopragia, a dis- 
ease of those viscera which minister to 
nutrition; »«««?, ill, and jrjaTTa;, to act. 

Ca'cosphexy, in Lat. cacospherea, a dis- 
ordered state of the pulse ; xotxaf, bad, 
and (r^v%n, pulse. 

Cacosys'theton. In rhetoric, a figure 
cf speech improperly introduced . an ill 
arrangement of words in a sentence: 
%c(%o;, ill, and avvhros, composed. 

Cacoth'ymy, in Lat. cacothytnin, a dis- 
ordered state of mind: xaixo;, bad, and 
^o/Mii mind. 

Cacot'kophy, in Lat. cacatrophia, con- 
simiption from defect of nourishment : 
r-iaxof, bad, and r^o<py,, nourishment. 

Cacta'ce.*, a natural order of exogens, 
of M l.ich Cactus is the type, remarkable 
1 jf their gay and large flowers. 

Cac'tus, a genus of succulent plants of 

about yo species, permanent in duration, 
generally without leaves, having the 
stem and branches jointed, for the most 
part armed with spines in bundles, with 
which, in many species, bristles are in- 
termixed. Class Jcosandria; order Mo- 
nogynia. Name ;%a(xr6;, anciently applied 
to the artichoke. They are natives of the 
West Indies and South America, and are 
only cultivated In this country for curi- 
osity in green-houses. Gardeners call 
those species which are of a roundish 
form melon-thistles; those which are erect 
and support themselves are torch-thistles ; 
those which have creeping roots are ce- 
reitses; the compressed and proliferoiu 
jointed are prickly pears or Indian Jigs. 

Cadaver'ic, appertaining to a dead 
body ; e. g. the changes induced in a 
corpse by putrefaction, are called cada- 
veric phenomena. 

Cad'dis. 1. Lint for dressing a wound. 
2. A kind of tape. 3. A water-in- 
sect sometimes called the case-uonn, and 
often contracted cmi. 

Cad'do, the jack-daw, or corvus mom- 
dula, Linn. 

Cade, from Lat. cadus, a cask. A cade 
of herrings is the quantity of 500; of 
sprats, 1000. 

Cade'-oil, a medicinal oil prepared in 
Germany and France from the fruit of 
the oxycedrus, called in those countries 
cad a. 

Cade'- WORM, the case-worm or caddis. 

Cadence, from Lat. cadois, falling, 
cado, to fall. In wj«*i<;, a pause or sus- 
pension at the end of an air, to afford 
the performer an opportunity of intro- 
ducing a graceful extempore close, called 
also reprise. The word cadetu-e Is also 
frequently applied to the embellishment 
itself. In reading or speaking a certain 
tone is taken, which is the key-note on 
which most of the words are pronounced, 
and the fall of the voice below this is 
called cadence. The term is also used in 
horsemanship, to denote a just proportion 
observed by a horse in his movements. 

Caden'za {Italian), the modulation of 
the voice in singing. 

Cadet' (French). 1. A yoimger broth^. 

2. A gentleman who has served in 

the army without pay, for the purpose of 

learning the art of war. 3. The term 

cadet is now applied, in Britain and the 
United States of America, to the pupils 
of a military academy. 

Cadew', the case-worm or caddis. 

Ca'di, in Arabic, a judge. Among th« 
Turks, cadi signibes an inferior judge, 
in distinction to motla, a superior judge. 
They belong to the higher clergj-. 

Cadiles'keb, the chief judge in the 
Turkish empire. The name is compounded 
of cadi (q. v.'),and teskar, army, because 
his office originaliy e.vtendcd to the trr- 

C .« C 1 

Ing of soldiers, who are now tried only 
by their own officers. 

Cadme'an, ) relating? to Cadmus, a re- 

Cad'mian, ) putcd prince of Thebes, 
who introduced into Greece the 16 
simple letters of [the alphabet ; x,S, y, 
i, i, I, X, X, fjc, V, 0, T, §, cr, T, V. These 
ore called Cadmean letters. 

Cau'mia, itK^/Ma- A name which has 
been given to a variety of substances, but 
is now chiefly used to denote an oxide of 
zinc which collects on the sides of fur- 
naces where zinc is sublimed, as in 
brass founderies. This is more commonly 
called tuttt/. Cobalt has been called me- 
tallic cadmia and native cadmia ; and cala- 
mine is named fossil cadmia in some old 

C.^.D'MnJM. a metal discovered about the 
beginning of 1818 by M. Stromeyer in an 
oxide of zinc {cadmia or tvtty). It has 
since been found in several of the ores of 
that metal, especially in the Silesian na- 
tive oxide, which contains from IJ to 11 
per cent, of cadmium. It has the colour 
and lustre of tin, but is harder and more te- 
nacious, and is susceptible of a fine polish. 
It is very ductile and malleable, melts at 
about the same temperature as tin, and is 
nearly as volatile as mercury, condensing 
like it into globules which have a metallic 
lustre: its vapours have no smell. Sp. 
gr. 8-6. 

CA.Dti'cA-Bo'NA, an old law term, signi- 
fying goods (bona) forfeited (caduca) to 
the treasury of the prince. 

Cadxi'ceus (Latiii), Mercury's rod. A 
white rod carried by the Roman heralds 
{caduceatorii) when they went to treat of 
peace : thus named d cadendo, quid cadere 
faciat conteiitiones. The rod was of laurel 
or olive, with two little wings on the 
upper end, two serpents twined about it, 
with their heads turned towards each 
other, and their crests not bristled, em- 
blematic of peace. Among ths modems 
the caduceus is an emblem of commerce. 

Cadu'cibranchia'tes, Lat. caducus, 
fading, and bronchia, gills. Batrachians 
which lose their branchial apparatus be- 
fore reaching maturity, as the frog, toad, 

Cadc'cocs, in Lat. cadttciis, falling oflf. 
Applied in botany to leaves which fall 
before the end of summer; to a calyx 
which drops at the first opening of the 
petals, or even before, as in the poppy ; to 
petals which arc scarcely unfolded before 
they fall off, as in thalirtrum, and to parts 
which fall off before the unfolding of the 
flower or leaf, as the penanth of the pa- 
paver, and the stipul<e of the prunut avium. 

CscA.Lat. eeectis, blind. In comparative 
muitomy, the blind processes of the alimen- 
tary canal. 

C^'cLM (Xrt/iii), the blind gut. The first 

9 CAP 

portion of the large intestine, situavea In 
the right iliac region. It is so named 
from cteciis, blind, because it is perforated 
at one end only. 

Caer , in British antiquity, a term which, 
like the Saxon Chester , denotes castle, and 
is prefixed to the names of places fortified 
by the Romans. 

Cesalpi'nia, the brasiletto. A genus of 
arborescent plants, all natives of hot cli- 
mates. Decandria—Monogynia. Named 
in honour of A. Cipsalpinus, chief physi- 
cian to Pope Clement VIII. All the plants 
of this genus afl'ord wood which is used 
in dyeing : these woods are known in. 
commerce under the names of Brazil 

C.esa'rian operation, I the operation 

Cj:sare'an section, j of making an 
incision into the uterus, to extract the 
child, either after the death of the mother, 
or when the obstacles to delivery are so 
great as to leave no other alternative. It 
is so named, because Julius Cicsar is said 
to have been brought into the world in 
this manner. 

C-ESTvs, the boxing-glove of the Gre- 
cian and Roman pugilists.'uRA, in latiti vet-se, the separation 
of the last syllable of any word from those 
which precede it, and the carrying it for- 
ward into another foot. It always ren- 
ders the syllable on which it falls long, 
and is accompanied with a slight pause, 
called the ccesural pause, as in the follow- 
ing line : — 

lUe la I tus nive | urn mol | li ful | tus 

In English verse the ca?sura is equivalent 
to a pause. 

Ceteris Paribus, a Latin phrase, used 
by -writers on physical science, to signify 
other things being equal; e. g. the heavier 
the huHet, cateris paribus, the greater the 
range ; i. e. the heavier the bullet, the 
length and diameter of the piece, and th^ 
strength of the powder being the same, the 
greater will be the range of the piece of 

Caffein', \ a chemical principle dis- 

Cafeine', ) covered in coffee (caf^), by 
Robiquet. It is a white volatile matter, 
sparingly soluble in cold water, but 
readily dissolved by boilina water or 
alcohol, from which it is again deposited 
on cooling in silky filaments. It contains 
more nitrogen than most animal ntutiei°8. 
but never undergoes putrefaction. 

Caffila, in orientalcottntries.a Company 
of travellers or merchants. It differs from 
a caravan by being in the employ of some 
sovereign or company. The root of the 
word is Arabic, kaft, a companion. 

Caf'tas , the national dress of the Turkd, 
in the form of a night-gown, and gene- 
rally white, with pale vellow flowers. It 

N 2 



o AL 

is made of wool or silk, and sometimes 
lined with fur. 

Cag, a small cask, differing from a bar- 
rel only in being of smaller size. The 
word is usually written keg : the root is 
Dan. hag. 

Cage, from Lat. cagia. The term cage 
is used in carpentry, to denote an outer 
work of timber, inclosing another within 
it. In this sense the cage of a staircase 
is the wooden sides or walls which in- 
close it. 

Cao'hiz (Persian), a charter or patent, 
granted by the Persian kings to those 
whom they mean to honour, and by virtue 
of which the governor of every district of 
the kingdom, through which the Caghizar 
travels, must supply him with every ne- 
cessary and accommodation. 

Ca'oui, a monkey of Brazil, of two 

species, one of which is the Pongi ; the 

other is not more than six inches long. 

They are called also Jacchus and CEdipus. 

The name cagui, pronounced by the 

natives sagui, is common in Brazil to a 

grciit number of quadrupeds. 

CAG'MAo,a name given to old geese sent 
to London market for sale. The same 
name is given to the worst kind of meat. 

Ci'Hiz (Spanish). An imaginary mea- 
sure of about 12 imperial bushels : hence 
eahazada, a tract of land on which a cahiz 
of wheat may be sown. 

Ca'ic, Ca'iqve, a skiff of a galley. It 
went out of use with the galley ; but the 
name is still applied in the Levant and 
Black Sea to small barks ; and in the 
French navy it is used to designate any 
small vessel. 

Cai'macan, lieutenant. A title of the 
Grand Signior, the Grand Vizier, and 
Governor of Constantinople. 

Cai'nites, a strange sect of heretics, 
who appeared about 159 a. v., who as- 
serfed that the power which created 
heaven and earth was the evil principle. 

Cairn, a name given to heaps of stones, 
common in Great Britain, particularly in 
Scotland and Wales ; generally of a coni- 
cal form, and covered with a flat stone. 

Cairngorm, a species of quartz, of va- 
rious colours and sizes, on Cairngorm, a 
mountain of Scotland, belonging to the 
Grampian hills. The cairngorms, called 
also Scotch pebbles, are used for seals and 
other trinkets. 

Cai'sson . from Fr. caisse, a chest. 1. In 
military affairs, a wooden chest into 
whicb several bombs are put, and 
sometimes gunpowder, and buried under 
ground, in order to explode at a particular 
time. The name is also applied to a 
covered waggon for the provisions and 

ammunition of an army. 2. In archi- 

teetttre, a kind of case or flat-bottomed 
boat, used in the construction of bridges, 
large enough to contain an entire pier, 

which is built in it ; the caisson is then 
sunk to the bed of the river, and the sides 
removed from the bottom, which is left as 
a foundation for the pier. Floating ves- 
sels, under the same name, are used to 
close the entrances of docks and basins. 

Ca'jepct-oil, the volatile oil obtained 
from the leaves of the cajeput-tree, the 
Cajeputa ojfficinarum (the Melaleuca lettca- 
dcndron, Lin.). The name is a corruption 
of the native term, cayu-puti, i. e. white- 
wood oil , because the bark of the tree haa 
a whitish appearance, like our birch. 

Ca'jepdt-tree, the tree which affords 
the cajeput-oil (q. v.). It is common in 
Amboyna and other Eastern islands. 

Cal'aba, a tropical plant ; the species of 
Calophyllum which affords the oil called 
Oleum Sanctee Mariee. 

Cal'abar-skin, the Siberian squirrel- 
skin, of various colours. It is used in 
making muffs, tippets, and trimming for 
clothes, and is called by the French pet't- 

Cal'abash, a light vessel, formed of the 
shell of the fruit of the calabash-trec^, 
emptied and dried. So hard and clost- 
grained are these shells, that they retain 
all kinds of liquids, and may be put ob 
the fire, like kettles, without sustaining 
any injury. The name is also used to 
designate the calabash-tree. 

Cal'abash->vt, the fruit of the cala- 
bash-tree. It contains a pale yello<» 
juicy pulp, of an unpleasant taste, which 
is esteemed a valuable remedy for several 
disorders, both external and internal. 

Cal'abash-tree, a name common to ail 
the species of the genus Crescentia, but 
especially applied to the C. cujeta, a pro- 
duction of the West Indies and the con- 
tinent of America, about the height ani 
dimensions of an apple-tree. 

Cal'aite, mineral turquois. 

Cal-aman'co, a sort of woollen stuff 
manufactured in England and the Ne- 
therlands ; it has a fine gloss, and being 
chequered in the warp, the checks appear 
only on the one side. 

Calamak'der-wood, a beautiful specie* 
of hard wood, brought from Ceylon. 

Cal'amar (Spanish), a name given to the 
cuttle-fish or sea-sleeve. The name means 
an ink-horn, the fish having on the belly 
two bladders containing a black fluid 
which it emits Mhen pursued. 

Cal'ambac (Indian), the lignum aloes, 
xylo-aloes or aloes- wood. 

Catambo'cb, a species of aloes-wood or 
calambac used by cabinet-makers. 

Cal'amine, the lapis calaminnris, a na- 
tive carbonate of zinc. Kame, co/amiHo, 
from calamus, in allusion to its reed-like 

Cal'amite. 1. From c<jJ«»»u«, a reed : a 
genus of fossil equisetaceae, abounding in 
the most ancient coal formations, and 




characterised by large and simple cylin- 
drical stems, articulated at intervals, but 

without sheaths. 2. From Ital. cala- 

t»i»ta, loadstone ; a mineral variety of horn- 
blende, found in serpentine with magnetic 
iron and calcareous spar. It is more gene- 
rally called Actinolite, (q. v.) 

Ci.Vi.Mve (Latin), a reed: in Homan 
archeeolo^y. 1. The C. pastor alis was a 
simple reed, used as a musical instrument. 

2. The C. scrif)torius, or C. chariarius, 

vrgs split like our pens, and sharpened 
■with a knife: it was used to write on 
materials which the style would injure. 

3. Calamus is now applied as the 

generic name of the true Indian reed or 
rotaug. Hexandria — Monogytiia. There 
are several species, one of which the 
C. rotang affords the rattan canes used as 
walking-sticks ; and another, the C. aro- 
maticiis, the sweet flag or Aco)~us calai>'i.a, 
Linn., is used by the distillers of Dantzic 
to correct the empyreumatic odour of 

Calan'dra. (Latin^ the lark ; applied as 
the name of a genus of coleopterous in- 
sects, of the family Rhynchophora. The 
species are all destructive : the -well- 
known weevil, the destroyer of our gra- 
naries, is the lars-aof the C. granaria. The 
Jarvaofthe C. palmarum, called ver pal- 
miste, is considered a great delicacy by the 
inhabitants of South America. 


Ing an umbel with all the flowers sessile. 

Cal'atob., in Moman archceology ; an 
apparitor or oflBcer who attends courts to 
summon the parties: xoiKYiTcii^, a crier. 

Calatra'ta, a Spanish military order, 
instituted by Sancho III., in memory of 
his taking Calatrava from the Moors. 

Calcai're Grossier (French), a coarse 
limestone often passing into sand, and 
abounding in marine shells : it belongs to 
the eocene tertiary period. 

Calcai're SiLiciEux (French), a com- 
pact silicious limestone, belonging, like 
the calcaire grossier, to the eocene tertiary 

Cal'car (Latin'), a spur; applied, 1. In 

anatomy, to the oscalcis! or heel-bone. 

2. In botany, to a tube foniiing a sac at 

the side of the receptacle. 3. The name 

of a small reverberatory furnace, in which 
the first calcination of sand and potash is 
made for the purpose of converting them 
into frit, from which glass is ultimately 
made. The calcar is 10 ft. long, 7 wide, 
and 2 deep. 

Cal'carate, Lat. calcaratus, spurred ; 
applied to corols and nectaries of plants. 

Calca'reocs Earth, commonly denotes 
lime in any form, but properly it is pure 
liuie. I 

C\tCA'RE0U8 Rock, limestone ' 

X«'>Mdoi, a cup. A 
botanical term denot- 

CALCA'REors Spar, crystallised natlre 
carbonate of lime ; it is found in veins in 
all rocks from granite to alluvial strata. 
The most beautiful crystals are foimd in 
Derbyshire, but the purest variety is the 
Iceland spar. Its optical effects are well 

CALCA'REorsTuFA, calcarcous incrusta 
tions of carbonate of lime, sometime* 
found so thick and hard as to be used for 
architectural purposes. This tufa appears 
to be formed generally by springs, which 
issuing through limestone strata, hold in 
solution a portion of calcareous earth; 
this they deposit on coming in contact 
with air and light. 

Cal'cedon. "With jewellers, a foul vein 
like calcedony in some precious stones. 

Calced'ont, a simple silicious uncrys- 
tallised mineral, semi-transparent and 
translucent, thus named from it# being 
formerly found at Calcedon. There are 
several sub-species : common calcedony 
occurs in various shades of white, grey, 
yellow, brown, green and blue ; the grass- 
green varieties are called Plasma; the 
apple-green isChrysoprase ; those with red, 
brown, and yellow tints are Cornelian; 
others are known as heliotrope, jasper, 
onyx, sard, &c. 

Cal'cifraga, breakstone {calx, a stone, 
and frango, to break), a plant so named 
from its supposed property of breaking 
the stone in the bladder. By some ^^-riters 
the term calcifraga is used synonymously 
with saxifraga. 

Calcina'tion, the process of subjecting 
a body to the action of fire to drive off 
the volatile parts, whereby it is reduced 
to a condition that it may be converted 
into a poM-der [calx). Thus marble is 
converted into lime by driving off th«5 
carbonic acid and water ; and gypsiun. 
alum, borax, and other saline bodies, are 
said to be calcined when they are de- 
prived of their water of crystallisation. 
In a narrower sense, calcination consists 
in subjecting metallic bodies to a roast- 
ing heat, whereby they are changed into 
a metallic calx or earth. 

Calcitrapoi'des, fossil shells, so named 
from their having four lobes disposed in 
a triangular form, like the four iron 
points of a caltrop. 

CAL'ciuM,the metallic basis of lime. See 

Calco'grapht, from calx, chalk, and 
yjoKf&i, to write, engrave. S<?eEs(iRAViNo. 

Calc-sinter, stalactitical or stalagmi- 
tical carbonate of lime, so called from 
German kalk, lime, and sintern, to drop. 
Calc-sinter is often formed by the inflj- 
tration of carbonated lime-water through 
the crevices of the roofs of caverns, &c. 
"When it hangs fVom the roof it is called 
Stalactites, Mhen found on the floor, the 
irregular masses are termed Stalaptnitei. 




Oalc Sp\n, calcareous spar, which see. 

Calc Tuff, a deposit of carbonate of 
iime from calcareous springs. See C.^l- 
CAKEous Tufa and Tufa. 

Cal'cclcs (Latin), a stone; dim. of 
cttlx. 1. In medicine, & general name for 
all hard concretions (not bony) formed in 
the bodies of animals. Those concretions 
formed in the gall-bladder are called 
biliary calculi, or gall-stones : these 
usually consist of cholesterine blended 
With various proportions of colouring 
matter, inspissated bile, albumen, &c. 
Urinary calctili are formed by a morbid 
deposition from the urine in the kidney 
or bladder, and are therefore renal or te- 
tical. Their usual constituents are lithate 
of ammonia, oxalate of lime, and mixed 
phosphates. There are also gouty con- 
cretions, called arthritic calculi, and la- 
chrymal and pancreatic calctili, the first 
formed in the lachrymal passages, and 
the latter in the pancreas. Pulmonary 
calculi are found in the substance of the 
longs, or in the ramifications of the 
■bronchi ; and salivary calctili, in the sali- 
vary glands or their ducts. There are 
likewise calculi of the ears (indurate wax), 
of the pineal and prostate glands, and 

spernmtic calculi. 2. In mathematics, 

the higher analysis applicable to variable 
magnitudes, or to quantities which may 
be considered as having arrived at a given 
•tate of raacnitude by successive varia- 
tions. This gives rise to two depart- 
ments of analysis; first, the method of 
descending from quantities to their ele- 
ments, called the differential calculus; 
second, the method of ascending from the 
elements of the quantities to the quanti- 
ties themselves, constituting the integral 
calaUtis. Koth of these methods are in- 
cluded in the general name, infinitesimal 
analysis. Every variable quantity ex- 
pressed alKebraically may be differen- 
tiated, but there are differential quantities 
■which we cannot integrate; some be- 
cause they could not have resulted from 
differentiation, and others because means 
have not yet been discovered of integrat- 
ing them. 

Calda'ricm. In ancient architecttire , 
an apartment in the baths, heated for 
causing perspiration. 

Cal'ebash, the Ctieurhita lagenaria, an 
annual plant of both Indies. 

Calefa'cient, Lat. calefaciens, making 
■warm ; applied in medicine to substances 
which cause warmth in the parts to which 
ihey are applied. 

Cal'embourq, a sort of ptm in ■which a 
word is employed in an unusual sense ; it 
takes its name" from a "Westphalian Count 
Calemberg, who, in the reign of Louis 
XV., amused the I'ansians by his blun- 
ders in speaking. 

Cai.'«>dab, the divlKon of Umc 

years, months, weeks, and days ; also a 
register of these divisions. Among the 
old Romans, for want of such a register, 
it was the custom for the pontifex maxi- 
mtu, on the first day of the month, to 
proclaim {calare) the month with the fes- 
tivals occurring in it, and the time of 
new moon, hence calendee and calendar. 

Cal'endar Month, a solar month as it 
stands in almanacs. 

Cal'ender, from xaKivi^o;, a cylinder. 
A machine consisting essentially of two 
cylinders, revolving so nearly iii contact 
with each other, that cloth passed through 
betwixt them is smoothed, and even 
glazed, by their powerful pressure. The 
machine is employed either to finish goo<s 
for the market, or to prepare cotton ."iud 
linen webs for the calico-printer, by ren- 
dering their surfaces level and compact. 

Cal'en ders, a sect of dervises in Turkey 
and Persia : named from their founder. 

Cal'esds, with the Romans, the first 
days of the month, so called because the 
pontifex maximus then proclaimed [calavit) 
whether the noties would be on the 5th or 
on the 7th. This was the custom till 450 
V. C, when the fasti calendares were af- 
fixed to the wall in public places.— In 
ecclesiastical history, the conferences re- 
garding their duty and conduct, anciently 
held by the clergy of each deanery, are 
called calends. 

Calen'du i.a, the Marygold : an extensive 
genus of plants. Syngenesia — Polyg.neces- 
saria. Named qxwd singtdis calendis, i. e. 
mensibus.fiorescat, because it flowers every 
month. The annual species are all hardy ; 
the permanent ones are cultivated in thi» 
country as green-house plants. A muci- 
laginous substance obtained from the 
plant is called calendulin. 

Cal'enture, Lat. calenttira, a form of 
phrenitis, alleged formerly to have been 
common among seamen in tropical lati- 
tudes. It was attended with delirium, in 
which the patient fancied the sea to be 
green fields, and would leap into it if not 
restrained. There appears to be no such 
disease known at present. 
Cal'iber, Fr. ctdibre. 1. The diameter 

of the bore of any piece of ordnance. 

2. The diameter of any body, as a column, 
a shot, a shell. 
Cal'iber Compasses, \ a sort of com- 
Cal'liper Compasses, ) passes, with 
arched legs, used by gunners to take the 
diameter of shots, shells, &c., and by 
turners to find the diameter of the object 
in the lathe: called often for shortness 
calibers or callipers. The gunner's calibers, 
called also caliber rule, consist of two 
thin pieces of brass jointed by a rivet, so 
as to move quite round each other. The 
instrument contains a numlwr of rule8» 
tables. &c., connected with tl.e artillery 

C AL 1 

Cal'ico, a species of cotton cloth, named 
from Calicut, in India, where it was first 
manufactured. In Ensland, unprinted 
cotton cloth is called calico; in An. erica, 
the cloth is called calico after it is printed ; 
in Scotland , white cotton cloth or calico 
is called blunk. 

Cal'ico-Printino, the art of applying 
colours to cloth after it has come froni the 
hand of the weaver, in such a manner as 
to form patterns or figures. This art is 
sometimes practised upon silks, linens, 
and woollens, but most frequently upon 
that species of cotton cloth called calico : 
whence the name. 

Cai'idris, the name given by Cuvier to 
the sandpipers, and by Vigors to the sand- 
erlings (the arenaria of Bechstein). Both 
of the subgenera of birds are compre- 
hended in the genus Scolopax, Lin. The 
name was originally applied to some bird 
of this genus. 

Cal'igo (Latin), darkness : appropriate- 
ly, a disease of the eye, causing dimness 
of sight or blindness. Its cause is the 
interposition of some opaque body be- 
tween the object and the retina: hence 
there are many species. 

Ca'liph, the name assumed by the suc- 
cessors of Mohammed in the government 
of the faithful, and in the high priesthood. 
The term is Arabic, and means vicegerent. 
The title is borne by the grand signior in 
Turkey, and the sophi in Persia. — Caliph- 
ate is the govef«ment or jurisdiction of a 

Calip'pic Period, in chronology, a period 
of 76 years continually recurring, after 
which it was supposed by Calippus, that 
the lunations, &c., of the moon would 
rettim again in the same order (which is 
not exact, as it brings them too late by a 
day in 225 years). 

Calix'tins, a sect of Hussites in Bohe- 
mia, who differed from the Catholics 
chiefly in giving the communion cup to 
laymen. They are called also Utraquists. 

Calk, to drive oakum into the seams of 
planks to prevent the entrance of water. 
After the oakum is driven in, it is covered 
■with melted pitch or resin to preserve it 
from the action of the water. In some 
parts of America the term calk is used 
substantively in the same sense as calkin 
in England and calker in Scotland; and, 
as a verb, to set calks upon horses' 

Calk'ebs, in Srotland, the sharp pointed 
armature of a horse's shoes, put on to 
prevent the animal's feet from slipping 
on ice, &c. The word is properly chalkers, 
and has reference in its etymology to the 
white lines which the calkers make on 
the ice : hence the term is often used to 
designate such lines. 

Cixi'iso. 1. Stopping the aeamn of a 

3 C A L 

ship with oakum. 2. Arming a horse's 

shoes with calkins. 3. Covering the 

back of a design with black lead or red 
chalk, and, with a sharp point, tracing 
lines through on a wax plate or other pre- 
pared surface, which leaves an outline 
impression on the plate or other surface. 
This is more commonly called tracing. 

Calk'iing-iron, an iron instrument like 
a chisel, to force the oakum into the seams 
of ships. 

Calk'ins, in England, the sharp pointed 
armature of a horse's shoes. See Calkers. 

Call. 1. The cry of a bird to its young 

or to its mate at coupling time. 2. A 

sort of pipe used by fowlers to catch birds 

by imitating their notes. 3. Among 

sportsmen, a lesson blown on the horn of 
the keeper to encourage the dogs in their 

search of game. 4. Among seamen, the 

boatswain's whistle. 3. The invitation 

of a Scotch congregation to a preacher to 
become its pastor. 6. A short visit. 

CALLicH'xys, a genus of Malacoptery- 
gious abdominal fish, related to tba 
salmon-ti'ibe. Name from xotXXof, beau- 
tiful, and ix'Tvt, a fish. 

Callicoc'ca, a genus of plants, Pentaii- 
dria — Monogynia. Name from xeiXXoi, 
beautiful, and xoxxog, berry. Ipecacuanha 
is afforded by a Peruvian species of this 
genus, C. Ipecacuanha. 

Calligraphy, Gr. from ««XA«f, beauty, 
and y^oKfu, I write. The art of beautifu. 

Callion'tmus. 1. A genus of Acaii- 
thopterygious fishes, placed among thfl 
Gobioides by Cuvier. The dragonet is 
a species. Name, xaXKiowfjut?, given by 

Pliny to an undetermined sprcies. 2. 

The lily of the valley, a species of Con- 

C.ALLi'opE, one of the Muses (q. v.); 
daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. She 
presided over eloquence and heroic 
poetry. K«XA<>? and 0-4. . 

Callis'thenics. See Gymnastics. 

Cal'lous, from callus, hard. Indurated. 
Applied to parts of organized bodies which 
are morbidly hard. When there is a 
thickening of enamel upon any particular 
part of a shell, resembling a tumor, it is 
termed callous or a callosity, this is ob- 
served among spiral shells, in the inner lip 
of the Olives, Natica?, and many others ; 
and is very common near the hinge of 
certain bivalves. 

Call'dna, the common heath or Hnff, 
Erica vulgaris, ol which there are many 
varieties known in Britain. Name from 
«e«XA»)v4», to adorn, which is peculiarly 
applicable, whether we consider the 
beauty of its flowers or the circumstance 
that brooms are made of its twigs. It is 
The tadge ')f the clan Macdonell. 

C A L 



C^L'LiJg (Latin), a preternatural hard- 
ness of any part, whether cameous or osse- 
ous. Corns produced by pressure and fric- 
tion on the hands and feet of labourers are 
examples of the first, and the new growth 
of bony substance between theextemiiies 
of fractured bones, by which they are 
united, is an instance of the latter. 

Calocxt AN us a name of the wild poppy, 
Papaver rhteas; from koXos, beautiful, 
and x»ret,vov, a cup, in allusion to the 
beauty of its flower and shape. 

Cal'omel, from KaXej, good, and ^sXatj , 
black. This name was originally applied 
to the black sulphuret of mercury, 
athiops mit.eral, it was afterwards very 
inappropriately applied to the proto- 
chloride ol mercury, which is the only 
substance IaOw known under the name of 
calomel. It is a highly important and 
highly abused medicine. 

Ca.lophyl'lcm, the calaba-tree of the 
E. Indies, of which there are two species. 
Polyandria — Monogynia. Name from 
»aXdf, beauty, and ^uXXdy, a leafy the 
species being distinguished by the beauty 
of their leaves. All the species afford a 
kind of tacamahaca, and an oil used for 

Calor'ic, from color, heat; applied in 
philosophical language as the name of 
that agency which produces the pheno- 
mena of heat and combustion. There 
are two theories regarding it : 1. That it 
is a subtile fluid, the particles of which 
mutually repel one another, and are at- 
tracted by all other substances. 2. That 

it is not a separate entity, but is merely, 
like gravity, a property of matter refer- 
able to a vibratory motion among the 
ultimate particles of common matter. The 
arguments in favour of the first theory are 
founded on the evolution and absorption 
of heat during chemical combination, and 
the existence of colorific rays along with 
those of light in the solar beam ; those of 
the latter are chiefly founded on the pro- 
duction of heat by friction, and other 
mechanical processes, producing motion 
among the particles of matter. 

Calori'meter, from caloric and metrum, 
a measure. An apparatus invented by 
Lavoisier and Laplace to measure the 
quantity of heat which a body gives out 
in cooling, by the quantity of ice which 
it melts. It consists of three similar me- 
tallic vessels, the one containing the 
other, and kept separate by small pieces 
of wood. The intervals between the ves- 
sels are tilled with pounded ice, and the 
body to be cooled is placed in the inner 
■vessel which is formed of iron net-work. 
The quantity of water produced by the 
cooling of the body is the measure of its 
specific caloric. In the calorimeter of 
Count Bumford water is used, and the 

cajiacity of the body is determined by 
the number of degrees which the tem- 
perature of the water is raised in cool- 
ing the body a given number of degrees. 
The sources of fallacy in both kinds are 
such as render the results doubtful. 

Ca'lorimo'tor, from caloric and motor, 
a mover, a galvanic instrument, in which 
the calorific influence or eflfects are at- 
tended with scarcely any electrical power. 

Caloso'ma., Gr., from xetXtf, beautiful, 
and ruf/M, body. Carabidae or ground 
beetles, a genus of most beautiful cole- 
opterous insects. 

Calostem'ma, a genus of perennial 
plants of Kew Holland. Hexandria — 
Monogynia. Kame from xeiXe;, beauti- 
ful, and a-niMuei, a wreath. 

Calotham'nus, a genus of plants trees) 
of New Holland. Polyadelphia—Icotan- 
dria. Name from xaXa, beautiful, and 
Ta/J,ye(, tree. 

Calotte' (French), a cap ; applied in 
architecture to a concavity in the form of 
a cup or niche, lathed and plastered, to 
diminish the height of a chapel, cabinet, 
alcove or the like, which otherwise would 
be too high for the breadth. 

Cal'oters, Greek monks, who chiefly 
resided in Mount Athos, and became ce- 
lebrated for their solitary and austere 
life. The Turks sometimes call their der- 
vishes by this name. 

CALP,««Xir)i, a sub-species of carbonate 
of Itme containing argil and oxide of iron. 

Cal'tha, the niarsh marigold, a genua 
of British perennials. Polyandria — Poly- 
gynia. Greek name xeiXtia, caltha, pro- 
bably a corruption of ;^aA;);a, yellow, 
whence its other names, xa,?i6uXot, cal- 
thula; asotASyAa, caldula; xcUiviu>^, 

Cal'trops, a name common to all the 
species of the genus Tribtilu$, but espe- 
cially applied to the T. terrestris,a. thistle, 
with a roundish prickly pericarp on the 
one side, gibbose and armed with three 
or four daggers ; and on the other angu- 
lar and converging with transverse cells. 
It is found in the south of Europe, among 
corn, &c., and is peculiarly dangerous to 
the feet of cattle. Name, calyx, the heel, 
and tribolo, a thistle. The name water- 
caltrops is applied to the plants of tiie 
genus Trapa. 

Caltrop. In military affairs, an instru- 
ment with four iron points disposed in a 
triangular form, so that three of them 
being on the ground the othev point is 
upwards. Caltrops are scattered on the 
ground where an enemy s cavalry arc to 
pass, to impede their progress by endan- 
gering the feet of the horses. The instru- 
ment takes its name from its resemblanca 
to the caltrops thistle. 




Calcm'ba, the root of the Qicculus pal- 
matus, imported from Colomba in Cey- 
lon. Synonyms, Colombo, Calomba, Co- 

Cal'cmet, the Indian pipe of peace, 
corresponding iA some measure to the 
European flag of truce. The bowl of the 
pipe is usually made of a red soft marble, 
and the tube of reed ornamented with 
feathers. From this instrument the m- 
lumet dance, the least hideous of the In- 
dian dances, has its name. 

Cal'vart, from calvaria, a skull. In 
heraldry, a cross set upon steps in imi- 
tation of that on which Christ was cruci- 
fied on Mount Calvary. 

CAL'vEs-ssonT, the herb snap-dragon. 
See Antirrhincm. 

Cal'vin-ism, that system of religiotis 
doctrine taught by John Calvin, the dis- 
tinguishing features of which are em- 
braced in tlie Jive points, — predestination, 
particular redemption, total depravity, 
irresistible grace, and the certain perse- 
verance of the saints. The doctrines of 
the trinity and original sin, are common to 
other protestant sects besides Calvinists. 

Calx (Latin), properly lime or chalk, 
hut the term is now more generally ap- 
plied to the residuum of a metal or mine- 
ral which has been subjected to a violent 
heat, burning or calcination, and which 
is or may be reduced to a fine powder. 
Metallic calces are now generally called 

Calx nati'va (Latin), native calx: a 
kind of marly earth which, without burn- 
ing, will make with water a sort of cal- 
careous cement. 

Caly'bio, ^uXvZvi, a cottage. A one- 
celled, inferior, or few-seeded fruit, en- 
closed in a capsule, as the acorn of the oak. 

Cal'tcaxtha'cex. Calycanthus the 
type. A natural order of plants related 
to Rosaceae. 

Caltcas'them.*, an order of plants in 
Linnaeus' fragments of a natural method, 
consisting of plants which have the co- 
rolla and stamina inserted in the calvx ; 
hence the name from calyx and otv^o;, 
a flower. 

Caltcan'thus, the allspice, a genus of 
American trees. Icosandria — Polygynia. 
Name from xacKv^, a calyx, and ccuBos, 
a flower ; the corolla consisting of leaves 
on the calyx. 

Calt'ceba, the tpeu-cup, a genus of syn- 
genesious plants of the order Polygamia 
segregata. Name from calyx and cera, 

Ca'ltcera'ceje. Calycera the type. A 
natural order of plants related to Com- 

CA'LYcirT.o'Rx, an order of plants in 
Linnaeus' fragments of a natural method. 
Name from calyx and Jio*, the order con- 

sisting of plants which have the stamina 
inserted in the calyx. 

Calt'cinal, Lat. calycinalis, belonging 
to the calyx of a flower. Applied to tlie 
nectary when It is a production of the 

Calyc'ulate, Lat. cnlycxdatus. having a 
double calyx, or several successively di- 
minishing in size. Applied to a peria'xth, 
when there are smaller ones like s ,rles 
about its base : six seeds are inclosed ia * 
hard bone-like calyx. 

Cal'ycule, Lat. calycuUis, a little caiyx. 
Used to designate, 1. The membranaceous 
border surrounding the apex of a seed. 

2. A little calyx exterior to another 

proper one. 

Calym'ene, a genus of Trllobites. long 
confounded with insects under the i;an\e 
of Entoinolithxis paradoxus. This genus 
appears to have been extinguished with 
the termination of the carboniferous 
strata. The name is from xiKaXvfjt.fjt.i*vi. 
concealed, in reference to tlie dubious 
characters of these fossils. 

Calyp'so. 1. In mythology, a daughter 
of Atlas. She inhabited the woody island 
Ogygia, situated deep in the ocean, re- 
mote from all intercourse with men and 

gods. She died of love for Ulysses. 

2. The generic name of a perennial plant 
{C. borealis) of Xorth America and Europe. 

Calyp'ter, xaAu!rT'/;»,a covering. Used 
in anatomy to designate a carneous ex- 
crescence covering the hemorrhoidal vein. 

Calyp'tra, Lat. from xaXurrro), to 
cover. In botany, 1. The veil or covering 
of mosses ; a kind of membraneous hood 
placed on a thin capsule or fructification, 

like an extinguisher on a candle. 2. 

The proper exterior covering or coat of 
the seed, which falls off spontaneously. 

CALYPTBJE'A,a gcuus of Mollusca, hav- 
ing a conical shell ; placed in the Capuloid 
family by Cuvier, and among the Halio- 
lidae or ear-shells by Swainson. Name 
from ««AwTTai, to cover, there being 
found in the hollow of the shell a little 
lamina that projects inwards, and inter- 
poses itself between a fold of the abdo- 
minal sac. 

CALYP'xRATE.Lat. colyptratiis. Having 
a covering like the calyptra of mosses. 

Calyste'gia, the bearbind. A genus of 
plants mostly perennials. Pentandria — 
Monogy7iia. Name from calyx and «-«• 
yeeZott to conceal. 

Ca'lyx, from xccXv^, the flower-cup — 
xetkvrru, to cover. Used in botany to 
designate the external covering of a 
flower, generally resembling the leaves in 
colour and texture. There are seven kindft 
of calyces, viz. pcrianthium. amentum 
spatha, gluma.involucrura, perichxtiUDL 

C A M 



C'AMji'A.aspmi-pcllucid srcm, approach- 
inj? to the onyx in structure, being com- 
posed of zones, and formed on a crystalline 

Camai'ec , a variety of onyx, or any gem 
■whereon there are various natural fieurcs. 
From camahuia, an oriental name of the 
onyx. This name has also been generally 
given to all precious stones whereon lapi- 
daries employ their art, to perfect their 
natural beauty. Camaieu is also used 
synonymously with cameo (q.v.), and to 
designate a painting wherein there is 
only one colour, and where the lights and 
shades are of gold, wrought on a golden 
or azure ground. "When the ground is 
yellow, the French call it cirage ; when 
gray, grissaile. The Greeks called pieces 
of this sort f/^voxiOf/MTOc- 

Camal'dolites, I an order of hermits 

CkMALDu'LtANS, i and monks, found«id 
in 1012, by St.Komuald, in the valley of 
Camaldoli, near Arezzo, in the Apennines, 
and confirmed by Pope Alexander III. 

Cam'andao, I a tree of the Philippine 

Cam'andano, i islands, which has not 
been classed botanically. Its juice, called 
tagiie, is used by the natives to poison 
their aiTOws. 

Camarilla, Span. The UttU or private 
chamber of the Sovereign of Spain. The 
term in generally applied to his imme- 
diate confidants, and is then synonymous 
with clique. 

Camaro'm A, ) cam«rn<ion, a species of 

Camaro'sis, i fracture ofthe skull where 
the bones present the appearance of an 
arch or vault (xa/Mx^oc). Camarosis has 
also been used by architects to denote an 
elevation terminating with an arched or 
Taulted head. 

Cam'ber, in architecture, an arch on the 
top of an aperture, or on the top of a 
beam. The term is from Fr. camhrer, to 
arch, probably from xeiuM^a, an arch. 

Cam'ber- BEAM, a piece of timber cut 
■with an obtuse ansrle on the upper edge, 
so as to form a declivity on each side 
from the middle of their length. Beams 
of this description are used in truncated 
roofs, being covered with boards and the 
boards covered with lead, to discharge 
the rain-water towards each end of the 

Cambered-peck, an arched deck declin- 
ing towards the stem and stern. 

Camber-wisdows, windows which are 
arched above. 

Cambering, arching, as the deck lies 

Cam'bicm, Lat. from camhio, to ex- 
change. In physiology. 1. The nutri- 
tjoushumour which is changed into the 
materials of which the body is composed. 
2. The gelatinous substance or mat- 
ter of organisation supposed to pro- 

duce tiie young bark and new wood o( 

Camb'odia, I Gamboge: thus named from 

Camb'ooia, ja river in Transgangetic 
India, on the banks of which the tree 
that affords the gum is produced. See 

Cam'bbasixe, a species of fine linen 
made in Egypt, and named from its re- 
semblance to cambric. 

C^m'brias Rocks, the name given by 
Sedgwick to a group of rocks placed below 
the Silurian rocks, from their being ex- 
tensively developed in North Wales, the 
ancient name of which is Cambria. 

Cambric, a sort of fine linen, thus 
named from its being first made at Cam- 
bray, in French Flanders. A good imita- 
tion is now produced extensively in this 
country from fine cotton yam hard 

C.a^'me, a slender rod of cast lead, ol 
which glaziers make their turned or 
milled lead for joining the panes or quar- 
rels of glass. 

Cam'el, Lat. camelus. 1. The English 
name of the camel-genus of quadrupeds. 
- — 2. A machine used first by the Dutch 
for lifting ships over the Pampas, at the 
mouth of the river Y, or over other bars. 
It consists of two half ships so constructed 
that they can be applied below water, on 
each side ofthe hull of a vessel. On the 
camel's deck are a great many horizontal 
windlasses, from which ropes proceed 
through apertures in the one half, and 
being carried under the keel of the vessel, 
enter similar apertures in the other half, 
from which they are conveyed to the 
windlasses on its deck. When the appa- 
ratus is to be used, as much water as may 
be necessary is suffered to run into the 
parts: all the ropes are cast loose, the 
vessel is conducted between the divisions 
of the camel, and the ropes are then made 
fast, so that the ship is secured in its 
place. The water is then pumped out of 
the parts of the camel, by which they 
rise and float the ship between them. 
Thus, ships of 100 guns can be raised to 
pass without grounding the shallow banks 
of the Zuyder-Zee. The Russians use 
similar machines to float vessels btiilt in 
the Neva, over the bar at Cronstadt. The 
machine takes its name from its supposed 
resemblance to a camel, called kameel by 
the Dutch. 

Cam'eleon. See Chameleon. 

Camel'idje, the camel-tribe of quadru- 
ped ; xoiu,r,>.e(< a camel, and liSan, like. 
The camel is the type. 

Camel'ixa, the gold-of -pleasure : a genus 
of European annuals. Tetradynamia — 
Siliculosa. Named from camelus, becatise 
camels are supposed to be fond of it. (The 
naiye goid-of- pleasure, is by some given t» 

C A M 


the plant* of the genus Myatjntm, and 
perhaps more correctly.) 

Camel'lia, a very extensive genus of 
Asiatic plants (trees and shrubs », all 
treated in this country as green-house 
plants. Motiadelphin — Folymidria. Name 
from xajUaiAX;£«,an undetermined plant. 

Camel'liuje, I a natural order of plants, 

Camelli'e^, ) including the genera 
eomeUia and thea. 

Cam'elopard, the giraffe: an African 
quadruped forming the genus Camelopar-